The Scriptural BCP - The Litany.

The Litany.

LITANY signifies an humble, an earnest Supplication. These Forms of prayers call'd Litanies, (wherein the people are more exercised than in any other part of the Service, by continual joyning in every passage of it,) are thought by some to have been brought into the Church about four hundred years after Christ, in times of great calamity, for the appeasing of Gods wrath. True it is, that they are very seasonable prayers in such times, and therefore were by Gregory and others used in their Processions, for the averting of Gods wrath in publick calamities, but it is as true, that they were long before that time, even in the first Services that we find in the Church, used at the Communion-Service, and other Offices, as Ordination of Priests, and the like: witness Clem. Const. l. 8. c. 5, 6, 10. where we find the Deacon ministring to the people, and directing them from point to point what to pray for, as it is in our Litany, and the people are appointed to answer to every Petition, Domine miserere, Lord have mercy. And in all Liturgies extant, (as Mr. Thorndyke hath well observed in his Book of Religious Assemblies,) the same Allocutions or προσφωνήσεις, which are indeed Litanies, may be seen. And S. Aug. Ep. 119. c.18: tells us of the Common-prayers, which were indited or denounced by the voice of the Deacon. All which make it probable, that the practice of Litanies is derived from the Apostles, and the custom of their time. And S. Chrys. in Rom. c. 8. seems to assert the same: For upon that verse, We know not what we should pray for as ne ought, but the Spirit helps our infirmities, he saies thus; In those daies amongst other miraculous gifts of the Spirit, this was one, Donum precum, the gift of making prayers for the Church, to help the ignorance of the people that knew not what to pray for as they ought; he that had this gift, stood up, and prayed for the whole Congregation, and taught them what to pray for: whose Office now the Deacon performs: viz. by directing them from point to point, what to pray for. To every of which Petitions, sayes Clem. above cited, the people were to answer, Domine Miserere. This continual joyning of the people in every passage of it, tends much both to the improving and evidencing that fervour and intention, which is most necessary in prayers. Hence was it that these Forms of prayers, (where the peoples devotion is so often excited, quickned, and exercised by continual Suffrages, such as Good Lord deliver us, We beseech thee to hear us good Lord,) were called ἐκτενεῖς δεήσεις, earnest or intense Petitions. In which, if they were relished aright, the earnest and vehement devotion of Primitive times, still breaths; and in these prayers, if ever we pray with the Spirit.

Concerning the Litany of our Church, we may boldly say, and easily maintain it, that there is not extant any where; 1. A more particular excellent enumeration of all the Christians either private or common wants; Nor 2. A more innocent, blameless form, against which there lies no just exception; Nor 3. A more Artificial Composure for the raising of our devotion, and keeping it up throughout, than this part of our Liturgy.


The Litany is not one long continued prayer, but broken into many short and pithy Ejaculations: that the intention and devotion which is most necessary in prayer, may not be dull'd and vanish, as in a long prayer it is apt to do; but be quickned and intended, by so many new and quick petitions; and the nearer to the end, the shorter and livelier it is, strengthening our devotions by raising in us an apprehension of our misery and distress, ready, as it were to sink and perish; and therefore crying out as the Disciples did, Master, save us, we perish: O Lamb of God hear us, O Christ hear us, Lord have mercy upon us. Such as these are the active, lively spirited prayers, ἐνεργούμεναι, which S. James mentions and tells us, avail much. S. Iames 5. 16.


In the former part of the Litany, the Priest hath not a part so proper but that it may be said by a Deacon, or other, and it useth to be sung by such in Cathedral and Collegiate Churches and Chappels, and both it and all other our alternate Supplications, which are as it were the Lesser Litanies, do much resemble the ancient Prayers indicted by the Deacons, as we have said; but in the latter part of the Litany, from the Lords prayer, to the end, the Priest hath a part more peculiar, by reason of the eminency of that prayer, and other Collects follow, wherein the Priest doth recommend again the petitions of the people to God (as in that prayer, We humbly beseech thee O Lord mercifully to look upon our infirmities, &c.) and Solemnly offers them up to God in the behalf of the people, to which the people answer, Amen: and therefore these Collects after the Litany, though the matter of them hath been prayed for before particularly in the Supplications foregoing, may be said, without the charge of needless tautology, for here the Priest does by vertue of his sacred Office, solemnly offer up and present to God these petitions of the people, as it was usually done in ancient Liturgies; Praying God to accept the peoples Prayers as he doth more than once in S. Chrys. Liturgy, particularly in that Prayer which we have out of it in our Litany. For when the Deacon hath (as we have observed) ministred to the People several Petitions, to which they answer, Lord have mercy, Litany-wise, then the Priest Collect-wise makes a Prayer to God to accept the peoples petitions, the Deacon in the mean time proceeding to dictate to the people more Supplications, which the Priest in another Collect offers up to God Solemnly, but secretly, so that though in some of those Collects the Priest at the Latter end, spake out so that the people might hear and answer, Amen, or Glory be to the Father, or the like, (which they might well do, for though the Prayer were said by the Priest secretly, yet it was prescribed, and such as the people knew before hand) yet some of them were said throughout secretly by the Priest, to which the people were not required to make any Answer.

The reason of these Secreta, secret prayers said by the Priest, may be partly for variety to refresh the people, but chiefly, as I conceive, that by this course the people might be taught to understand and reverence the office of the Priest, which is to make an atonement for the people, and to present their prayers to God, by that very offering of them up, making them more acceptable to God. All which depends not upon the peoples consent or confirmation of his office, but upon Gods alone appointment and institution; who hath set him apart to these offices of offering gifts and Sacrifices for the people, Heb. 5. 1. And therefore as it was appointed by God, that when Aaron by his Priestly office was to offer for the people and make an atonement for them, none of the people were to be present, Lev. 16. 17. So the Church ordered that at some times, when the Priest was making an atonement for the people, and offering up for them and the acceptation of their prayers, the Merits and Passion of Christ, none should seem actually to assist, but the Priest should say it μυστικῶς, secretly and mystically. Yet lest the people should be unsatisfied, and suspicious that the Priest had neglected this his office, which they could not be assured that he had performed, because it was done secretly; therefore the Church appointed that the Priest should at the end of the Service come down from the Altar, and standing behind the Pulpit in the midst of the people say a loud prayer, (call'd εὐχὴ ὁπισθάμβωνος Goar. p. 154.) which was a sum or Compendium of all that the people had before petition'd for, which he then solemnly offered up to God.


The Litany is appointed in the Rubricks to be read Wednesdays and Fridays, the dayes kept in the Greek Church for more solemn Fasts, because the Bridegroom was then taken from us, being sold by Iudas on Wednesday, and murdered on Friday, Epiphan. adv. Aerium. And though our Church in imitation of the Western hath chang'd the Wednesday-Fast to Saturday, yet in memory of the Eastern custom, she still appoints the Litany to be used upon Wednesday.

Friday was both in Greek Church and Latin a Litany or Humiliation-day, and so is kept in ours. And whosoever loves to feast on that day rather than another, in that holds not communion with the ancient Catholick Church, but with the Turks, who in contumely of Christ crucified, Feast that day. Chemnit, in 3. praec.

E. The Litany.] Our sacred addresses and applications to God are quadripartite, fourfold, all comprehended in one verse of the Apostle, 1 Tim. ii. 1, where first there is δέησις, “ supplication,” deprecation, a praying to be delivered from dangers ghostly and bodily, such as is the litany. Secondly, προσευχὴ, petition, apprecation, an invocation of ‘divine blessings and benefits upon ourselves. Thirdly, ἔντευξις, “ intercession,” an importuning the throne of grace in the behalf of others. Lastly, εὐχαριστία, thanksgiving for blessings received either by ourselves or others. Did not this sufficiently warrant sacred litanies, we might derive authority from the last petition of the Lord’s Prayer, “ Deliver us from evil.” To which pattern of our Saviour, and precept of His Apostle, the primitive Church began early to conform. The τὸ νῦν and first moment of their admission into the classis of divine offices is difficult to define; that these litanies made a distinct part of the liturgy in St. Augustine’s time is evident, for enumerating the several parcels thereof, he expostulateth, Quando non est tempus cantandi in Ecclesia, nisi cum legitur, aut disputatur, aut antistites clara voce deprecantur, aut communis oratio voce diaconi indicitur? ‘ What space is free from singing of psalms in the Church, unless it be when the lessons are reading, or the sermon preaching, or the priests are rehearsing the litany aloud, or common prayer is enjoined by the mouth of the deacon?” To ascend up unto St. Cyprian’ he testifieth as much of his time. Pro arcendis hostibus et imbribus impetrandis, et vel auferendis, vel temperandis adversis, rogamus semper et preces fundimus: “for deliverance from our enemies, for rain in time of droughts, for the removing or moderating of our afilictions we constantly pray.” Senior to St. Cyprian, Tertullian: Quando non geniculationibus nostris, et jejunationibus nostris siccitates sunt depulse? “Tell me the time when by our kneelings and fastings droughts are not changed into moisture?”

In the Greek Church they moved somewhat slower, not entering until about the year 300. In the days of Gregory Thaumaturgus, who flourished about the year 260, St. Basil tells the Neocesarians there were not any such things as litanies known, and his telling them so, implieth that in his own time they had made their entry. By what hath already been said, Mr. Cartwright’s mistake seems gross enough in founding the first rise of litanies upon Mamercus, bishop of Vienna. He, if he did any thing in their establishment, probably went no further than the reviewing of antecedent litanies, and disposing them into a form agreeable to Vienna’s sad condition, and the assigning three days before Ascension for that service. As did also the council of Aurelia after him, can. xxii.

Next Mamercus comes in Gregory the Great, the supposed author of the great litany, (that of Mamercus being styled the less,) and most probably so he was ; but the sneezing sickness being decried by all learned men as fabulous, and so it was no motive or inducement to the work, some other cause must be assigned, which perhaps might be some rage of contagious pestilence, or else it may be conjectured to have been compiled upon the general score of reformation. For Gregory, observing in the several offices of divers Latin Churches many things which give cause of dislike, some being vain, some unapt, some scarce making out sense, he presently applied himself to consider of, and compare them all together, and so to compile a liturgy of the most choice pieces extracted from them, which he performing left as a legacy to his successors, which was at first owned as the proper service of the Romish Church. Part of this liturgy was the great litany, which contained the very quintessence of all former models, with additions of his own, some for the better, and some for the worse, and these rather the blemishes of his times, than of himself. That age wherein he lived was none of the learnedest, but declined much towards ignorance, which is worthily styled the mother of blind devotion, or superstition. This ignorance soon brought in the mvocation of saints, an error which began to be whispered in the writings of others some few years preceding, but never durst shew itself γυμνῇ τῇ κεφαλῇ, “ bare-faced,” in the service of the Church, until this Gregory led it in; who over facile to credit misreported miracles (as his Dialogues demonstrate) was made susceptible of any error which presented itself under the shape of devotion, and consequently of invocation of saints. He there imbibing this fallacious opinion, acted agreeable to its principles, and after the address to the sacred Trinity inserted in the litany an application, first to the Virgin Mary, next to the Archangels and Angels, then to the Apostles, martyrs, confessors, and virgins, bestowing upon every one an ora pro nobis, nominally applied.

As for the litany used in our Church, a very near resemblance it hath with that devised by St. Gregory, if he were the author of the “ Sacramentary,” as I am prone to believe he was. The first part of it, whose responsory terminations are “ Have mercy upon us,” seems to be an exemplification of the most ancient forms, for in those liturgies extant under the names of misreputed authors, which nevertheless retain some relics of remote antiquity, Κύριε ἐλέησον is the great ingredient into the litanies : between these and the deprecatory part, immediately before “ Remember not Lord our iniquities,’ &c. grew that excrescence of misguided zeal, and the forementioned address to the saints, which our Church worthily expunged. Those answers of “ Good Lord deliver us,” vary little from the ancient mode. Those of “ We beseech Thee to hear us, good Lord,” pretend a near conformity to that model mentioned in the Clementine Constitution, and which answereth in substance to our prayer for the whole state of Christ’s Church: for that συναπτὴ καθολικὴ, or “ Catholic Collect,” as it is styled in the old liturgies, which was a prayer for the Catholic Church, was essentially the same with ours in the Communion Office, and differed in fashion only, being rehearsed litany-wise. Part of that prayer, so far as may conduce to make good my title, or may declare the alliance of that service with our litany, I shall here subjoin, and the rather, because to my apprehension those ancient Constitutions have not many parcels of farther extraction.

Ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐκκλησίας ταυτῆς καὶ τοῦ λαοῦ δεηδώμει. Let us pray for this Church and for the people.
Ὑπὲρ πάσης ἐπισκοπῆς; παντὸς πρεσβυτερίου, metsτῆς ἐν Χριστῷ διακονίας, καὶ ὑπηρεσίας παντὸς τοῦ πληρώματος τῆς ἐκκλησίας δεηθῶμεν ὅπως 6 Κύριος πάντας διατηρήσῃ καὶ διαφυλάξῃ. Let us pray for the whole Constitut. order of bishops, for all presbyters, for all deacons and ministers of Christ, and for the whole family of the Church, that God would preserve and keep them.
Ὑπὲρ βασιλέων καὶ τῶν ἐν ὑπεροχῇ δεηθῶμεν, ἵνα εἰρηνεύωνται τὰ πρὸς ἡμᾶς ὅπως ἥρεμον καὶ ἡσύχιον βίον ἔχοντες, διάγωμεν ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ καὶ σεμνότητι. Let us pray for kings, and all in high places, that under them being peaceably and quietly governed, we may spend our days in all godliness and honesty.
Ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐν ἀῤῥωστίᾳ ἐξεταζομένων ἀδελφῶν ἡμῶν δεηθώμεν. ὅπως ὁ Κύριος ῥύσηται αὐτοὺς πάσης νόσου καὶ πάσης μαλακίας, καὶ σώους ἀποκαταστήσῃ τῇ ἁγίᾳ αὐτοῦ ἐκκλησίᾳ. Let us pray for our brethren afflicted with sickness, that the Lord would please to free them from their diseases, and restore them in perfect health to His Church.
Ὑπὲρ πλεόντων καὶ ὁδούπορούντων δεηθώμεν. Let us pray for those that sail by water or travel by land.
Ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐν μετάλλοις, καὶ ἐξορίαις, καὶ φυλακαῖς καὶ δεσμοῖς ὄντων διὰ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Κυρίου δεηθῶμεν. Let us pray for those that are condemned to mines, to banishment, to imprisonment and bonds for the name of the Lord.
Ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐν πικρᾷ δουλείᾳ καταπονουμένων δεηθῶμεν. Let us pray for those that are oppressed.
Ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ἡμᾶς διὰ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Κυρίου δεηθῶμεν ὅπως ὁ Κύριος πραὔνας τὴν καθ᾽ ἡμῶν ὀργὴν. Let us pray for those that persecute us for the Lord’s sake, that He would abate their rage, and confound all their devices against us.
Ὑπὲρ τῶν ἕξω ὄντων καὶ πεπλανημένων δεηθῶμεν, ὅπως ὁ Κύριος αὐτοὺς ἐπιστρέψηη. Let us pray for all those that err and are deceived, that God would bring them into the way of truth.
Ὑπὲρ χηρῶν καὶ ὀρφανῶν δεηθώμεν. Let us pray for all widows and orphans.
Ὑπὲρ τῆς εὐκρασίας τῶν ἀέρων, καὶ τελεσφορίας τῶν καρπῶν δεηθῶμεν. Let us pray for seasonable and temperate weather, that we may receive the fruits of the earth.


The gesture proper to this service must be kneeling. This is manifest by the rubric belonging to Commination, where the litany is appointed to be read “ after the accustomed manner,” implying thereby both the place and posture formerly used. Now the accustomed place was the midst of the church, and the accustomed posture was kneeling, for so was it appointed in the queen’s injunctions‘, and in those of Edward VI., “ The priests shall kneel in the midst of the church, and sing or say plainly and distinctly the litany.” Indeed, what fitter posture can there be than kneeling? Excellently saith St. Chrysostom’, ἱκέτου σχῆμα καὶ γνώμην καὶ φρόνημα τὸν εὐχόμενον ἔχειν δεῖ, “it is fit that he who applies himself to prayer should put on the outward garb and deportment, as well as the inward mind of a supplicant.” What scheme suits a supplicant better than lowly kneeling, and can we kneel too low at such supplications as these? The motions of the body ought to keep pace with the affections of the soul; when this is most transported with zeal, the members of the body must move at the same rate; the higher the spirit soars in prayer, the lower falls the body. When our Saviour prayed in the garden, His first posture was, Gels τὰ γόνατα, “fallimg upon His knees,” Luke xxii. 41; but γενόμενος ἐν ἀγωνίᾳ, “ being brought to His agony,” and to pray ἐκτενεστέρως, “ more ardently,” ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ, “ He cast Himself prostrate upon His face,” Matt. xxvi. 39. Now if the litany be, as certainly it is, our most fervent resort to God, fit it is it should be made in the most significant, that is, in the lowest posture of supplication.

As for the exceptions made against this litany, they are so few, and so contemptible, as I disdain to honour them with a reply, and shall end in this true character of it; that in all concernments, so excellently is it contrived in accommodation to our general wants, so full of Christian rhetoric and pious raptures, as it justly deserves to be accounted a noble parcel of our liturgy. Nor can all the cavils of malevolent spirits balance the honour it hath acquired abroad. For Gilbertus Cognatus (a German, and amanuensis to the famous Erasmus) very near a hundred years since, under this title, Litania veteris Ecclesia, “The Litany of the ancient Church,” presents us with a form precisely the same with ours, as then established by act of parliament.

F. On Wednesdays and Fridays.] These were, in the primitive times, days of solemn assemblies, in imitation of the Jewish practice, “I fast twice a week,” said the Pharisee, Luke xviii. 1], and the Christians did disdain to be short of them in what might promote the honour of God. The reason given why these two days were chosen, is, because on the one (Wednesday) Judas conspired to betray his Master, and our Saviour Christ: and on the other (Friday) He suffered death upon the cross. And this is that which Clemens Alexandrinus intendeth in these words, οἶδεν αὐτὸς καὶ τῆς νηστείας τὰ αἰνίγματα τῶν ἡμέρων τούτων, τῆς τετράδος, καὶ τῆς παρασκευῆς, 1. 6. “He knows the mystical sense of those days, the fourth and the parasceve :” and he is the first Greek author wherein it occurreth, unless we will resort to those Constitutions of the Apostles recorded by Epiphanius, whence he borroweth so much, and to which in all probability he referreth, where he saith συνάξεις ἐπιτελούμεναι ταχθεῖσαι εἰσὶν ἀπὰ τῶν ἀποστόλων τετράδι καὶ TpocaBBatw: “the Apostles ordained that there should be sacred conventions on the Wednesdays and Fridays.”

Nor was this observation peculiar to the Greek Church; for Tertullian* expressly mentions, stationes quarte et sexte ferie, ‘the stations of the fourth and sixth days of the week.” The very nomination of these days may be enough against all contenders, to decipher to us what this ancient meant by stations, viz. days of humiliation, and the context of the place will not hear of any other construction, where pleading hard for Montanus against the Catholic Church in the point of fasts, he appeals to herself, whether the Apostles did ever yoke her to any such observances, and whether the days she hath assigned for those intents were not of her arbitrary choice: so that it being indisputably evident that the father here intended days of humiliation, I cannot think it probable, though very learned men have so opined; that the word should be capable elsewhere in this author of a sense diametrically opposite, or that it should import days of the highest festivity and rejoicing. For where he saith,

similiter de stationum diebus non putant plerique sacrificiorum orationibus interveniendum, quod statio solvenda sit accepto corpore Domini. Ergo devotum Deo obsequium Eucharistia resolvit, an magis obligat ? nonne solemnior erit statio tua, si ad aram Dei steteris ὁ Accepto corpore Domini et reservato utrumque salvum est, et participatio beneficii, et ewxecutio officii: “so also of days of station; many think they must then forbear to come to the prayers of the sacrifices, because the station is to be dissolved by the receiving of the body of the Lord : what then, doth the Eucharist countermand the duty due to God ? doth it not rather oblige us to it? Shall not thy station he the more solemn if performed before God’s Altar? the body of our Lord being taken and reserved, both are secured, the participation of His blessed Son, and the discharge of the duty :”

here I say some understand by stations, those days, viz. all Sundays of the year, and all the interval between Easter and Pentecost, on which, according to primitive custom, it was not permitted to kneel at prayers, and these days were noted as of singular contrariety to humiliation. The custom is acknowledged, and so also is it that statio properly signifieth standing, but both these concessions will be improved no further, but only to render their interpretation a specious fallacy. For, to my reading, statio is never by any author of those early ages applied in reference to that custom: not in Tertullian I am certain, no, notwithstanding his ad aram Dei steteris. For (not to reinforce the absurdity of one word denoting in the same author two things so contradictory as fasting and feasting) Tertullian tells us statio is of military extraction, de militari exemplo nomen accipit ; “it borroweth its name from military example;” if so, then not derived from the pretended custom of standing. Now the military mode was this; so many soldiers were ordered to be upon the respective guards, there were they to continue completely armed, and on horseback ready to receive any impression of an assaulting enemy ; in that posture were they to abide anciently from morning to night, until Paulus Amilius’ observing it to be too great a burden both for horse and man, appointed these guards should at noon be relieved with fresh both men and horses. Now because, according to the martial discipline, none was permitted to depart the guard until the time prefixed, Christians, who on the days of humiliation tied themselves as strictly to religious duty, did aptly enough impose upon those days the name of stations. And this will conclude sufficiently for the figurative, against the proper sense of stations.

Further to illustrate Tertullian by Tertullian; elsewhere remonstrating the mischievous consequences of unequal yokes, where a Christian woman matcheth with an infidel, he delivereth himself thus: si statio facienda sit, maritus eo die conducat ad balnea: si jejunia observanda sunt, maritus eadem die convivium exerceat; “if a station be to be kept, the husband may the same day lead her to the baths. If a solemn fast must be observed, the husband may the same day make a feast ; where statio must necessarily denote a day of humiliation. For Tertullian’s design is to shew that the Church and the husband may be at cross purposes, and to command things contrary to each other. And the bath being, as the mode was then, applied to luxury, was as opposite to humiliation as a feast to a fast. But here it seems, say some, Tertullian did not consider both these under a real identity, but as different things, for else one instance would have served. To which I answer, true it is Tertullian doth somewhat distinguish them, the difference being this, that stations signified the less, and jeunia the more “ solemn fasts,” these continued from morning to night, and they only to the ninth hour, or three in the afternoon, whence it is that Tertullian calls them in a scoff stationum semi-jejunia, “ half-fasted stations.”

Having thus, I hope, made a clear prospect into Tertullian’s dark mind in reference to these stations, the construction of the former passage is very facile, viz. that whereas many were scrupulous of coming to the Eucharist upon Wednesdays and Fridays, lest the receiving of the elements should prove a breaking of their fasts, which were to be continued until three in the afternoon, Tertullian tells them they were in the wrong, and that the Eucharist is so far from dissolving the duty of fasting, as it makes the work more valuable in God’s sight. But if they would not credit him, then there is another expedient will salve both sores, viz. the taking of the body, and reservation of it to be eaten at home ante omnem cibum, “ fasting,’' as he in the same book doth hint, whereby neither the fast will be interrupted, nor the other duty neglected.

The signification of the word Litany. AFTER the order of the morning and evening prayer in our present Liturgy, as well as in all the old ones, stands the confession of our Christian faith, commonly called the Creed of Athanasius, which hath already been spoken to: and then followeth the Litany or general supplication to be sung or said after morning prayer, upon Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, and at all other times whem it shall be commanded by the ordinary. The word Litany, as it is explained by our present Liturgy, signifies a general supplication; and so it is used by the most ancient heathens, viz. "for an earnest supplication to the gods made in time of adverse fortune; and in the same sense it is used in the Christian Church, viz. for a supplication and common intercession to God, when his wrath lies heavy upon us." Such a kind of supplication was the fifty-first psalm, which may be called David's litany. Such was that litany of God's appointing in Joel, where, in a general assembly, the priests were to weep between the porch and the altar, and to say, Spare thy people, O Lord: (in allusion to which place, our Litany, retaining also the same words, is enjoined, by the royal injunctions still in force, to be said or sung in the midst of the church, at a low desk before the chancel door, anciently called the falled stool.) An such was that litany of our Saviour, which he thrice repeated with strong crying and tears.

§.2. The antiquity of litanies in this form. As for the form in which they are now made, viz. in short requests by the priests, to which the people all answer, it appears to be very ancient; for St. Basil tells us, that litanies were read in the church of Neocaesarea, between Gregory Thaumaturgus's time and his own. And St. Ambrose hath left a form of litany, which bears his name, agreeing in many things with this of ours. For when miraculous gills began to cease, they wrote down several of those forms, which were the original of our modern office.

§.3. Litanies used in procession. About the year 400 they began to be used in procession, the people walking barefoot, and saying them with great devotion; by which means, it is said, several countries were delivered from great calamities. About the year 600, Gregory the Great, out of all the litanies extant, composed that famous sevenfold litany, by which Home was delivered from a grievous mortality; which hath been a pattern to all the Western Churches since; and to which ours comes nearer than that in the present Roman Missal, wherein later popes had put in the invocation of saints, which our reformers have justly expunged. But here we must observe, that litanies were of use before processions, and remained when they were taken away. For those processional litanies having occasioned much scandal, it was decreed "that the litanies should for the future only be used within the walls of the church;" and so they are used amongst us to this day.

§.4. Why said on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. In the Common Prayer Book of 1549, (i.e. in the first book of king Edward) the Litany was placed between the communion office, and the office for baptism, with this single title, The Letany and Suffrages, and without any rubric either before or after it. But at the end of the communion office the first rubric began thus: Upon Wednesdays and Fridays the English Litany shall be said or sung in all places, after such form as is appointed by the king's Majesty's Injunctions: or as it shall be otherwise appointed by his Highness. What this form was I shall mention presently from the Injunctions themselves: but first I must observe, that Wednesdays and Fridays are here only mentioned, which were the ancient fasting-days of the primitive Church: the death of Christ being designed on the Wednesday, when he was sold by Judas, and accomplished on the Friday, when he died on the cross. As to Sunday, I find no direction relating to it; though I conclude from two other rubrics, which dispense with the use of it on some particular Sundays, that it was generally used on all the rest. For among the notes of explication at the end of that book, the two last allow that upon Christmas-day, Easter-day the Ascension-day, Whit-Sunday, and the feast of Trinity, may be used any part of holy Scripture, hereafter to be certainly limited and appointed instead of the Litany, And that if there be a sermon, or for other great cause, the curate by his discretion may leave out the Litany, the Gloria in Excelsis, the Creed, the Homily, and the Exhortation to the Communion. But in the review of the Common Prayer in 1552, the Litany was placed where it stands at this time, with direction at the beginning, that it should be used on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays; and at other times when it shall be commanded by the ordinary. And the order for Sunday has continued ever since; I suppose partly because there is then the greatest assembly to join in so important a supplication, and partly that no day might seem to have a more solemn office than the Lord's day.

§.5. What time of the day it is to be used. The particular time of the day when it is to be said seems now different from what it was formerly: in king Edward's and queen Elizabeth's time, it seems it was used as preparatory to the second service. For by their Injunctions it was ordered, that immediately before high mass, or the time of communion of the sacrament, the priests with others of the quire should kneel in the midst of the churchy and sing or say plainly and distinctly the Litany which is set forth in English, with all the suffrages following. And even long afterwards it was a custom in several churches to toll a bell whilst the Litany was reading, to give notice to the people that the communion service was coming on. And indeed till the last review in 1661 the Litany was designed to be a distinct service by itself, and to be used some time after the morning prayer was over; as may be gathered from the rubric before the commination in all the old Common Prayer Books, which orders, that after morning prayer, the people being called together by the ringing of a bell, and assembled in the church, the English Litany shall be said after the accustomed manner. This custom, as I am informed, is still observed in some cathedrals and chapels: though now, for the most part, it is made one office with the morning prayer; it being ordered by the rubric before the prayer for the king, to be read after the third collect for grace, instead of the intercession al prayers in the daily service. Which order seems to have been formed from the rubric before the litany in the Scotch Common Prayer Book, which I have transcribed in the margin. And accordingly we find that, as the aforementioned rubric before the commination office is now altered, both the morning prayer and Litany are there supposed to be read at one and the same time.

§.6. One out of every family to attend the Litany. By the fifteenth canon above mentioned, whenever the Litany is read, every householder dwelling within half a mile of the church, is to come or send one at the least of his household fit to join with the minister in prayers.

§.7. The minister to kneel. The posture, which the minister is to use in saying the Litany, is not prescribed in any present rubric, except that, as it is now a part of the morning service for the days above mentioned, it is included in the rubric at the end of the suffrages after the second Lord's prayer, which orders all to kneel in that place, after which there is no direction for standing. And the Injunctions of king Edward and queen Elizabeth both appoint, that the priests, with others of the choirs shall kneel in the midst of the church, and sing or say plainly and distinctly the Litany, which is set forth in English, with all the suffrages following, to the intent the people may hear and answer, &c. As to the posture of the people, nothing need to be said in relation to that, because whenever the priest kneels, they are always to do the same.

§.8. The irregularity of singing the Litany by laymen. The singing of this office by laymen, as practised in several cathedrals and colleges, is certainly very unjustifiable, and deservedly gives offence to all such as are zealous for regularity and decency in divine worship. And therefore (since it is plainly a practice against the express rules of our Church, crept in partly through the indevout laziness of minor canons and others, whose duty it is to perform that solemn office; and partly through the shameful negligence of those who can and ought to correct whatever they see amiss in such matters) it cannot surely be thought impertinent, if I take hold of this opportunity to express my concern at so irreligious a custom. And to shew that I am not singular in my complaint, I shall here transcribe the words of the learned Dr. Bennet, who hath some time since, upon a like occasion, very severely, but with a great deal of decency, inveighed against this practice; though I cannot learn that he has yet been so fortunate as to obtain much reformation.

"I think myself obliged (saith he) to take notice of a most scandalous practice, which prevails in many such congregations, as ought to be fit precedents for the whole kingdom to follow. It is this; that laymen, and very often young boys of eighteen or nineteen years of age, are not only permitted, but obliged to perform this office, which is one of the most solemn parts of divine service, even though many priests and deacons are at the same time present.

"Those persons upon whom it must be charged, and in whose power it is to rectify it, cannot but know that this practice is illegal, as well as abominable in itself, and a flat contradiction to all primitive order. And one would think, when the nation swarms with such as ridicule, oppose, and deny the distinction of clergy and laity; those who possess some of the largest and most honourable preferments in the Church, should be ashamed to betray her into the hands of her professed enemies, and to put arguments into their mouths, and declare by their actions that they think any layman whatsoever as truly authorized to minister in holy things as those who are regularly ordained. Besides, with what face can those persons blame the dissenting teachers for officiating without episcopal ordination, when they themselves do not only allow of but require the same thing?"

Here followeth the Litany, or General Supplication, to be sung or said after Morning Prayer, upon Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, and at other times when it shall be commanded by the Ordinary.

The Invocations

In the beginning it directs our prayers to the right object, the Glorious TRINITY. For necessary it is, that we should know whom we worship.

As for the so frequent repetition of “ Lord have mercy upon us,” in all probability Christianity did not devise it new, but imitated elder patterns, I mean that mode of the hundred and thirty-sixth Psalm, where “for His mercy endureth for ever,” is iterated no less than seven and twenty times, and which versicle was used litany-wise (that is, returned by the people) in the service of the temple, as is evident 1 Chron. xvi. 41, and 2 Chron. ix. 13.

The invocation. WE have a divine command to call upon God for mercy in the time of trouble; and all the litanies I have seen begin with this solemn word, Κύριε ἐλέησον, Lord have mercy upon us. So that this invocation is the sum of the whole Litany, being a particular address for mercy, first to each person in the glorious Trinity, and then to them all together. The address being urged by two motives, viz. first, because we are miserable; and secondly, because we are sinners: upon both which accounts we extremely need mercy.

§.2. Why repeated by the whole congregation. The design of the people's repeating these whole verses afler the minister is, that every one may first crave to be heard in his own words: which when they have obtained, they may leave it to the priest to set forth all their needs to Almighty God, provided that they declare their assent to every petition as he delivers it.

Ps 51:1 Have mercy on me, O God, according to your steadfast love; according to your abundant mercy blot out my transgressions.
Ps 115:3 Our God is in the heavens; he does whatever he pleases.
Jer 23:24 Who can hide in secret places so that I cannot see them? says the Lord. Do I not fill heaven and earth? says the Lord.
Matt 6:9 "Pray then in this way: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name.
Luke 15:18-19 I will get up and go to my father, and I will say to him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you; I am no longer worthy to be called your son; treat me like one of your hired hands."'
Rom 3:16 ruin and misery are in their paths,
Eph 3:14-15 For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, from whom every family in heaven and on earth takes its name.
Rev 3:17 For you say, 'I am rich, I have prospered, and I need nothing.' You do not realize that you are wretched, pitiable, poor, blind, and naked.
Ps 25:17 Relieve the troubles of my heart, and bring me out of my distress.
Rom 8:22-23 We know that the whole creation has been groaning in labor pains until now; and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly while we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
Matt 15:22 Just then a Canaanite woman from that region came out and started shouting, "Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David; my daughter is tormented by a demon."
Luke 17:13 they called out, saying, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us!"
John 5:23 so that all may honor the Son just as they honor the Father. Anyone who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him.
John 20:28 Thomas answered him, "My Lord and my God!"
1 Pet 1:18-19 You know that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your ancestors, not with perishable things like silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without defect or blemish.
1 John 2:2 and he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.
Job 19:25 For I know that my Redeemer lives, and that at the last he will stand upon the earth;
Is 41:14 Do not fear, you worm Jacob, you insect Israel! I will help you, says the Lord; your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel.
1 Cor 1:2 To the church of God that is in Corinth, to those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, together with all those who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both their Lord and ours:
1 Cor 1:30 He is the source of your life in Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification and redemption,
Matt 15:22 Just then a Canaanite woman from that region came out and started shouting, "Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David; my daughter is tormented by a demon."
Luke 17:13 they called out, saying, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us!"
John 5:23 so that all may honor the Son just as they honor the Father. Anyone who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him.
John 20:28 Thomas answered him, "My Lord and my God!"
1 Pet 1:18-19 You know that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your ancestors, not with perishable things like silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without defect or blemish.
1 John 2:2 and he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.
Job 19:25 For I know that my Redeemer lives, and that at the last he will stand upon the earth;
Is 41:14 Do not fear, you worm Jacob, you insect Israel! I will help you, says the Lord; your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel.
1 Cor 1:2 To the church of God that is in Corinth, to those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, together with all those who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both their Lord and ours:
1 Cor 1:30 He is the source of your life in Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification and redemption,
Matt 15:22 Just then a Canaanite woman from that region came out and started shouting, "Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David; my daughter is tormented by a demon."
Luke 17:13 they called out, saying, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us!"
John 5:23 so that all may honor the Son just as they honor the Father. Anyone who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent him.
John 20:28 Thomas answered him, "My Lord and my God!"
1 Pet 1:18-19 You know that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your ancestors, not with perishable things like silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without defect or blemish.
1 John 2:2 and he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.
Job 19:25 For I know that my Redeemer lives, and that at the last he will stand upon the earth;
Is 41:14 Do not fear, you worm Jacob, you insect Israel! I will help you, says the Lord; your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel.
1 Cor 1:2 To the church of God that is in Corinth, to those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, together with all those who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both their Lord and ours:
1 Cor 1:30 He is the source of your life in Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification and redemption,

The Petitions

The Deprecations.

Then it proceeds to Deprecations, or prayers against evil; lastly, to Petitions for good. In the Deprecations, as right method requires, we first pray against sin, then against punishment; because sin is the greatest evil. From all which we pray to be delivered by the holy actions and passions of CHRIST, the only merits of all our good.

The deprecations. HAVING opened the way by the preceding invocation, we now begin to ask: and because deliverance from evil is the first step to felicity, we begin with these deprecations for removing it. Both the Eastern and Western Church begin their litanies after the same manner, theirs as well as ours being a paraphrase upon that petition in the Lord's prayer, deliver us from evil.

Ex 20:5 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, punishing children for the iniquity of parents, to the third and the fourth generation of those who reject me,
Ex 32:11-12 But Moses implored the Lord his God, and said, "O Lord, why does your wrath burn hot against your people, whom you brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand? Why should the Egyptians say, 'It was with evil intent that he brought them out to kill them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth'? Turn from your fierce wrath; change your mind and do not bring disaster on your people.
Lev 26:40 But if they confess their iniquity and the iniquity of their ancestors, in that they committed treachery against me and, moreover, that they continued hostile to me--
Lev 26:42 then will I remember my covenant with Jacob; I will remember also my covenant with Isaac and also my covenant with Abraham, and I will remember the land.
Ezra 9:7 From the days of our ancestors to this day we have been deep in guilt, and for our iniquities we, our kings, and our priests have been handed over to the kings of the lands, to the sword, to captivity, to plundering, and to utter shame, as is now the case.
Ps 25:7 Do not remember the sins of my youth or my transgressions; according to your steadfast love remember me, for your goodness' sake, O Lord!
Ps 39:13 Turn your gaze away from me, that I may smile again, before I depart and am no more."
Ps 51:9 Hide your face from my sins, and blot out all my iniquities.
Ps 79:8 Do not remember against us the iniquities of our ancestors; let your compassion come speedily to meet us, for we are brought very low.
Ps 85:4-5 Restore us again, O God of our salvation, and put away your indignation toward us. Will you be angry with us forever? Will you prolong your anger to all generations?
Ps 106:6 Both we and our ancestors have sinned; we have committed iniquity, have done wickedly.
Is 38:17 Surely it was for my welfare that I had great bitterness; but you have held back my life from the pit of destruction, for you have cast all my sins behind your back.
Is 64:9 Do not be exceedingly angry, O Lord, and do not remember iniquity forever. Now consider, we are all your people.
Dan 9:16 O Lord, in view of all your righteous acts, let your anger and wrath, we pray, turn away from your city Jerusalem, your holy mountain; because of our sins and the iniquities of our ancestors, Jerusalem and your people have become a disgrace among all our neighbors.
Joel 2:17 Between the vestibule and the altar let the priests, the ministers of the Lord, weep. Let them say, "Spare your people, O Lord, and do not make your heritage a mockery, a byword among the nations. Why should it be said among the peoples, 'Where is their God?'"
Mic 7:18 Who is a God like you, pardoning iniquity and passing over the transgression of the remnant of your possession? He does not retain his anger forever, because he delights in showing clemency.
Mal 3:17 They shall be mine, says the Lord of hosts, my special possession on the day when I act, and I will spare them as parents spare their children who serve them.
Matt 23:31-32 Thus you testify against yourselves that you are descendants of those who murdered the prophets. Fill up, then, the measure of your ancestors.
Acts 20:28 Keep watch over yourselves and over all the flock, of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God that he obtained with the blood of his own Son.
1 Pet 1:18-19 You know that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your ancestors, not with perishable things like silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without defect or blemish.
Deut 32:35 Vengeance is mine, and recompense, for the time when their foot shall slip; because the day of their calamity is at hand, their doom comes swiftly.
Deut 32:43 Praise, O heavens, his people, worship him, all you gods! For he will avenge the blood of his children, and take vengeance on his adversaries; he will repay those who hate him, and cleanse the land for his people.
Ps 30:5 For his anger is but for a moment; his favor is for a lifetime. Weeping may linger for the night, but joy comes with the morning.
Ps 99:8 O Lord our God, you answered them; you were a forgiving God to them, but an avenger of their wrongdoings.
Ezek 18:2 What do you mean by repeating this proverb concerning the land of Israel, "The parents have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge"?

§.2. The method of them. But because our requests ought to ascend by degrees; before we ask for a perfect deliverance, we beg the mercy of forbearance. For we confess we have sinned with our fathers, and that therefore God may justly punish us, not only for our own sins, but for theirs also, which we have made our own by imitation: for which reason we beg of him not to remember, or take vengeance of us for them, especially since he has himself so dearly purchased our pardon with his own most precious blood. But however if we cannot obtain to be wholly spared, but that he may see it good for us to be a little under chastisement; then we beg his correction may be short, and soon removed, and that he would not he angry with us for ever.

Gen 20:6 Then God said to him in the dream, "Yes, I know that you did this in the integrity of your heart; furthermore it was I who kept you from sinning against me. Therefore I did not let you touch her.
1 Chron 4:10 Jabez called on the God of Israel, saying, "Oh that you would bless me and enlarge my border, and that your hand might be with me, and that you would keep me from hurt and harm!" And God granted what he asked.
Ps 18:2 The Lord is my rock, my fortress, and my deliverer, my God, my rock in whom I take refuge, my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold.
Ps 39:8 Deliver me from all my transgressions. Do not make me the scorn of the fool.
Ps 91:2 will say to the Lord, "My refuge and my fortress; my God, in whom I trust."
Ps 91:9-10 Because you have made the Lord your refuge, the Most High your dwelling place, no evil shall befall you, no scourge come near your tent.
Rom 1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of those who by their wickedness suppress the truth.
2 Cor 2:11 And we do this so that we may not be outwitted by Satan; for we are not ignorant of his designs.
Eph 6:11 Put on the whole armor of God, so that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.
2 Thess 1:7-9 and to give relief to the afflicted as well as to us, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming fire, inflicting vengeance on those who do not know God and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. These will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, separated from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might,
1 Pet 5:8-9 Discipline yourselves, keep alert. Like a roaring lion your adversary the devil prowls around, looking for someone to devour. Resist him, steadfast in your faith, for you know that your brothers and sisters in all the world are undergoing the same kinds of suffering.
Rev 2:24 But to the rest of you in Thyatira, who do not hold this teaching, who have not learned what some call 'the deep things of Satan,' to you I say, I do not lay on you any other burden;
Deut 32:23 I will heap disasters upon them, spend my arrows against them:
1 Chron 21:1 Satan stood up against Israel, and incited David to count the people of Israel.
Ps 78:30-31 But before they had satisfied their craving, while the food was still in their mouths, the anger of God rose against them and he killed the strongest of them, and laid low the flower of Israel.
Ezek 7:26 Disaster comes upon disaster, rumor follows rumor; they shall keep seeking a vision from the prophet; instruction shall perish from the priest, and counsel from the elders.
Matt 4:1 Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil.
Matt 6:13 And do not bring us to the time of trial, but rescue us from the evil one.
John 8:44 You are from your father the devil, and you choose to do your father's desires. He was a murderer from the beginning and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks according to his own nature, for he is a liar and the father of lies.
John 17:15 I am not asking you to take them out of the world, but I ask you to protect them from the evil one.
Lam 3:25 The Lord is good to those who wait for him, to the soul that seeks him.
Matt 6:9 "Pray then in this way: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name.
Matt 6:13 And do not bring us to the time of trial, but rescue us from the evil one.
2 Cor 1:10 He who rescued us from so deadly a peril will continue to rescue us; on him we have set our hope that he will rescue us again,
1 Thess 1:10 and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead--Jesus, who rescues us from the wrath that is coming.
Neh 9:28 But after they had rest, they again did evil before you, and you abandoned them to the hands of their enemies, so that they had dominion over them; yet when they turned and cried to you, you heard from heaven, and many times you rescued them according to your mercies.
Is 46:4 even to your old age I am he, even when you turn gray I will carry you. I have made, and I will bear; I will carry and will save.

And the sum of all that we pray against being deliverance from the evils of sin and punishment, we begin the next petition with two general words which comprehend both: for evil and mischief signify wickedness and misery: and as the first is caused by the crafts and assaults of the Devil, so the second is brought upon us by the just wrath of God here, and completed by everlasting damnation hereafter: and therefore we desire to be delivered both from sin and the punishment of it; as well from the causes that lead to it, as the consequences that follow it.

Lam 3:25 the Lord is good to those who wait for him, to the soul that seeks him.
Matt 6:13 And do not bring us to the time of trial, but rescue us from the evil one.
2 Cor 1:10 He who rescued us from so deadly a peril will continue to rescue us; on him we have set our hope that he will rescue us again,
1 Thess 1:10 and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead--Jesus, who rescues us from the wrath that is coming.
Neh 9:28 But after they had rest, they again did evil before you, and you abandoned them to the hands of their enemies, so that they had dominion over them; yet when they turned and cried to you, you heard from heaven, and many times you rescued them according to your mercies.
Is 46:4 even to your old age I am he, even when you turn gray I will carry you. I have made, and I will bear; I will carry and will save.
Prov 10:12 Hatred stirs up strife, but love covers all offenses.
Prov 16:18 Pride goes before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall.
1 Cor 16:14 Let all that you do be done in love.
2 Cor 3:14-15 But their minds were hardened. Indeed, to this very day, when they hear the reading of the old covenant, that same veil is still there, since only in Christ is it set aside. Indeed, to this very day whenever Moses is read, a veil lies over their minds;
Gal 5:26 Let us not become conceited, competing against one another, envying one another.
Eph 4:17-18 Now this I affirm and insist on in the Lord: you must no longer live as the Gentiles live, in the futility of their minds. They are darkened in their understanding, alienated from the life of God because of their ignorance and hardness of heart.
Eph 4:32 and be kind to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, as God in Christ has forgiven you.
Col 3:8 But now you must get rid of all such things--anger, wrath, malice, slander, and abusive language from your mouth.
1 Pet 2:1-2 Rid yourselves, therefore, of all malice, and all guile, insincerity, envy, and all slander. Like newborn infants, long for the pure, spiritual milk, so that by it you may grow into salvation--
1 John 2:11 But whoever hates another believer is in the darkness, walks in the darkness, and does not know the way to go, because the darkness has brought on blindness.
1 John 4:20 Those who say, "I love God," and hate their brothers or sisters, are liars; for those who do not love a brother or sister whom they have seen, cannot love God whom they have not seen.
Matt 13:14-15 With them indeed is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah that says: 'You will indeed listen, but never understand, and you will indeed look, but never perceive. For this people's heart has grown dull, and their ears are hard of hearing, and they have shut their eyes; so that they might not look with their eyes, and listen with their ears, and understand with their heart and turn-- and I would heal them.'
1 Cor 14:20 Brothers and sisters, do not be children in your thinking; rather, be infants in evil, but in thinking be adults.
Tit 3:3 For we ourselves were once foolish, disobedient, led astray, slaves to various passions and pleasures, passing our days in malice and envy, despicable, hating one another.
James 4:5 Or do you suppose that it is for nothing that the scripture says, "God yearns jealously for the spirit that he has made to dwell in us"?
1 John 3:15 All who hate a brother or sister are murderers, and you know that murderers do not have eternal life abiding in them.

After we have thus prayed against sin and misery in general, we descend regularly to the particulars, reckoning divers kinds of the most notorious sins, some of which have their seat in the heart or mind, and others in the body. And first we begin against those of the heart, where all sins begin, and there recount first the sins concerning ourselves: and, secondly, those concerning our neighbours. Of the former sort are blindness of heart, (which we place in the front as the cause of all the rest,) and pride, vainglory, and hypocrisy, which are united together in this deprecation, as vices which generally accompany one another. Of the other sort are envy, hatred, and malice, and all uncharitableness; in which words are comprehended all those sins which we do, or can, commit against our neighbour in our hearts.

Ps 19:13 Keep back your servant also from the insolent; do not let them have dominion over me. Then I shall be blameless, and innocent of great transgression.
Prov 14:8 It is the wisdom of the clever to understand where they go, but the folly of fools misleads.
Mark 4:18-19 And others are those sown among the thorns: these are the ones who hear the word, but the cares of the world, and the lure of wealth, and the desire for other things come in and choke the word, and it yields nothing.
Acts 15:29 that you abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from fornication. If you keep yourselves from these, you will do well. Farewell."
1 Cor 6:9-10 Do you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived! Fornicators, idolaters, adulterers, male prostitutes, sodomites, thieves, the greedy, drunkards, revilers, robbers--none of these will inherit the kingdom of God.
1 Cor 6:13 "Food is meant for the stomach and the stomach for food," and God will destroy both one and the other. The body is meant not for fornication but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body.
1 Cor 6:18 Shun fornication! Every sin that a person commits is outside the body; but the fornicator sins against the body itself.
Eph 4:22 You were taught to put away your former way of life, your old self, corrupt and deluded by its lusts,
Eph 6:11 Put on the whole armor of God, so that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.
1 Pet 2:11 Beloved, I urge you as aliens and exiles to abstain from the desires of the flesh that wage war against the soul.
1 John 2:16-17 for all that is in the world--the desire of the flesh, the desire of the eyes, the pride in riches--comes not from the Father but from the world. And the world and its desire are passing away, but those who do the will of God live forever.
Rev 20:7-10 When the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison and will come out to deceive the nations at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, in order to gather them for battle; they are as numerous as the sands of the sea. They marched up over the breadth of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city. And fire came down from heaven and consumed them. And the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.
Prov 28:26 Those who trust in their own wits are fools; but those who walk in wisdom come through safely.
Rev 12:9 The great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world--he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him.

Deadly sin, what it signifies. From the heart sin spreads further into the life and actions, and thither our Litany now pursues it, beginning with that which St. Paul reckons first among the works of the flesh, but which is notwithstanding the boldest and most barefaced sin in this lewd age, viz. fornication, which is not be restrained to the defiling of single persons, but comprehends under it all acts of uncleanness whatsoever. But though this be a deadly sin, yet it is not the only one, and therefore we pray to be delivered from all other deadly sins; by which we understand not such as are deadly by way of distinction, or as they stand in opposition to venial sins, (for there are no sins venial in their own nature) but such as are those which David calls presumptuous, and begs particular preservation from, or those which are most heinous and crying above others. For though every sin deserves damnation in its own nature, yet we know that the infinite goodness of God will not inflict it for every sin. But then there are some sins so exceeding great, that they are inconsistent even with the gospel-clemency, and immediately render a man obnoxious to the wrath of God, and in danger of eternal damnation. And these are they which we pray against, together with all other sins, which we are apt to fall into through the deceits of our three great enemies, which we, renounced in baptism, the world, the flesh, and the Devil.

Ps 19:13 Keep back your servant also from the insolent; do not let them have dominion over me. Then I shall be blameless, and innocent of great transgression.
Prov 14:8 It is the wisdom of the clever to understand where they go, but the folly of fools misleads.
Mark 4:18-19 And others are those sown among the thorns: these are the ones who hear the word, but the cares of the world, and the lure of wealth, and the desire for other things come in and choke the word, and it yields nothing.
Acts 15:29 that you abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from fornication. If you keep yourselves from these, you will do well. Farewell."
1 Cor 6:9-10 Do you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived! Fornicators, idolaters, adulterers, male prostitutes, sodomites, thieves, the greedy, drunkards, revilers, robbers--none of these will inherit the kingdom of God.
1 Cor 6:13 "Food is meant for the stomach and the stomach for food," and God will destroy both one and the other. The body is meant not for fornication but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body.
1 Cor 6:18 Shun fornication! Every sin that a person commits is outside the body; but the fornicator sins against the body itself.
Eph 4:22 You were taught to put away your former way of life, your old self, corrupt and deluded by its lusts,
Eph 6:11 Put on the whole armor of God, so that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.
1 Pet 2:11 Beloved, I urge you as aliens and exiles to abstain from the desires of the flesh that wage war against the soul.
1 John 2:16-17 for all that is in the world--the desire of the flesh, the desire of the eyes, the pride in riches--comes not from the Father but from the world. And the world and its desire are passing away, but those who do the will of God live forever.
Rev 20:7-10 When the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison and will come out to deceive the nations at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, in order to gather them for battle; they are as numerous as the sands of the sea. They marched up over the breadth of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city. And fire came down from heaven and consumed them. And the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.
Prov 28:26 Those who trust in their own wits are fools; but those who walk in wisdom come through safely.
Rev 12:9 The great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world--he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him.

Why we pray against sudden death. When the cause is removed, there are hopes the consequences may be prevented: and therefore, after we have petitioned against all sin, we may regularly pray against all those judgments with which God generally scourges those who offend him; whether they are such as fall upon whole nations and kingdoms, and either come immediately from the hand of God, as lightning and tempest, plague, pestilence, and famine: or else are inflicted by the hands of wicked men, as his instruments, as battle and murder: or whether they are such as fall upon particular persons only, as sudden death; such as happens sometimes by violence, as by stabbing, burning, drowning, or the like; or else on a sudden, and in a moment's time, without any warning or apparent cause. And though both these kinds of death may sometimes happen to very good men, yet if we consider that by such means we may leave our relations without comfort, and our affairs unsettled; and may ourselves be deprived of the preparative ordinances for death, and have no time to fit our souls for our great account; prudence as well as humility will teach us to pray against them.

1 Sam 15:23 For rebellion is no less a sin than divination, and stubbornness is like iniquity and idolatry. Because you have rejected the word of the Lord, he has also rejected you from being king."
2 Sam 12:9-10 Why have you despised the word of the Lord, to do what is evil in his sight? You have struck down Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and have taken his wife to be your wife, and have killed him with the sword of the Ammonites. Now therefore the sword shall never depart from your house, for you have despised me, and have taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your wife.
Ps 64:5 They hold fast to their evil purpose; they talk of laying snares secretly, thinking, "Who can see us?
Prov 1:24-26 Because I have called and you refused, have stretched out my hand and no one heeded, and because you have ignored all my counsel and would have none of my reproof, I also will laugh at your calamity; I will mock when panic strikes you,
Prov 17:11 Evil people seek only rebellion, but a cruel messenger will be sent against them.
Prov 28:14 Happy is the one who is never without fear, but one who is hard-hearted will fall into calamity.
Is 5:24 Therefore, as the tongue of fire devours the stubble, and as dry grass sinks down in the flame, so their root will become rotten, and their blossom go up like dust; for they have rejected the instruction of the Lord of hosts, and have despised the word of the Holy One of Israel.
matt 22:21 They answered, "The emperor's." Then he said to them, "Give therefore to the emperor the things that are the emperor's, and to God the things that are God's."
Acts 23:5 And Paul said, "I did not realize, brothers, that he was high priest; for it is written, 'You shall not speak evil of a leader of your people.'"
Acts 23:13 There were more than forty who joined in this conspiracy.
Rom 2:4-5 Or do you despise the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience? Do you not realize that God's kindness is meant to lead you to repentance? But by your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath, when God's righteous judgment will be revealed.
Rom 13:1-2 Let every person be subject to the governing authorities; for there is no authority except from God, and those authorities that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoever resists authority resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment.
Rom 16:17-18 I urge you, brothers and sisters, to keep an eye on those who cause dissensions and offenses, in opposition to the teaching that you have learned; avoid them. For such people do not serve our Lord Christ, but their own appetites, and by smooth talk and flattery they deceive the hearts of the simple-minded.
1 Cor 1:10 Now I appeal to you, brothers and sisters, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you be in agreement and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be united in the same mind and the same purpose.
1 Cor 3:3 for you are still of the flesh. For as long as there is jealousy and quarreling among you, are you not of the flesh, and behaving according to human inclinations?
Gal 5:9 A little yeast leavens the whole batch of dough.
Gal 5:20 idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, anger, quarrels, dissensions, factions,
2 Tim 1:13 Hold to the standard of sound teaching that you have heard from me, in the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus.
2 Tim 4:3 For the time is coming when people will not put up with sound doctrine, but having itching ears, they will accumulate for themselves teachers to suit their own desires,
Tit 2:7 Show yourself in all respects a model of good works, and in your teaching show integrity, gravity,
Jude 3 Beloved, while eagerly preparing to write to you about the salvation we share, I find it necessary to write and appeal to you to contend for the faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints.
Job 9:4 He is wise in heart, and mighty in strength --who has resisted him, and succeeded?--
Ps 107:11 for they had rebelled against the words of God, and spurned the counsel of the Most High.
1 Cor 12:24-25 whereas our more respectable members do not need this. But God has so arranged the body, giving the greater honor to the inferior member, that there may be no dissension within the body, but the members may have the same care for one another.

Having thus deprecated those evils which might endanger our lives, we proceed next to pray against such as would deprive us of our peace and truth: as well those which are levelled at the state, as is all sedition, privy conspiracy, and rebellion, as those which portend the ruin of the Church, as all false doctrine, heresy, and schism. And then we conclude with the last and worst of God's judgments, which he generally inflicts upon those whom neither private nor public calamities will reform, viz. hardness of heart, and contempt of his word and commandment: for when people amend not upon those punishments which are inflicted upon their estates and persons, upon the Church and State; then the patience of God is tired out, and he withdraws his grace, and gives them up to a reprobate sense, the usual prologue to destruction and damnation, from which deplorable state, good Lord deliver us.

1 Sam 15:23 For rebellion is no less a sin than divination, and stubbornness is like iniquity and idolatry. Because you have rejected the word of the Lord, he has also rejected you from being king."
2 Sam 12:9-10 Why have you despised the word of the Lord, to do what is evil in his sight? You have struck down Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and have taken his wife to be your wife, and have killed him with the sword of the Ammonites. Now therefore the sword shall never depart from your house, for you have despised me, and have taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your wife.
Ps 64:5 They hold fast to their evil purpose; they talk of laying snares secretly, thinking, "Who can see us?
Prov 1:24-26 Because I have called and you refused, have stretched out my hand and no one heeded, and because you have ignored all my counsel and would have none of my reproof, I also will laugh at your calamity; I will mock when panic strikes you,
Prov 17:11 Evil people seek only rebellion, but a cruel messenger will be sent against them.
Prov 28:14 Happy is the one who is never without fear, but one who is hard-hearted will fall into calamity.
Is 5:24 Therefore, as the tongue of fire devours the stubble, and as dry grass sinks down in the flame, so their root will become rotten, and their blossom go up like dust; for they have rejected the instruction of the Lord of hosts, and have despised the word of the Holy One of Israel.
matt 22:21 They answered, "The emperor's." Then he said to them, "Give therefore to the emperor the things that are the emperor's, and to God the things that are God's."
Acts 23:5 And Paul said, "I did not realize, brothers, that he was high priest; for it is written, 'You shall not speak evil of a leader of your people.'"
Acts 23:13 There were more than forty who joined in this conspiracy.
Rom 2:4-5 Or do you despise the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience? Do you not realize that God's kindness is meant to lead you to repentance? But by your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath, when God's righteous judgment will be revealed.
Rom 13:1-2 Let every person be subject to the governing authorities; for there is no authority except from God, and those authorities that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoever resists authority resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment.
Rom 16:17-18 I urge you, brothers and sisters, to keep an eye on those who cause dissensions and offenses, in opposition to the teaching that you have learned; avoid them. For such people do not serve our Lord Christ, but their own appetites, and by smooth talk and flattery they deceive the hearts of the simple-minded.
1 Cor 1:10 Now I appeal to you, brothers and sisters, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you be in agreement and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be united in the same mind and the same purpose.
1 Cor 3:3 for you are still of the flesh. For as long as there is jealousy and quarreling among you, are you not of the flesh, and behaving according to human inclinations?
Gal 5:9 A little yeast leavens the whole batch of dough.
Gal 5:20 idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, anger, quarrels, dissensions, factions,
2 Tim 1:13 Hold to the standard of sound teaching that you have heard from me, in the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus.
2 Tim 4:3 For the time is coming when people will not put up with sound doctrine, but having itching ears, they will accumulate for themselves teachers to suit their own desires,
Tit 2:7 Show yourself in all respects a model of good works, and in your teaching show integrity, gravity,
Jude 3 Beloved, while eagerly preparing to write to you about the salvation we share, I find it necessary to write and appeal to you to contend for the faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints.
Job 9:4 He is wise in heart, and mighty in strength --who has resisted him, and succeeded?--
Ps 107:11 for they had rebelled against the words of God, and spurned the counsel of the Most High.
1 Cor 12:24-25 whereas our more respectable members do not need this. But God has so arranged the body, giving the greater honor to the inferior member, that there may be no dissension within the body, but the members may have the same care for one another.

And now to be delivered from all these great and grievous evils, is a mercy so very desirable, that it ought to be begged by the most importunate kind of supplication imaginable; and such are the two next petitions, which the Latins call Obsecrations, in which the Church beseeches our dear Redeemer to deliver us from all the evils we have been praying against, by the mystery of his holy incarnation, &c., i.e. she lays before our Lord all his former mercies to us expressed in his incarnation, nativity, circumcision, baptism, and in every thing else which he has done and suffered for us; and offers these considerations to move him to grant our requests, and to deliver us from those evils.

Matt 26:38 Then he said to them, "I am deeply grieved, even to death; remain here, and stay awake with me."
Matt 27:46 And about three o'clock Jesus cried with a loud voice, "Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?" that is, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
Luke 22:44 In his anguish he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.]]
John 16:7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Advocate will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you.
Acts 2:4 All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them ability.
Acts 2:33 Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you both see and hear.
Rom 4:25 who was handed over to death for our trespasses and was raised for our justification.
Rom 5:5 and hope does not disappoint us, because God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us.
1 Cor 15:3-4 For I handed on to you as of first importance what I in turn had received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures, and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures,
Eph 4:8-9 Therefore it is said, "When he ascended on high he made captivity itself a captive; he gave gifts to his people." (When it says, "He ascended," what does it mean but that he had also descended into the lower parts of the earth?
Phil 2:8 he humbled himself and became obedient to the point of death-- even death on a cross.
1 Pet 3:18 For Christ also suffered for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, in order to bring you to God. He was put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit,
Rom 6:4 Therefore we have been buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.
Eph 2:14-16 For he is our peace; in his flesh he has made both groups into one and has broken down the dividing wall, that is, the hostility between us. He has abolished the law with its commandments and ordinances, that he might create in himself one new humanity in place of the two, thus making peace, and might reconcile both groups to God in one body through the cross, thus putting to death that hostility through it.
Heb 5:7 In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to the one who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverent submission.
1 Pet 1:18-19 You know that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your ancestors, not with perishable things like silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without defect or blemish.
Num 23:10 Who can count the dust of Jacob, or number the dust-cloud of Israel? Let me die the death of the upright, and let my end be like his!"
Deut 32:15 Jacob ate his fill; Jeshurun grew fat, and kicked. You grew fat, bloated, and gorged! He abandoned God who made him, and scoffed at the Rock of his salvation.
1 Sam 26:24 As your life was precious today in my sight, so may my life be precious in the sight of the Lord, and may he rescue me from all tribulation."
2 Sam 12:7-9 Nathan said to David, "You are the man! Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: I anointed you king over Israel, and I rescued you from the hand of Saul; I gave you your master's house, and your master's wives into your bosom, and gave you the house of Israel and of Judah; and if that had been too little, I would have added as much more. Why have you despised the word of the Lord, to do what is evil in his sight? You have struck down Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and have taken his wife to be your wife, and have killed him with the sword of the Ammonites.
Ps 31:5 Into your hand I commit my spirit; you have redeemed me, O Lord, faithful God.
Ps 46:1 God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.
Prov 30:8-9 Remove far from me falsehood and lying; give me neither poverty nor riches; feed me with the food that I need, or I shall be full, and deny you, and say, "Who is the Lord?" or I shall be poor, and steal, and profane the name of my God.
Matt 10:32 "Everyone therefore who acknowledges me before others, I also will acknowledge before my Father in heaven;
Matt 11:21-22 "Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the deeds of power done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. But I tell you, on the day of judgment it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon than for you.
John 14:2-3 In my Father's house there are many dwelling places. If it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, so that where I am, there you may be also.
John 16:33 I have said this to you, so that in me you may have peace. In the world you face persecution. But take courage; I have conquered the world!"
Acts 7:59 While they were stoning Stephen, he prayed, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit."
Rom 12:12 Rejoice in hope, be patient in suffering, persevere in prayer.
2 Cor 1:3-4 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and the God of all consolation, who consoles us in all our affliction, so that we may be able to console those who are in any affliction with the consolation with which we ourselves are consoled by God.
2 Cor 12:7 even considering the exceptional character of the revelations. Therefore, to keep me from being too elated, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me, to keep me from being too elated.
2 Tim 1:16 May the Lord grant mercy to the household of Onesiphorus, because he often refreshed me and was not ashamed of my chain;
2 Tim 1:18 --may the Lord grant that he will find mercy from the Lord on that day! And you know very well how much service he rendered in Ephesus.
2 Tim 3:12 Indeed, all who want to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted.
2 Tim 4:18 The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and save me for his heavenly kingdom. To him be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
1 Sam 10:19 But today you have rejected your God, who saves you from all your calamities and your distresses; and you have said, 'No! but set a king over us.' Now therefore present yourselves before the Lord by your tribes and by your clans."
Ps 22:15 my mouth is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue sticks to my jaws; you lay me in the dust of death.
Ps 22:19 But you, O Lord, do not be far away! O my help, come quickly to my aid!
Ps 23:4 Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I fear no evil; for you are with me; your rod and your staff-- they comfort me.
Jude 24 Now to him who is able to keep you from falling, and to make you stand without blemish in the presence of his glory with rejoicing,
Jude 25 to the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, power, and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen.

And though we are always either under or near some evil, for which reason it is never unseasonable to pray for deliverance; yet there are some particular times when we stand in more especial need of the divine help: and they are either during our lives, or at our deaths. During our lives we particularly want the divine assistance, first in all times of tribulation, when we are usually tempted to murmuring, impatience, sadness, despair, and the like; and these we pray against now, before the evil day comes: not that God would deliver us from all such times, which would be an unlawful request; but that he would support us under them whenever he shall please to inflict them. The other part of our lives which we pray to be delivered in, is all time of our wealth, i.e. of our welfare and prosperity, which are rather more dangerous than our time of adversity: all kinds of prosperity, especially plenty and abundance, being exceedingly apt to increase our pride, to inflame our lusts, to multiply our sins, and in a word, to make us forget God, and grow careless of our souls. And therefore we had need to pray that in all such times God would be pleased to deliver us. But whether we spend our days in prosperity or adversity, they must all end in death, in the hour of which the Devil is always most active, and we least able to resist him. Our pains are grievous, and our fears many, and the danger great of falling into impatience, despair, or security: and therefore we constantly pray for deliverance in that important hour, which if God grant us, we have but one request more, and that is, that he would also deliver us in the day of judgment; which is the last time a man is capable of deliverance, since if we be not delivered then, we are left to perish eternally. How fervently therefore ought we to pray for ourselves all our life long, as St. Paul prayed for Onesiphorus, that the Lord would grant unto us that we may find mercy of the Lord in that day!

The Intercessions.

The like good order is observed in our Petitions for good. First, we pray for the Church Catholick, the common mother of all Christians; then for our own Church, to which, next the Church Catholick, we owe the greatest observance and duty. And therein, in the first place for the principal members of it, in whose welfare the Churches peace chiefly consists. After this we pray particularly for those sorts of men that most especially need our prayers, such amongst others, as those whom the Law calls miserable Persons.

The Intercession. IF the institution of God be required to make this part of our Litany necessary, we have his positive command by St. Paul, to make intercession for all men; and if the consent of the universal Church can add any thing to its esteem, it is evident that this kind of prayer is in all the Liturgies in the world, and that every one of the petitions we are now going to discourse of are taken from the best and oldest litanies extant. All therefore that will be necessary here, is to shew the admirable method and order of these intercessions, which are so exact, curious, and natural, that every degree of men follow in their due place; and, at the same time, so comprehensive, that we can think of no sorts of persons but who are enumerated, and for whom all those things are asked which all and every of them stand in need of.

1 Kings 8:36 then hear in heaven, and forgive the sin of your servants, your people Israel, when you teach them the good way in which they should walk; and grant rain on your land, which you have given to your people as an inheritance.
Ps 4:1 Answer me when I call, O God of my right! You gave me room when I was in distress. Be gracious to me, and hear my prayer.
Ps 27:7 Hear, O Lord, when I cry aloud, be gracious to me and answer me!
Ps 107:7 he led them by a straight way, until they reached an inhabited town.
Is 30:21 And when you turn to the right or when you turn to the left, your ears shall hear a word behind you, saying, "This is the way; walk in it."
Is 40:11 He will feed his flock like a shepherd; he will gather the lambs in his arms, and carry them in his bosom, and gently lead the mother sheep.
Dan 9:19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, listen and act and do not delay! For your own sake, O my God, because your city and your people bear your name!"
Jonah 1:14 Then they cried out to the Lord, "Please, O Lord, we pray, do not let us perish on account of this man's life. Do not make us guilty of innocent blood; for you, O Lord, have done as it pleased you."
John 10:16 I have other sheep that do not belong to this fold. I must bring them also, and they will listen to my voice. So there will be one flock, one shepherd.
Eph 4:15-16 But speaking the truth in love, we must grow up in every way into him who is the head, into Christ, from whom the whole body, joined and knit together by every ligament with which it is equipped, as each part is working properly, promotes the body's growth in building itself up in love.
Col 1:5-6 because of the hope laid up for you in heaven. You have heard of this hope before in the word of the truth, the gospel that has come to you. Just as it is bearing fruit and growing in the whole world, so it has been bearing fruit among yourselves from the day you heard it and truly comprehended the grace of God.
Col 1:18 He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that he might come to have first place in everything.
2 Chron 30:18 For a multitude of the people, many of them from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet they ate the passover otherwise than as prescribed. But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, "The good Lord pardon all
Job 42:4 'Hear, and I will speak; I will question you, and you declare to me.'
Ps 80:14 Turn again, O God of hosts; look down from heaven, and see; have regard for this vine,
Matt 16:18 And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it.
Eph 5:25-26 Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, in order to make her holy by cleansing her with the washing of water by the word,

§.2. The method and order of them. But because it may seem presumptuous for us to pray for others, who are unworthy to pray for ourselves, before we begin, we acknowledge that we are sinners: but yet, if we are penitent, we know our prayers will be acceptable: and therefore in humble confidence of his mercy, and in obedience to his command, We sinners do beseech him to hear us in these our intercessions, which we offer up, first, for the holy Church universal, the common mother of all Christians, as thinking ourselves more concerned for the good of the whole, than of any particular part.

2 Sam 23:3 The God of Israel has spoken, the Rock of Israel has said to me: One who rules over people justly, ruling in the fear of God,
2 Kings 18:5-6 He trusted in the Lord the God of Israel; so that there was no one like him among all the kings of Judah after him, or among those who were before him. For he held fast to the Lord; he did not depart from following him but kept the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses.
Ps 17:5 My steps have held fast to your paths; my feet have not slipped.
Ps 72:1 Give the king your justice, O God, and your righteousness to a king's son.
Ps 86:11 Teach me your way, O Lord, that I may walk in your truth; give me an undivided heart to revere your name.
Prov 8:15 By me kings reign, and rulers decree what is just;
Prov 21:1 The king's heart is a stream of water in the hand of the Lord; he turns it wherever he will.
Prov 29:25 The fear of others lays a snare, but one who trusts in the Lord is secure.
Acts 13:22 When he had removed him, he made David their king. In his testimony about him he said, 'I have found David, son of Jesse, to be a man after my heart, who will carry out all my wishes.'
Ps 18:20 The Lord rewarded me according to my righteousness; according to the cleanness of my hands he recompensed me.
Ps 23:3 he restores my soul. He leads me in right paths for his name's sake.
Ps 27:13 I believe that I shall see the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living.
Ps 119:28 My soul melts away for sorrow; strengthen me according to your word.
Prov 16:12 It is an abomination to kings to do evil, for the throne is established by righteousness.

After this, we pray for our own Church, to which, next the catholic Church, we owe the greatest observance and duty; and therein, in the first place, for the principal members of it, in whose welfare the peace of the Church chiefly consists: such as is the king, whom, because he is the supreme governor of the Church in his dominions, and so the greatest security upon earth to the true religion, we pray for in the three next petitions, that he may be orthodox, pious, and prosperous. And though at present we may be happy under him; yet because his crown doth not render him immortal, and the security of the government ordinarily depends upon the royal family, we pray in the next place for them, (and particularly for the heir apparent,) that they may be supplied with all spiritual blessings, and preserved from all plots and dangers.

2 Sam 22:1 David spoke to the Lord the words of this song on the day when the Lord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul.
1 Chron 17:10 from the time that I appointed judges over my people Israel; and I will subdue all your enemies. Moreover I declare to you that the Lord will build you a house.
Ps 121:5 The Lord is your keeper; the Lord is your shade at your right hand.
Ps 127:1 Unless the Lord builds the house, those who build it labor in vain. Unless the Lord guards the city, the guard keeps watch in vain.
Ps 144:10 the one who gives victory to kings, who rescues his servant David.
Prov 24:21-22 My child, fear the Lord and the king, and do not disobey either of them; for disaster comes from them suddenly, and who knows the ruin that both can bring?
2 Sam 7:29 now therefore may it please you to bless the house of your servant, so that it may continue forever before you; for you, O Lord God, have spoken, and with your blessing shall the house of your servant be blessed forever."
1 Chron 29:19 Grant to my son Solomon that with single mind he may keep your commandments, your decrees, and your statutes, performing all of them, and that he may build the temple for which I have made provision."
Ezra 6:10 so that they may offer pleasing sacrifices to the God of heaven, and pray for the life of the king and his children.
Is 49:23 Kings shall be your foster fathers, and their queens your nursing mothers. With their faces to the ground they shall bow down to you, and lick the dust of your feet. Then you will know that I am the Lord; those who wait for me shall not be put to shame.
Deut 33:8 And of Levi he said: Give to Levi your Thummim, and your Urim to your loyal one, whom you tested at Massah, with whom you contended at the waters of Meribah;
Ezek 3:17 Mortal, I have made you a sentinel for the house of Israel; whenever you hear a word from my mouth, you shall give them warning from me.
Matt 5:14 "You are the light of the world. A city built on a hill cannot be hid.
Matt 5:16 In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father in heaven.
John 16:13 When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own, but will speak whatever he hears, and he will declare to you the things that are to come.
Acts 18:24 Now there came to Ephesus a Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria. He was an eloquent man, well-versed in the scriptures.
Acts 26:17-18 I will rescue you from your people and from the Gentiles--to whom I am sending you to open their eyes so that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, so that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in me.'
2 Cor 4:6 For it is the God who said, "Let light shine out of darkness," who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
Phil 1:1 Paul and Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus, To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are in Philippi, with the bishops and deacons:
Col 4:3 At the same time pray for us as well that God will open to us a door for the word, that we may declare the mystery of Christ, for which I am in prison,
1 Tim 6:11 But as for you, man of God, shun all this; pursue righteousness, godliness, faith, love, endurance, gentleness.
2 Tim 2:7 Think over what I say, for the Lord will give you understanding in all things.
2 Tim 2:15 Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved by him, a worker who has no need to be ashamed, rightly explaining the word of truth.
2 Tim 4:1-2 In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I solemnly urge you: proclaim the message; be persistent whether the time is favorable or unfavorable; convince, rebuke, and encourage, with the utmost patience in teaching.
Tit 2:1 But as for you, teach what is consistent with sound doctrine.
Tit 2:7-8 Show yourself in all respects a model of good works, and in your teaching show integrity, gravity, and sound speech that cannot be censured; then any opponent will be put to shame, having nothing evil to say of us.
2 Cor 2:15-16 For we are the aroma of Christ to God among those who are being saved and among those who are perishing; to the one a fragrance from death to death, to the other a fragrance from life to life. Who is sufficient for these things?
Eph 6:18-19 Pray in the Spirit at all times in every prayer and supplication. To that end keep alert and always persevere in supplication for all the saints. Pray also for me, so that when I speak, a message may be given to me to make known with boldness the mystery of the gospel,

The Jews and Gentiles always reckoned their chief priests to be next in dignity to the king; and all ancient Liturgies pray for the clergy immediately after the royal family, as being the most considerable members of the Christian Church, distinguished here into those three apostolical orders of bishops, priests, and deacons; though in all former Common Prayer Books they were called the bishops, pastors, and ministers of the Church, except in the Scotch Liturgy, which for pastors had presbyters.

Deut 16:18 You shall appoint judges and officials throughout your tribes, in all your towns that the Lord your God is giving you, and they shall render just decisions for the people.
2 Chron 19:5-6 He appointed judges in the land in all the fortified cities of Judah, city by city, and said to the judges, "Consider what you are doing, for you judge not on behalf of human beings but on the Lord's behalf; he is with you in giving judgment.
Ezra 7:25-26 "And you, Ezra, according to the God-given wisdom you possess, appoint magistrates and judges who may judge all the people in the province Beyond the River who know the laws of your God; and you shall teach those who do not know them. All who will not obey the law of your God and the law of the king, let judgment be strictly executed on them, whether for death or for banishment or for confiscation of their goods or for imprisonment."
Prov 8:14-16 I have good advice and sound wisdom; I have insight, I have strength. By me kings reign, and rulers decree what is just; by me rulers rule, and nobles, all who govern rightly.
Prov 15:22 Without counsel, plans go wrong, but with many advisers they succeed.
Jer 7:5-7 For if you truly amend your ways and your doings, if you truly act justly one with another, if you do not oppress the alien, the orphan, and the widow, or shed innocent blood in this place, and if you do not go after other gods to your own hurt, then I will dwell with you in this place, in the land that I gave of old to your ancestors forever and ever.
Rom 13:3 For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Do you wish to have no fear of the authority? Then do what is good, and you will receive its approval;
1 Tim 2:1-2 First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for everyone, for kings and all who are in high positions, so that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and dignity.
Ez 18:21-22 But if the wicked turn away from all their sins that they have committed and keep all my statutes and do what is lawful and right, they shall surely live; they shall not die. None of the transgressions that they have committed shall be remembered against them; for the righteousness that they have done they shall live.
Prov 24:21 My child, fear the Lord and the king, and do not disobey either of them;

Next to these follow those who are eminent in the state, viz. the lords of the council and all the nobility, who by reason of their dignity and trust have need of our particular prayers, and were always prayed for in the old Liturgies, by the title of the whole palace.

After we have prayed for all the nobility in general, we pray for such of the nobility and gentry as are magistrates, or more inferior governors of the people, according to the example of the primitive Christians, and in obedience to the positive command of St. Paul, who enjoins us to pray for all that are in authority.

Num 6:22-26 The Lord spoke to Moses, saying: Speak to Aaron and his sons, saying, Thus you shall bless the Israelites: You shall say to them, The Lord bless you and keep you; the Lord make his face to shine upon you, and be gracious to you; the Lord lift up his countenance upon you, and give you peace.
Ps 28:9 O save your people, and bless your heritage; be their shepherd, and carry them forever.
Ps 100:3 Know that the Lord is God. It is he that made us, and we are his; we are his people, and the sheep of his pasture.
Ps 122:7 Peace be within your walls, and security within your towers."
Ps 134:3 May the Lord, maker of heaven and earth, bless you from Zion.
John 17:11 And now I am no longer in the world, but they are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, protect them in your name that you have given me, so that they may be one, as we are one.
Acts 17:26 From one ancestor he made all nations to inhabit the whole earth, and he allotted the times of their existence and the boundaries of the places where they would live,
1 Thess 5:23 May the God of peace himself sanctify you entirely; and may your spirit and soul and body be kept sound and blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Prov 14:28 The glory of a king is a multitude of people; without people a prince is ruined.

After these we pray for all the people, i.e. all the commons of the land, who are the most numerous, though the least eminent; and unless they he safe and happy, the governors themselves cannot he prosperous, the diseases of the members being a trouble to the head also.

Ps 29:11 May the Lord give strength to his people! May the Lord bless his people with peace!
Ps 133:1 How very good and pleasant it is when kindred live together in unity!
Jer 32:29 The Chaldeans who are fighting against this city shall come, set it on fire, and burn it, with the houses on whose roofs offerings have been made to Baal and libations have been poured out to other gods, to provoke me to anger.
Mic 4:3-4 He shall judge between many peoples, and shall arbitrate between strong nations far away; they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more; but they shall all sit under their own vines and under their own fig trees, and no one shall make them afraid; for the mouth of the Lord of hosts has spoken.
Phil 2:1-2 If then there is any encouragement in Christ, any consolation from love, any sharing in the Spirit, any compassion and sympathy, make my joy complete: be of the same mind, having the same love, being in full accord and of one mind.
Is 2:4 He shall judge between the nations, and shall arbitrate for many peoples; they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.
Matt 5:9 "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God.
Rom 12:18 If it is possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all.

And though we may be allowed to pray for our own nation first, yet our prayers must extend to all mankind; and therefore in the next place we pray for the whole world, in the very words of ancient Liturgies, viz. that all nations may have unity at home among themselves, peace with one another, and concord, i.e. amity, commerce, and leagues.

Deut 6:17 You must diligently keep the commandments of the Lord your God, and his decrees, and his statutes that he has commanded you.
Deut 30:6 Moreover, the Lord your God will circumcise your heart and the heart of your descendants, so that you will love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, in order that you may live.
Prov 8:13 The fear of the Lord is hatred of evil. Pride and arrogance and the way of evil and perverted speech I hate.
Prov 16:6 By loyalty and faithfulness iniquity is atoned for, and by the fear of the Lord one avoids evil.
Jer 32:40 I will make an everlasting covenant with them, never to draw back from doing good to them; and I will put the fear of me in their hearts, so that they may not turn from me.
Ezek 36:27 I will put my spirit within you, and make you follow my statutes and be careful to observe my ordinances.
2 Thess 3:5 May the Lord direct your hearts to the love of God and to the steadfastness of Christ.
1 John 5:3 For the love of God is this, that we obey his commandments. And his commandments are not burdensome,
Prov 4:23 Keep your heart with all vigilance, for from it flow the springs of life.

Having thus prayed for temporal blessings both for ourselves and others, it is time now to look inward, and to consider what is wanting for our souls; and therefore we now proceed to pray for spiritual blessings, such as virtue and goodness. And, first, we pray that the principles of it may be planted in our hearts, viz. the love and dread of God, and then that the practice of it may be seen in our lives, by our diligent living after his commandments.

Ps 25:9 He leads the humble in what is right, and teaches the humble his way.
Mark 4:18-19 And others are those sown among the thorns: these are the ones who hear the word, but the cares of the world, and the lure of wealth, and the desire for other things come in and choke the word, and it yields nothing.
Luke 8:18 Then pay attention to how you listen; for to those who have, more will be given; and from those who do not have, even what they seem to have will be taken away."
John 15:2 He removes every branch in me that bears no fruit. Every branch that bears fruit he prunes to make it bear more fruit.
2 Cor 9:8 And God is able to provide you with every blessing in abundance, so that by always having enough of everything, you may share abundantly in every good work.
Gal 5:22-23 By contrast, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. There is no law against such things.
Eph 5:9 for the fruit of the light is found in all that is good and right and true.
Phil 1:9-11 And this is my prayer, that your love may overflow more and more with knowledge and full insight to help you to determine what is best, so that in the day of Christ you may be pure and blameless, having produced the harvest of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ for the glory and praise of God.
Phil 3:13-14 Beloved, I do not consider that I have made it my own; but this one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead, I press on toward the goal for the prize of the heavenly call of God in Christ Jesus.
Col 1:9-11 For this reason, since the day we heard it, we have not ceased praying for you and asking that you may be filled with the knowledge of God's will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, so that you may lead lives worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing to him, as you bear fruit in every good work and as you grow in the knowledge of God. May you be made strong with all the strength that comes from his glorious power, and may you be prepared to endure everything with patience, while joyfully
1 Thess 2:13 We also constantly give thanks to God for this, that when you received the word of God that you heard from us, you accepted it not as a human word but as what it really is, God's word, which is also at work in you believers.
Heb 4:2 For indeed the good news came to us just as to them; but the message they heard did not benefit them, because they were not united by faith with those who listened.
Heb 6:1 Therefore let us go on toward perfection, leaving behind the basic teaching about Christ, and not laying again the foundation: repentance from dead works and faith toward God,
Jam 1:21 Therefore rid yourselves of all sordidness and rank growth of wickedness, and welcome with meekness the implanted word that has the power to save your souls.
2 Cor 9:8 And God is able to provide you with every blessing in abundance, so that by always having enough of everything, you may share abundantly in every good work.
1 Tim 1:5 But the aim of such instruction is love that comes from a pure heart, a good conscience, and sincere faith.

But though we receive grace, yet if we do not improve it, we shall be in danger of losing it again; and therefore having in the former petition desired that we might become good, we subjoin this that we may grow better: begging increase of grace, and also that we may use proper means thereunto, such as is the meekly hearing God's word, &c.

Deut 11:16 Take care, or you will be seduced into turning away, serving other gods and worshiping them,
Is 30:21 And when you turn to the right or when you turn to the left, your ears shall hear a word behind you, saying, "This is the way; walk in it."
Matt 22:29 Jesus answered them, "You are wrong, because you know neither the scriptures nor the power of God.
John 17:17 Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.
1 Tim 6:20-21 Timothy, guard what has been entrusted to you. Avoid the profane chatter and contradictions of what is falsely called knowledge; by professing it some have missed the mark as regards the faith. Grace be with you.
2 Tim 2:16-18 Avoid profane chatter, for it will lead people into more and more impiety, and their talk will spread like gangrene. Among them are Hymenaeus and Philetus, who have swerved from the truth by claiming that the resurrection has already taken place. They are upsetting the faith of some.
2 Tim 2:24-26 And the Lord's servant must not be quarrelsome but kindly to everyone, an apt teacher, patient, correcting opponents with gentleness. God may perhaps grant that they will repent and come to know the truth, and that they may escape from the snare of the devil, having been held captive by him to do his will.
1 Pet 2:25 For you were going astray like sheep, but now you have returned to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.
2 Pet 2:1-2 But false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive opinions. They will even deny the Master who bought them--bringing swift destruction on themselves. Even so, many will follow their licentious ways, and because of these teachers the way of truth will be maligned.
Ezek 13:22-23 Because you have disheartened the righteous falsely, although I have not disheartened them, and you have encouraged the wicked not to turn from their wicked way and save their lives; therefore you shall no longer see false visions or practice divination; I will save my people from your hand. Then you will know that I am the Lord.

From praying for the sanctification and improvement of those within the Church, we become solicitous for the conversion of those that are without it; being desirous that all should be brought into the way of truth who have erred or are deceived.

Ps 91:13 You will tread on the lion and the adder, the young lion and the serpent you will trample under foot.
Ps 94:18 When I thought, "My foot is slipping," your steadfast love, O Lord, held me up.
Ps 116:6 The Lord protects the simple; when I was brought low, he saved me.
Ps 138:3 On the day I called, you answered me, you increased my strength of soul.
Ps 145:14 The Lord upholds all who are falling, and raises up all who are bowed down.
Is 40:1-2 Comfort, O comfort my people, says your God. Speak tenderly to Jerusalem, and cry to her that she has served her term, that her penalty is paid, that she has received from the Lord's hand double for all her sins.
Is 42:3 a bruised reed he will not break, and a dimly burning wick he will not quench; he will faithfully bring forth justice.
Mic 7:8 Do not rejoice over me, O my enemy; when I fall, I shall rise; when I sit in darkness, the Lord will be a light to me.
John 14:18 "I will not leave you orphaned; I am coming to you.
Rom 8:37 No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us.
Rom 16:20 The God of peace will shortly crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.
1 Cor 10:12 So if you think you are standing, watch out that you do not fall.
1 Cor 16:13 Keep alert, stand firm in your faith, be courageous, be strong.
2 Cor 2:14 But thanks be to God, who in Christ always leads us in triumphal procession, and through us spreads in every place the fragrance that comes from knowing him.
Phil 4:13 I can do all things through him who strengthens me.
1 Thess 5:14 And we urge you, beloved, to admonish the idlers, encourage the fainthearted, help the weak, be patient with all of them.
Prov 18:14 The human spirit will endure sickness; but a broken spirit--who can bear?
2 Cor 7:6 But God, who consoles the downcast, consoled us by the arrival of Titus,
2 Tim 4:17 But the Lord stood by me and gave me strength, so that through me the message might be fully proclaimed and all the Gentiles might hear it. So I was rescued from the lion's mouth.

But though those without the Church are the most miserable, yet those within are not yet so happy as not to need our prayers; some of them standing in need of strength, and others of comfort: these blessings therefore we now ask for those that want them.

Ps 91:13 You will tread on the lion and the adder, the young lion and the serpent you will trample under foot.
Ps 94:18 When I thought, "My foot is slipping," your steadfast love, O Lord, held me up.
Ps 116:6 The Lord protects the simple; when I was brought low, he saved me.
Ps 138:3 On the day I called, you answered me, you increased my strength of soul.
Ps 145:14 The Lord upholds all who are falling, and raises up all who are bowed down.
Is 40:1-2 Comfort, O comfort my people, says your God. Speak tenderly to Jerusalem, and cry to her that she has served her term, that her penalty is paid, that she has received from the Lord's hand double for all her sins.
Is 42:3 a bruised reed he will not break, and a dimly burning wick he will not quench; he will faithfully bring forth justice.
Mic 7:8 Do not rejoice over me, O my enemy; when I fall, I shall rise; when I sit in darkness, the Lord will be a light to me.
John 14:18 "I will not leave you orphaned; I am coming to you.
Rom 8:37 No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us.
Rom 16:20 The God of peace will shortly crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.
1 Cor 10:12 So if you think you are standing, watch out that you do not fall.
1 Cor 16:13 Keep alert, stand firm in your faith, be courageous, be strong.
2 Cor 2:14 But thanks be to God, who in Christ always leads us in triumphal procession, and through us spreads in every place the fragrance that comes from knowing him.
Phil 4:13 I can do all things through him who strengthens me.
1 Thess 5:14 And we urge you, beloved, to admonish the idlers, encourage the fainthearted, help the weak, be patient with all of them.
Prov 18:14 The human spirit will endure sickness; but a broken spirit--who can bear?
2 Cor 7:6 But God, who consoles the downcast, consoled us by the arrival of Titus,
2 Tim 4:17 But the Lord stood by me and gave me strength, so that through me the message might be fully proclaimed and all the Gentiles might hear it. So I was rescued from the lion's mouth.

Having thus considered the souls of men, we go on next to such things as concern their bodies, and to pray for all the afflicted in general; begging of God to succour all that are in danger, by preventing the mischief that is falling upon them; to help those that are in necessity, by giving them those blessings they want; and to comfort all that are in tribulation, by supporting them under it, and delivering them out of it.

Gen 3:16 To the woman he said, "I will greatly increase your pangs in childbearing; in pain you shall bring forth children, yet your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you."
Gen 28:20 Then Jacob made a vow, saying, "If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat and clothing to wear,
2 Sam 8:6 Then David put garrisons among the Arameans of Damascus; and the Arameans became servants to David and brought tribute. The Lord gave victory to David wherever he went.
Ezra 8:21 Then I proclaimed a fast there, at the river Ahava, that we might deny ourselves before our God, to seek from him a safe journey for ourselves, our children, and all our possessions.
Ezra 8:31-32 Then we left the river Ahava on the twelfth day of the first month, to go to Jerusalem; the hand of our God was upon us, and he delivered us from the hand of the enemy and from ambushes along the way. We came to Jerusalem and remained there three days.
Ezra 8:35 At that time those who had come from captivity, the returned exiles, offered burnt offerings to the God of Israel, twelve bulls for all Israel, ninety-six rams, seventy-seven lambs, and as a sin offering twelve male goats; all this was a burnt offering to the Lord.
Ps 41:3 The Lord sustains them on their sickbed; in their illness you heal all their infirmities.
Ps 79:11 Let the groans of the prisoners come before you; according to your great power preserve those doomed to die.
Ps 106:46 He caused them to be pitied by all who held them captive.
Ps 107:28-28 Then they cried to the Lord in their trouble, and he brought them out from their distress;
Ps 121:8 The Lord will keep your going out and your coming in from this time on and forevermore.
Ps 126:4 Restore our fortunes, O Lord, like the watercourses in the Negeb.
Ps 146:7 who executes justice for the oppressed; who gives food to the hungry. The Lord sets the prisoners free;
Prov 21:31 The horse is made ready for the day of battle, but the victory belongs to the Lord.
Matt 9:35 Then Jesus went about all the cities and villages, teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the good news of the kingdom, and curing every disease and every sickness.
Mark 5:22-24 Then one of the leaders of the synagogue named Jairus came and, when he saw him, fell at his feet and begged him repeatedly, "My little daughter is at the point of death. Come and lay your hands on her, so that she may be made well, and live." So he went with him. And a large crowd followed him and pressed in on him.
Mark 5:41-42 He took her by the hand and said to her, "Talitha cum," which means, "Little girl, get up!" And immediately the girl got up and began to walk about (she was twelve years of age). At this they were overcome with amazement.
1 Tim 2:15 Yet she will be saved through childbearing, provided they continue in faith and love and holiness, with modesty.
Jam 5:14-15 Are any among you sick? They should call for the elders of the church and have them pray over them, anointing them with oil in the name of the Lord. The prayer of faith will save the sick, and the Lord will raise them up; and anyone who has committed sins will be forgiven.
Gen 35:16-19 Then they journeyed from Bethel; and when they were still some distance from Ephrath, Rachel was in childbirth, and she had hard labor. When she was in her hard labor, the midwife said to her, "Do not be afraid; for now you will have another son." As her soul was departing (for she died), she named him Ben-oni; but his father called him Benjamin. So Rachel died, and she was buried on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem),
Ps 22:9-11 Yet it was you who took me from the womb; you kept me safe on my mother's breast. On you I was cast from my birth, and since my mother bore me you have been my God. Do not be far from me, for trouble is near and there is no one to help.
Mark 10:13-16 People were bringing little children to him in order that he might touch them; and the disciples spoke sternly to them. But when Jesus saw this, he was indignant and said to them, "Let the little children come to me; do not stop them; for it is to such as these that the kingdom of God belongs. Truly I tell you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God as a little child will never enter it." And he took them up in his arms, laid his hands on them, and blessed them.
Acts 12:5 While Peter was kept in prison, the church prayed fervently to God for him.
Phil 2:27 He was indeed so ill that he nearly died. But God had mercy on him, and not only on him but on me also, so that I would not have one sorrow after another.

And because the circumstances of some of these hinder them from being present to pray for themselves; we particularly remember them, since they more especially stand in need of our prayers, such as are all that travel by land or by water, and the rest mentioned in that petition.

Ex 22:22 You shall not abuse any widow or orphan.
Deut 10:18 who executes justice for the orphan and the widow, and who loves the strangers, providing them food and clothing.
Deut 27:19 "Cursed be anyone who deprives the alien, the orphan, and the widow of justice." All the people shall say, "Amen!"
Ps 10:17-18 O Lord, you will hear the desire of the meek; you will strengthen their heart, you will incline your ear to do justice for the orphan and the oppressed, so that those from earth may strike terror no more.
Ps 25:16 Turn to me and be gracious to me, for I am lonely and afflicted.
Ps 68:5 Father of orphans and protector of widows is God in his holy habitation.
Ps 82:3-4 Give justice to the weak and the orphan; maintain the right of the lowly and the destitute. Rescue the weak and the needy; deliver them from the hand of the wicked."
Ps 119:134 Redeem me from human oppression, that I may keep your precepts.
Ps 146:9 The Lord watches over the strangers; he upholds the orphan and the widow, but the way of the wicked he brings to ruin.
Jer 49:11 Leave your orphans, I will keep them alive; and let your widows trust in me.
1 Tim 5:5 The real widow, left alone, has set her hope on God and continues in supplications and prayers night and day;
Ps 9:9 The Lord is a stronghold for the oppressed, a stronghold in times of trouble.

There are other afflicted persons who are unable to help themselves, such as are fatherless children and widows, who are too often destitute of earthly friends; and such as are desolate of maintenance and lodging; or are oppressed by the false and cruel dealings of wicked and powerful men; and therefore these also we particularly recommend to God, and beg of him to defend and provide for them.

Ps 130:4 But there is forgiveness with you, so that you may be revered.
Ezek 3:11 then go to the exiles, to your people, and speak to them. Say to them, "Thus says the Lord God"; whether they hear or refuse to hear.
Matt 5:45 so that you may be children of your Father in heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the righteous and on the unrighteous.
Rom 11:32 For God has imprisoned all in disobedience so that he may be merciful to all.
1 Tim 2:1-4 First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for everyone, for kings and all who are in high positions, so that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and dignity. This is right and is acceptable in the sight of God our Savior, who desires everyone to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth.
2 Pet 3:9 The Lord is not slow about his promise, as some think of slowness, but is patient with you, not wanting any to perish, but all to come to repentance.
Ps 145:9 The Lord is good to all, and his compassion is over all that he has made.
John 3:16 "For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life.

And after this large catalogue of sufferers as well in spiritual as temporal things; lest any should be passed who are already under or in danger of any affliction, we pray next that God would have mercy upon all men.

Ezra 6:22 With joy they celebrated the festival of unleavened bread seven days; for the Lord had made them joyful, and had turned the heart of the king of Assyria to them, so that he aided them in the work on the house of God, the God of Israel.
Prov 10:18 Lying lips conceal hatred, and whoever utters slander is a fool.
Prov 16:7 When the ways of people please the Lord, he causes even their enemies to be at peace with them.
Matt 5:44 But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you,
Luke 23:34 [[Then Jesus said, "Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing."]] And they cast lots to divide his clothing.
Acts 7:59-60 While they were stoning Stephen, he prayed, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit." Then he knelt down and cried out in a loud voice, "Lord, do not hold this sin against them." When he had said this, he died.
Acts 26:29 Paul replied, "Whether quickly or not, I pray to God that not only you but also all who are listening to me today might become such as I am--except for these chains."
Rom 12:20 No, "if your enemies are hungry, feed them; if they are thirsty, give them something to drink; for by doing this you will heap burning coals on their heads."
1 Cor 4:12-13 and we grow weary from the work of our own hands. When reviled, we bless; when persecuted, we endure; when slandered, we speak kindly. We have become like the rubbish of the world, the dregs of all things, to this very day.

G. To forgive our enemies, &c.] Amongst all the mordinate lusts of our corrupt nature, no one is so unreformable, so obstinate, so stubborn, as hatred ; and therefore our Saviour at His sermon upon the mount, that excellent summary of Christian institution, administereth more expressly towards the mortification of this immortal passion, “ Bless them that curse you,” a precept whereby the keen edge of revenge is not only blunted, but turned the contrary way: a precept by way of δευτέρωσις, and additional explication of the fifth petition of the Lord’s Prayer. For lest we should imagine the whole duty of charity towards our neighbour, lodged in a bare remission of the injury, and an indisposition to revenge, He extends His discipline to a higher pitch, commanding us not only to forgive our enemies, but to love them, yea, to bless, i. e. to wish all the good we can to those which “ curse us:” for seeing κατάρα and εὐλογία are put here as terms contradistinct, as Grotius hath noted aright, and seeing that κατάρα never doth, nor (considering the simples whereof it is composed) can, import any malediction but what is attended with imprecation and cursing, I cannot conceive so meanly of εὐλογεῖν in this place to think, with this learned man, it implieth no more but denignis verbis compellare, “to speak our execrators fair ;’ but that it intendeth a serious praying for an accumulation of all blessings upon them; so I am sure did the primitive fathers understand it: for in the prayer for all states which was their litany and very near resembleth ours, one petition was “ for those that hate us, and persecute us,” as is evident by the Constitutions ascribed to Clemens, which I the more confidently rely upon, because Justin Martyr tells Trypho the Jew, ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, καὶ ὑπὲρ τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἐχθραινόντων ἡμῖν εὐχόμεθα“: “for you and all men whatsoever, who are maliciously minded against us, we send forth our prayers.” This I cannot but note in recommendation of our Church’s charity in this petition towards the great enemies of her religion: she praying in this excellent and solemn form even for those who do as solemnly curse her. The Jews first, καταρώμενοι ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν τοὺς πιστεύοντας ἐπὶ TOV Χριστὸν, “ execrating in their synagogues all those who profess the Christian faith.” So in Justin Martyr’s time, and so etiam nunc, even at this very present, as the famous Grotius sufficiently demonstrateth. Secondly, the papists, who make it a peculiar part of their service appointed for Maundy-Thursday, to curse with bell, book, and candle, all whom they account for heretics, as appeareth by their Bulla Coenae.

And then, to shew we have no reserve or exception in our charity or devotions, we pray particularly for our enemies, persecutors, and slanderers; who we desire may be partakers of all the blessings we have been praying for, and that God would moreover forgive them, and turn their hearts.

Gen 1:29 God said, "See, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food.
Gen 8:22 As long as the earth endures, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night, shall not cease."
Ps 104:13-15 From your lofty abode you water the mountains; the earth is satisfied with the fruit of your work. You cause the grass to grow for the cattle, and plants for people to use, to bring forth food from the earth, and wine to gladden the human heart, oil to make the face shine, and bread to strengthen the human heart.
Ps 132:15 I will abundantly bless its provisions; I will satisfy its poor with bread.
Ps 145:15-16 The eyes of all look to you, and you give them their food in due season. You open your hand, satisfying the desire of every living thing.
Matt 6:11 Give us this day our daily bread.

After we have thus prayed, first for ourselves and then for others, we proceed to pray for them and ourselves together: begging, first, whatsoever is necessary for the sustenance of our bodies, comprehended here under the fruits of the earth.

2 Chron 30:18-20 For a multitude of the people, many of them from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet they ate the passover otherwise than as prescribed. But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, "The good Lord pardon all who set their hearts to seek God, the Lord the God of their ancestors, even though not in accordance with the sanctuary's rules of cleanness." The Lord heard Hezekiah, and healed the people.
Ps 19:12 But who can detect their errors? Clear me from hidden faults.
Ps 119:9 How can young people keep their way pure? By guarding it according to your word.
Jer 26:13 Now therefore amend your ways and your doings, and obey the voice of the Lord your God, and the Lord will change his mind about the disaster that he has pronounced against you.
Luke 11:4 And forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone indebted to us. And do not bring us to the time of trial."
Luke 13:3 No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all perish as they did.
John 6:63 It is the spirit that gives life; the flesh is useless. The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life.
John 15:5 I am the vine, you are the branches. Those who abide in me and I in them bear much fruit, because apart from me you can do nothing.
Acts 3:26 When God raised up his servant, he sent him first to you, to bless you by turning each of you from your wicked ways."
Acts 5:31 God exalted him at his right hand as Leader and Savior that he might give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins.
Rom 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.
Rom 8:13 for if you live according to the flesh, you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.
2 Cor 7:10 For godly grief produces a repentance that leads to salvation and brings no regret, but worldly grief produces death.
1 Tim 1:13 even though I was formerly a blasphemer, a persecutor, and a man of violence. But I received mercy because I had acted ignorantly in unbelief,
Jam 1:23-25 For if any are hearers of the word and not doers, they are like those who look at themselves in a mirror; for they look at themselves and, on going away, immediately forget what they were like. But those who look into the perfect law, the law of liberty, and persevere, being not hearers who forget but doers who act--they will be blessed in their doing.
1 Pet 2:22-23 "He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth." When he was abused, he did not return abuse; when he suffered, he did not threaten; but he entrusted himself to the one who judges justly.
1 John 1:9 If we confess our sins, he who is faithful and just will forgive us our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness.
Job 34:32 teach me what I do not see; if I have done iniquity, I will do it no more'?
Ps 39:1 I said, "I will guard my ways that I may not sin with my tongue; I will keep a muzzle on my mouth as long as the wicked are in my presence."
Ps 103:2 Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all his benefits--
Luke 12:47-48 That slave who knew what his master wanted, but did not prepare himself or do what was wanted, will receive a severe beating. But the one who did not know and did what deserved a beating will receive a light beating. From everyone to whom much has been given, much will be required; and from the one to whom much has been entrusted, even more will be demanded.
Acts 11:18 When they heard this, they were silenced. And they praised God, saying, "Then God has given even to the Gentiles the repentance that leads to life."
2 Tim 3:15-16 and how from childhood you have known the sacred writings that are able to instruct you for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness,

And then, in the next petition, asking for all things necessary to our souls, in order to bring them to eternal happiness, viz. true repentance, forgiveness of all our sins, &c., and amendment of life. Which last petition is very proper for a conclusion. For we know that if we do not amend our lives, all these intercessions will signify nothing, because God will not hear impenitent sinners. We therefore earnestly beg repentance and amendment of life, that so all our preceding requests may not miscarry.

To God the Son.

Ps 4:1 Answer me when I call, O God of my right! You gave me room when I was in distress. Be gracious to me, and hear my prayer.
Matt 16:16 Simon Peter answered, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God."
Matt 20:30 There were two blind men sitting by the roadside. When they heard that Jesus was passing by, they shouted, "Lord, have mercy on us, Son of David!"
Heb 4:14-16 Since, then, we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession. For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who in every respect has been tested as we are, yet without sin. Let us therefore approach the throne of grace with boldness, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.

And now having presented so many excellent supplications to the throne of grace; if we should conclude them here, and leave them abruptly, it would look as if we were not much concerned whether they were received or not: and therefore the Church has appointed us to pursue them still with vigorous importunities, and redoubled entreaties. And for this reason we now call upon our Saviour, whom we have all this while been praying to, and beseech him by his divinity, as he is the Son of God, and consequently abundantly able to help us in all these things, that he would hear us...

Agnus Dei

Luke 17:13 they called out, saying, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us!"
John 1:29 The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him and declared, "Here is the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
John 1:36 and as he watched Jesus walk by, he exclaimed, "Look, here is the Lamb of God!"
John 14:27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled, and do not let them be afraid.
John 16:33 I have said this to you, so that in me you may have peace. In the world you face persecution. But take courage; I have conquered the world!"
Rom 5:1 Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
Phil 4:7 And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.
Rev 7:14 I said to him, "Sir, you are the one that knows." Then he said to me, "These are they who have come out of the great ordeal; they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
Eph 2:14 For he is our peace; in his flesh he has made both groups into one and has broken down the dividing wall, that is, the hostility between us.
Rev 13:8 and all the inhabitants of the earth will worship it, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb that was slaughtered.

... and then afterwards invocate him by his humanity, beseeching him by his sufferings for us, when he became the Lamb of God, and was sacrificed to take away the sins of the world, that he would grant us an interest in that peace, which he then made with God, and the peace of conscience following thereupon; and that he would have mercy upon us, and take away our sins, so as to deliver us from guilt and punishment.

Ps 6:2 Be gracious to me, O Lord, for I am languishing; O Lord, heal me, for my bones are shaking with terror.
Ps 6:4 Turn, O Lord, save my life; deliver me for the sake of your steadfast love.
Ps 57:1 Be merciful to me, O God, be merciful to me, for in you my soul takes refuge; in the shadow of your wings I will take refuge, until the destroying storms pass by.
Ps 123:2-3 As the eyes of servants look to the hand of their master, as the eyes of a maid to the hand of her mistress, so our eyes look to the Lord our God, until he has mercy upon us. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, have mercy upon us, for we have had more than enough of contempt.
Matt 8:25 And they went and woke him up, saying, "Lord, save us! We are perishing!"
Luke 18:13 But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even look up to heaven, but was beating his breast and saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!'

H. O Christ hear us.] The civilians have a saying voluntas fortior attenditur ex geminuta expressione, “the meaning of a man is best understood by iterating and doubling of the expression.” No less true in those resorts we make to God, the frequent repeating of our supplications striking the more forcible impression upon our souls. Whence the so often redoubling of several members of David’s Psalms; whence our Saviour in His great agony and conflict prayed εἰπὼν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον, “ using always the very same words ;” whence in the primitive Church the litanies which were, ai εὐχαὶ τῆς ἐκτενοῦς, “the prayers spirited with the greater vehemency,”’ were always full of such reduplications, as may be seen by the several forms mentioned by the Constitutions of Clemens, and in the several liturgies of those early times.

And lastly, we beg of him, as he is the Lord Christ, our anointed Mediator, to hear us, and favour us with a gracious answer to all these intercessions.

To the Trinity.

Kyrie eleison

Ps 6:2 Be gracious to me, O Lord, for I am languishing; O Lord, heal me, for my bones are shaking with terror.
Ps 6:4 Turn, O Lord, save my life; deliver me for the sake of your steadfast love.
Ps 57:1 Be merciful to me, O God, be merciful to me, for in you my soul takes refuge; in the shadow of your wings I will take refuge, until the destroying storms pass by.
Ps 123:2-3 As the eyes of servants look to the hand of their master, as the eyes of a maid to the hand of her mistress, so our eyes look to the Lord our God, until he has mercy upon us. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, have mercy upon us, for we have had more than enough of contempt.
Matt 8:25 And they went and woke him up, saying, "Lord, save us! We are perishing!"
Luke 18:13 But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even look up to heaven, but was beating his breast and saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!'

Finally, that our conclusion may be suitable to our beginning, we close up all with an address to the whole Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, for that mercy which we have been begging in so many particulars: this one word comprehends them all, and therefore these three sentences are the epitome of the whole Litany; and considering how often and how many ways we need mercy, we can never ask it too often.

The Supplications.

The original of the supplications. THE following part of this Litany we call the supplications, which were first collected, and put into this form, when the barbarous nations first began to overrun the empire, about six hundred years after Christ: but considering the troubles of the Church militant, and the many enemies it always hath in this world, this part of the Litany is no less suitable than the former at all times whatsoever.

The Lord's Prayer

The Church of England is generally in her Common Prayers, as for an humble, so for an audible voice, especially in the Lords Prayer appointing it to be said, in the Rubrick before it, with a loud, that is, an audible voice, not secretly; and this, for the more earnest repetition of so divine words, and to make them more familiar to the people. But though this Church does not order the Priest to say these Prayers secretly, yet she retains the same order of offering up by the Priest in Collects following the peoples foregoing supplications.

§.2. The Lord's Prayer. We begin with the Lord's prayer, of which we have spoke before, and need only observe here, that the ancients annexed it to every office, to shew both their esteem of that, and their mean opinion of their own composures, which receive life and value from this divine form.

Ps 6:2 Be gracious to me, O Lord, for I am languishing; O Lord, heal me, for my bones are shaking with terror.
Ps 6:4 Turn, O Lord, save my life; deliver me for the sake of your steadfast love.
Ps 57:1 Be merciful to me, O God, be merciful to me, for in you my soul takes refuge; in the shadow of your wings I will take refuge, until the destroying storms pass by.
Ps 123:2-3 As the eyes of servants look to the hand of their master, as the eyes of a maid to the hand of her mistress, so our eyes look to the Lord our God, until he has mercy upon us. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, have mercy upon us, for we have had more than enough of contempt.
Matt 8:25 And they went and woke him up, saying, "Lord, save us! We are perishing!"
Luke 18:13 But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even look up to heaven, but was beating his breast and saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!'

Job 11:6 and that he would tell you the secrets of wisdom! For wisdom is many-sided. Know then that God exacts of you less than your guilt deserves.
Ps 103:10 He does not deal with us according to our sins, nor repay us according to our iniquities.
1 John 5:14-15 And this is the boldness we have in him, that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us. And if we know that he hears us in whatever we ask, we know that we have obtained the requests made of him.

§.3. After this, we proceed to beg deliverance from our troubles: but because our consciences presently suggest, that our iniquities deserve much greater, and that therefore we cannot expect to be delivered, since we suffer so justly; we are put in mind that God doth not deal with us after our sins, nor reward us according to our iniquities. And therefore we turn these very words into supplication, and thereby clear his justice in punishing us, but apply to his mercy to proportion his chastisements according to our ability of bearing, and not according to the desert of our offences.

A prayer against persecution.

§.4. The prayer against persecution. The way being thus prepared, the priest now begins to pray for the people alone: but lest they should think their duty at an end, as soon as the responses are over, he enjoins them to accompany him In their hearts still by that ancient form Let us pray: and then proceeds to the prayer against persecution, which is collected partly out of the Scripture, and partly out of the primitive forms, and is still to be found entire among the offices of the Western Church, with the title For tribulation of heart.

2 Chron 20:9 'If disaster comes upon us, the sword, judgment, or pestilence, or famine, we will stand before this house, and before you, for your name is in this house, and cry to you in our distress, and you will hear and save.'
Ps 34:18 The Lord is near to the brokenhearted, and saves the crushed in spirit.
Ps 51:17 The sacrifice acceptable to God is a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart, O God, you will not despise.
2 Cor 6:17-18 Therefore come out from them, and be separate from them, says the Lord, and touch nothing unclean; then I will welcome you, and I will be your father, and you shall be my sons and daughters, says the Lord Almighty."
Ps 10:17 O Lord, you will hear the desire of the meek; you will strengthen their heart, you will incline your ear
Ps 38:9 O Lord, all my longing is known to you; my sighing is not hidden from you.
Ps 69:29 But I am lowly and in pain; let your salvation, O God, protect me.
Jer 31:25 I will satisfy the weary, and all who are faint I will replenish.
John 16:20 Very truly, I tell you, you will weep and mourn, but the world will rejoice; you will have pain, but your pain will turn into joy.
Ps 50:15 Call on me in the day of trouble; I will deliver you, and you shall glorify me."
Ps 102:17 He will regard the prayer of the destitute, and will not despise their prayer.
Is 38:14 Like a swallow or a crane I clamor, I moan like a dove. My eyes are weary with looking upward. O Lord, I am oppressed; be my security!
Luke 11:1 He was praying in a certain place, and after he had finished, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples."
Rom 8:26 Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but that very Spirit intercedes with sighs too deep for words.
Ps 71:2 In your righteousness deliver me and rescue me; incline your ear to me and save me.
Ps 142:6 Give heed to my cry, for I am brought very low. Save me from my persecutors, for they are too strong for me.
Ex 1:10 Come, let us deal shrewdly with them, or they will increase and, in the event of war, join our enemies and fight against us and escape from the land."
Ex 1:12 But the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and spread, so that the Egyptians came to dread the Israelites.
2 Sam 15:31 David was told that Ahithophel was among the conspirators with Absalom. And David said, "O Lord, I pray you, turn the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness."
Job 5:12-13 He frustrates the devices of the crafty, so that their hands achieve no success. He takes the wise in their own craftiness; and the schemes of the wily are brought to a quick end.
Ps 33:10 The Lord brings the counsel of the nations to nothing; he frustrates the plans of the peoples.
Luke 22:31-32 "Simon, Simon, listen! Satan has demanded to sift all of you like wheat, but I have prayed for you that your own faith may not fail; and you, when once you have turned back, strengthen your brothers."
2 Cor 11:3 But I am afraid that as the serpent deceived Eve by its cunning, your thoughts will be led astray from a sincere and pure devotion to Christ.
1 Sam 23:26-28 Saul went on one side of the mountain, and David and his men on the other side of the mountain. David was hurrying to get away from Saul, while Saul and his men were closing in on David and his men to capture them. Then a messenger came to Saul, saying, "Hurry and come; for the Philistines have made a raid on the land." So Saul stopped pursuing David, and went against the Philistines; therefore that place was called the Rock of Escape.
2 Kings 19:20 Then Isaiah son of Amoz sent to Hezekiah, saying, "Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: I have heard your prayer to me about King Sennacherib of Assyria.
2 Kings 19:32 "Therefore thus says the Lord concerning the king of Assyria: He shall not come into this city, shoot an arrow there, come before it with a shield, or cast up a siege ramp against it.
Ps 118:6-7 With the Lord on my side I do not fear. What can mortals do to me? The Lord is on my side to help me; I shall look in triumph on those who hate me.
Rom 8:31 What then are we to say about these things? If God is for us, who is against us?
Ps 71:13 Let my accusers be put to shame and consumed; let those who seek to hurt me be covered with scorn and disgrace.
Ps 142:6 Give heed to my cry, for I am brought very low. Save me from my persecutors, for they are too strong for me.
1 Sam 23:26-28 Saul went on one side of the mountain, and David and his men on the other side of the mountain. David was hurrying to get away from Saul, while Saul and his men were closing in on David and his men to capture them. Then a messenger came to Saul, saying, "Hurry and come; for the Philistines have made a raid on the land." So Saul stopped pursuing David, and went against the Philistines; therefore that place was called the Rock of Escape.
2 Kings 19:20 Then Isaiah son of Amoz sent to Hezekiah, saying, "Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: I have heard your prayer to me about King Sennacherib of Assyria.
2 Kings 19:32 "Therefore thus says the Lord concerning the king of Assyria: He shall not come into this city, shoot an arrow there, come before it with a shield, or cast up a siege ramp against it.
Ps 118:6-7 With the Lord on my side I do not fear. What can mortals do to me? The Lord is on my side to help me; I shall look in triumph on those who hate me.
Rom 8:31 What then are we to say about these things? If God is for us, who is against us?
Ps 71:13 Let my accusers be put to shame and consumed; let those who seek to hurt me be covered with scorn and disgrace.
Ps 142:6 Give heed to my cry, for I am brought very low. Save me from my persecutors, for they are too strong for me.

The Responses

The Doxology, or Glory be to the Father, &c. is much used in our Service, after Confession, after Athanasius's Creed, and especially after each Psalm and Canticle, as a most thankful adoration of the holy Trinity, upon reflection on the matter going before, And therefore is very fitly divided betwixt the Priest and people in saying it, according as the matter going before was; and it is in those places said standing, as the most proper posture for thanksgiving or Adoration. Here in the Litany, it is said in a way somewhat different; for after that the Priest and people have in the supplications afore going besought God that He would arise, help and deliver them, as he did their fore-fathers of old for his Names sake and Honour, the Priest does Collect wise sum up This; praying, that by such deliverances, all glory may redound to God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, as it was in the beginning, is now and ever shall be, &c. the people answering only, Amen, as it were after a Collect, and continuing kneeling; because both this, as it is here used, and other parts of the Litany before and after, are matters of humble supplication, and so most fit to be tendred to God in that posture.

[The previous prayer] is not concluded with Amen, to shew that the same request is continued in another form: and what the priest begged before alone, all the people join to ask in the following alternate supplications taken from the Psalms.

Num 10:35 Whenever the ark set out, Moses would say, "Arise, O Lord, let your enemies be scattered, and your foes flee before you."
Ps 44:26 Rise up, come to our help. Redeem us for the sake of your steadfast love.
Ps 79:9 Help us, O God of our salvation, for the glory of your name; deliver us, and forgive our sins, for your name's sake.
Ps 106:7-8 Our ancestors, when they were in Egypt, did not consider your wonderful works; they did not remember the abundance of your steadfast love, but rebelled against the Most High at the Red Sea. Yet he saved them for his name's sake, so that he might make known his mighty power.
Jer 14:7 Although our iniquities testify against us, act, O Lord, for your name's sake; our apostasies indeed are many, and we have sinned against you.
Ps 12:5 "Because the poor are despoiled, because the needy groan, I will now rise up," says the Lord; "I will place them in the safety for which they long."
Ps 109:26 Help me, O Lord my God! Save me according to your steadfast love.

§.5. When our enemies are rising against us to destroy us, we desire that God will arise and help us, not for any worthiness in ourselves, but for his name's sake, that he may make his power to be known.

Ps 44:1 We have heard with our ears, O God, our ancestors have told us, what deeds you performed in their days, in the days of old:
Ps 78:2-4 I will open my mouth in a parable; I will utter dark sayings from of old, things that we have heard and known, that our ancestors have told us. We will not hide them from their children; we will tell to the coming generation the glorious deeds of the Lord, and his might, and the wonders that he has done.
Joel 1:2-3 Hear this, O elders, give ear, all inhabitants of the land! Has such a thing happened in your days, or in the days of your ancestors? Tell your children of it, and let your children tell their children, and their children another generation.
Ps 119:52 When I think of your ordinances from of old, I take comfort, O Lord.

§.5. Whilst the people are praying thus earnestly, the priest, to quicken their faith by another divine sentence, commemorates the great troubles, adversities, and persecutions, which God hath delivered his Church from in all ages: and since he is the same Lord, and we have the same occasion, this is laid down as the ground of our future hope.

For the wonderful relations which we have heard with our ears, and our fathers have declared unto us, of God's rescuing this particular Church at first from popery, and of his delivering and preserving it ever since from faction and superstition, from so many secret seditions and open rebellions, fully assure us that his arm is not shortened.

Ex 32:11-13 But Moses implored the Lord his God, and said, "O Lord, why does your wrath burn hot against your people, whom you brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand? Why should the Egyptians say, 'It was with evil intent that he brought them out to kill them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth'? Turn from your fierce wrath; change your mind and do not bring disaster on your people. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, your servants, how you swore to them by your own self, saying to them, 'I will multiply your descendants like the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have promised I will give to your descendants, and they shall inherit it forever.'"
Ps 12:5 "Because the poor are despoiled, because the needy groan, I will now rise up," says the Lord; "I will place them in the safety for which they long."
Ps 66:2-3 sing the glory of his name; give to him glorious praise. Say to God, "How awesome are your deeds! Because of your great power, your enemies cringe before you.
Ps 79:10 Why should the nations say, "Where is their God?" Let the avenging of the outpoured blood of your servants be known among the nations before our eyes.
Jer 14:21 Do not spurn us, for your name's sake; do not dishonor your glorious throne; remember and do not break your covenant with us.
Rev 5:13 Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, singing, "To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!"

And therefore the people again say, O Lord, arise, help us, and deliver us for thine honour; which is no vain repetition, but a testimony that they are convinced they did wisely to ask of this God (who hath done so great things for his people in all ages) now to arise and help; that so the honour he hath gotten by the wonders of his mercy may be renewed and confirmed by this new act of his power and goodness.

Ex 32:11-13 But Moses implored the Lord his God, and said, "O Lord, why does your wrath burn hot against your people, whom you brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand? Why should the Egyptians say, 'It was with evil intent that he brought them out to kill them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth'? Turn from your fierce wrath; change your mind and do not bring disaster on your people. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, your servants, how you swore to them by your own self, saying to them, 'I will multiply your descendants like the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have promised I will give to your descendants, and they shall inherit it forever.'"
Ps 12:5 "Because the poor are despoiled, because the needy groan, I will now rise up," says the Lord; "I will place them in the safety for which they long."
Ps 66:2-3 sing the glory of his name; give to him glorious praise. Say to God, "How awesome are your deeds! Because of your great power, your enemies cringe before you.
Ps 79:10 Why should the nations say, "Where is their God?" Let the avenging of the outpoured blood of your servants be known among the nations before our eyes.
Jer 14:21 Do not spurn us, for your name's sake; do not dishonor your glorious throne; remember and do not break your covenant with us.
Rev 5:13 Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, singing, "To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!"

§.6. To this is added the Doxology in imitation of David, who would often, in the very midst of his complaints, out of a firm persuasion that God would hear him, suddenly breakout into an act of praise. And thus we, having the same God to pray to, in the midst of our mournful supplications, do not only look back on former blessings with joy and comfort, but forward also on the mercies we now pray for: and though we have not yet received them, yet we praise him for them beforehand, and doubt not, but that, as he was glorified in the beginning for past mercies, so he ought to be now for the present, and shall be hereafter for future blessings.

Ex 2:24-25 God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. God looked upon the Israelites, and God took notice of them.
Ps 59:1 Deliver me from my enemies, O my God; protect me from those who rise up against me.
Is 63:9 in all their distress. It was no messenger or angel but his presence that saved them; in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; he lifted them up and carried them all the days of old.
Luke 1:68-75 "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, for he has looked favorably on his people and redeemed them. He has raised up a mighty savior for us in the house of his servant David, as he spoke through the mouth of his holy prophets from of old, that we would be saved from our enemies and from the hand of all who hate us. Thus he has shown the mercy promised to our ancestors, and has remembered his holy covenant, the oath that he swore to our ancestor Abraham, to grant us that we, being rescued from the hands of our enemies, might serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him all our days.
Deut 26:15 Look down from your holy habitation, from heaven, and bless your people Israel and the ground that you have given us, as you swore to our ancestors--a land flowing with milk and honey."
Luke 17:13 they called out, saying, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us!"

§.7. The following responses. But though the faithful do firmly believe, that they shall be delivered at the last, and do at present rejoice in hopes thereof; yet because it is probable their afflictions may be continued for a while for a trial of their patience, and the exercise of their other graces; for that reason we continue to pray for support in the mean time, and beg of Christ to defend us from our enemies, and to look graciously upon our afflictions; pitifully to behold the sorrows of our hearts, and mercifully to forgive our sins, which are the cause of them.

1 Kings 8:50-51 and forgive your people who have sinned against you, and all their transgressions that they have committed against you; and grant them compassion in the sight of their captors, so that they may have compassion on them (for they are your people and heritage, which you brought out of Egypt, from the midst of the iron-smelter).
Ps 25:16-18 Turn to me and be gracious to me, for I am lonely and afflicted. Relieve the troubles of my heart, and bring me out of my distress. Consider my affliction and my trouble, and forgive all my sins.
Matt 12:20 He will not break a bruised reed or quench a smoldering wick until he brings justice to victory.
Heb 4:14 Since, then, we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession.
Heb 4:16 Let us therefore approach the throne of grace with boldness, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.
Prov 15:13 A glad heart makes a cheerful countenance, but by sorrow of heart the spirit is broken.
Job 33:26 then he prays to God, and is accepted by him, he comes into his presence with joy, and God repays him for his righteousness.
Ps 4:1 Answer me when I call, O God of my right! You gave me room when I was in distress. Be gracious to me, and hear my prayer.
Ps 34:15 The eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears are open to their cry.
Ps 69:13 But as for me, my prayer is to you, O Lord. At an acceptable time, O God, in the abundance of your steadfast love, answer me. With your faithful help
Is 49:8 Thus says the Lord: In a time of favor I have answered you, on a day of salvation I have helped you; I have kept you and given you as a covenant to the people, to establish the land, to apportion the desolate heritages;
Matt 9:27 As Jesus went on from there, two blind men followed him, crying loudly, "Have mercy on us, Son of David!"
Matt 15:22 Just then a Canaanite woman from that region came out and started shouting, "Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David; my daughter is tormented by a demon."
Matt 20:30-31 There were two blind men sitting by the roadside. When they heard that Jesus was passing by, they shouted, "Lord, have mercy on us, Son of David!" The crowd sternly ordered them to be quiet; but they shouted even more loudly, "Have mercy on us, Lord, Son of David!"
John 9:31 We know that God does not listen to sinners, but he does listen to one who worships him and obeys his will.
1 Pet 3:12 For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears are open to their prayer. But the face of the Lord is against those who do evil."

And this we know he will do, if our prayers be accepted; and therefore we beg of him favourably with mercy to hear them, and do beseech him, as he assumed our nature, and became the Son of David, (whereby he took on him our infirmities, and became acquainted with our griefs,) to have mercy upon us.

Ps 25:5 Lead me in your truth, and teach me, for you are the God of my salvation; for you I wait all day long.
Dan 9:18 Incline your ear, O my God, and hear. Open your eyes and look at our desolation and the city that bears your name. We do not present our supplication before you on the ground of our righteousness, but on the ground of your great mercies.
Luke 22:44 In his anguish he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.]]
John 14:13-14 I will do whatever you ask in my name, so that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If in my name you ask me for anything, I will do it.
Heb 7:25 Consequently he is able for all time to save those who approach God through him, since he always lives to make intercession for them.
Heb 13:8 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.
1 John 5:14-15 And this is the boldness we have in him, that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us. And if we know that he hears us in whatever we ask, we know that we have obtained the requests made of him.

And because the hearing of our prayers in the time of distress is so desirable a mercy, that we cannot ask it too fervently nor too often; we therefore redouble our cries, and beg of him as he is Christ, our anointed Lord and Saviour, that he would vouchsafe to hear us now, and whenever we cry to him for relief in our troubles.

Ps 32:10 Many are the torments of the wicked, but steadfast love surrounds those who trust in the Lord.
Ps 33:22 Let your steadfast love, O Lord, be upon us, even as we hope in you.

And, to shew we rely on no other helper, we conclude these supplications with David's words in a like case, O Lord, let thy mercy be shewed upon us, as we do put our trust in thee. To him, and to him only, we have applied ourselves; and as we have no other hope but in him, so we may expect that this hope shall be fulfilled, and that we shall certainly be delivered in his due time.

The Closing Prayers

The prayer of Saint Chrysostom, and 2 Cor 13:14. THE Litany, as I have already observed, was formerly a distinct service by itself, and was used generally after morning prayer was over; and then these two final prayers belonged particularly to this service. But it being now used almost every where with the morning prayer, these latter collects being omitted there (after some occasional prayers, which shall be spoken of next) come in here; and how fit they are for this place may be seen by what is said of them already.

A Prayer of St. Chrysostom.

Ps 45:3 Gird your sword on your thigh, O mighty one, in your glory and majesty.
Is 9:6 For a child has been born for us, a son given to us; authority rests upon his shoulders; and he is named Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
Rom 9:5 to them belong the patriarchs, and from them, according to the flesh, comes the Messiah, who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen.
Rev 1:8 "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.
Rev 1:18 and the living one. I was dead, and see, I am alive forever and ever; and I have the keys of Death and of Hades.
Ps 10:17 O Lord, you will hear the desire of the meek; you will strengthen their heart, you will incline your ear
Luke 11:1 He was praying in a certain place, and after he had finished, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples."
Acts 1:14 All these were constantly devoting themselves to prayer, together with certain women, including Mary the mother of Jesus, as well as his brothers.
Acts 2:1 When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place.
Acts 4:24 When they heard it, they raised their voices together to God and said, "Sovereign Lord, who made the heaven and the earth, the sea, and everything in them,
Eph 6:18 Pray in the Spirit at all times in every prayer and supplication. To that end keep alert and always persevere in supplication for all the saints.
1 Tim 1:12 I am grateful to Christ Jesus our Lord, who has strengthened me, because he judged me faithful and appointed me to his service,
1 Tim 1:14 and the grace of our Lord overflowed for me with the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus.
Heb 12:28 Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, let us give thanks, by which we offer to God an acceptable worship with reverence and awe;
Ps 62:8 Trust in him at all times, O people; pour out your heart before him; God is a refuge for us.Selah
Ps 66:8 Bless our God, O peoples, let the sound of his praise be heard,
Is 8:19 Now if people say to you, "Consult the ghosts and the familiar spirits that chirp and mutter; should not a people consult their gods, the dead on behalf of the living,
2 Tim 4:22 The Lord be with your spirit. Grace be with you.
Ez 20:24 because they had not executed my ordinances, but had rejected my statutes and profaned my sabbaths, and their eyes were set on their ancestors' idols.
Is 56:7 these I will bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer; their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples.
Matt 18:19-20 Again, truly I tell you, if two of you agree on earth about anything you ask, it will be done for you by my Father in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, I am there among them."
John 14:14 If in my name you ask me for anything, I will do it.
Acts 12:12 As soon as he realized this, he went to the house of Mary, the mother of John whose other name was Mark, where many had gathered and were praying.
1 John 5:14-15 And this is the boldness we have in him, that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us. And if we know that he hears us in whatever we ask, we know that we have obtained the requests made of him.
Ps 20:1 The Lord answer you in the day of trouble! The name of the God of Jacob protect you!
Ps 20:4-5 May he grant you your heart's desire, and fulfill all your plans. May we shout for joy over your victory, and in the name of our God set up our banners. May the Lord fulfill all your petitions.
Ps 21:2 You have given him his heart's desire, and have not withheld the request of his lips.Selah
Ps 145:18-19 The Lord is near to all who call on him, to all who call on him in truth. He fulfills the desire of all who fear him; he also hears their cry, and saves them.
Jonah 2:7 As my life was ebbing away, I remembered the Lord; and my prayer came to you, into your holy temple.
Luke 22:42 "Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me; yet, not my will but yours be done."
1 Cor 10:23 "All things are lawful," but not all things are beneficial. "All things are lawful," but not all things build up.
Phil 1:22-23 If I am to live in the flesh, that means fruitful labor for me; and I do not know which I prefer. I am hard pressed between the two: my desire is to depart and be with Christ, for that is far better;
Ps 17:1 Hear a just cause, O Lord; attend to my cry; give ear to my prayer from lips free of deceit.
Ps 88:2 let my prayer come before you; incline your ear to my cry.
1 Cor 6:12 "All things are lawful for me," but not all things are beneficial. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not be dominated by anything.
2 Cor 8:10 And in this matter I am giving my advice: it is appropriate for you who began last year not only to do something but even to desire to do something--
Hab 2:14 But the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.
Matt 6:33 But strive first for the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well.
John 17:3 And this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.
1 Tim 2:3-4 This is right and is acceptable in the sight of God our Savior, who desires everyone to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth.
1 John 5:20 And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding so that we may know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life.
Tit 2:12 training us to renounce impiety and worldly passions, and in the present age to live lives that are self-controlled, upright, and godly,
Heb 13:14 For here we have no lasting city, but we are looking for the city that is to come.
1 John 2:3 Now by this we may be sure that we know him, if we obey his commandments.
Matt 13:43 Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Let anyone with ears listen!
Rom 6:22-23 But now that you have been freed from sin and enslaved to God, the advantage you get is sanctification. The end is eternal life. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
2 Pet 3:18 But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.
2 Cor 4:18 because we look not at what can be seen but at what cannot be seen; for what can be seen is temporary, but what cannot be seen is eternal.
Heb 2:5 Now God did not subject the coming world, about which we are speaking, to angels.
Heb 11:10 For he looked forward to the city that has foundations, whose architect and builder is God.
Heb 11:14 for people who speak in this way make it clear that they are seeking a homeland.

Dismissal.