The Scriptural BCP - <small>The Order of the Administration of the Lord's Supper or</small>

The Order of the Administration of the Lord's Supper, or
Holy Communion.

IN the Liturgy it is called The Communion, and well it were that the piety of the people were such as to make it alwayes a Communion. The Church as appears by her pathetical Exhortation before the Communion, and the Rubrick after it, labours to bring men oftner to communicate than she usually obtains. Private and solitary Communions of the Priest alone she allows not; and therefore when other cannot be had she appoints only so much of the Service, as relates not of necessity to a present Communion, and that to be said at the Holy Table; and upon good reason, the Church thereby keeping, as it were, her ground, visibly minding us of what she desires and labours towards, our more frequent access to that holy Table, and in the mean while that part of the Service which she uses may perhaps more fitly be called the Second Service than the Communion. And so it is often called, though not in the Rubr. of the Liturgy, yet in divers Fast books and the like set out by Authority.

If any should think that it cannot properly be called the Second Service, because the Morning Service and Litany go before it, which we prove in the following discourse to be two distinct Services, whereby this should seem to be the Third rather than the Second Service, it is Answered, that sometimes the Communion Service is used upon such dayes as the Litany is not; and then it may without question be called the Second Service: nay, even then when the Litany and all is used, the Communion Service may be very fitly called the Second Service: For though in strictness of speech the Litany is a service distinct, as is shewn; yet in our usual acception of the word Service, namely for a compleat Service with all the several parts of it, Psalms, Readings, Creeds, Thanksgivings, and Prayers, so the Litany is not a Service, nor so esteemed, but called The Litany, or Supplications; and lookt upon sometimes, when other Offices follow, as a kind of Preparative (though a distinct form) to them, as to The Communion, Commination, &c. And therefore it was a custome in some Churches, that a Bell was tolled, while the Litany was saying, to give notice to the people, that the Communion Service was now coming on.

This Service consists of Four parts, The first reaches to the Offertory, called anciently Missa Catechumenorum, the service of the Catechumens: The second is the Offertory, which reaches to the Consecration. The third begins at the Consecration, and ends at the Angelical Hymn, Glory be to God on high. The last is the Post-Communion, or Thanksgiving, which with us is nothing but that holy Hymn.


That they are three distinct Services will appear. For they are to be performed at distinct places, and times. The Morning Service is to be said at the beginning of the day, as appears in the third Collect for Grace. Πρωΐα, sayes, S. Chrys. which is translated, S. Matth. 27. 2. in the Morning: and S. John 18. 28. Early. In S. Mark 13. 35. it is translated, The dawning of the day. The place for it is the accustomed place in the Chancel or Church, saies the Rubr. before Morning prayer, or where the Ordinary shall appoint it.

The Litany is also a distinct Service, for it is no part of the Morning Service, as you may see Rubr. after Athanas. Creed. Here ends the Morn. and Even. Service. Then follows the Litany. Nor is it any part of the Com. Service, for that begins with Our Father, and the Collect, Almighty God, &c. and is to be said after the Litany. The time and place for this, is not appointed in the Rubr. but it is supposed to be known by practice. For in the Commination, the 51. Psal. is appointed to be said, where they are accustomed to say the Litany, and that was in the Church. Eliz. Inj. 18. before the Chancel door. Bishop Andrews notes upon the Liturgy: It being a penitential Office, is there appointed, in imitation of Gods command, to the Priests in their penitential Service, Ioel 2 17. Let the Priests weep between the Porch and the Altar. The time of this, is a little before the time of the Com. Service, Inj. 18. Eliz.

The Communion-Service is to be some good distance after the Morn. Service, Rubr. 1. before the Communion-Service, So many as intend to be partakers of the holy Communion, shall signifie their names to the Curate, over night, or before Morning prayer, or immediately after, which does necessarily require a good space of time to do it in. The usual hour for the solemnity of this Service, was anciently, and so should be, Nine of the clock, Morning. C. Aurel. 3. c. 11. This is the Canonical hour De Consecr. dist. 1. c. Et Hos. Thence probably call'd, the holy hour, Decret. dist. 44. c. fin. In case of necessity it might be said earlier or later, Durant, de Ritibus; but this was the usual and Canonical hour for it. One reason which is given for it is, because at this hour began our Saviours Passion, S. Mark 15. 25. the Jewes then crying out Crucifie, &c. At this hour therefore is the Com. Service (part of which is a commemoration of Christs Passion) performed. Another reason given is, because this hour the Holy Ghost descended upon the Apostles, Acts 2. 15. Lastly, because it is the most convenient hour for all to meet, and dispatch this with other offices before Noon. For, 'till the Service was ended, Men were perswaded to be fasting; and therefore it was thought fit to end all the Service, before Noon, that people might be free to eat. Durant. l. 2. c. 7. Why this Service is called the Second, see pag. 207, 208.

The place for this Service is the Altar or Communion Table, Rubr. before the Com. And so it was always in Primitive times, which is a thing so plain as it needs no proof.

B. And if any of them be an open and notorious evil liver, &c.] Notorium amongst the civilians and canonists is threefold. First, there is notorium presumptionis, “a notoriousness of presumption,” where evidentia rei est evidenter a jure presumpta, “ the evidence of the thing is taken for evident, by presumption of law;” as where it presumeth one to be the son of such a man, because he was born in wedlock. Secondly, there is notorium juris, “ a notoriousness of law,” when the offence is proved either per confessionem factam in jure, “by confession made in open court,” or per sententiam judicis, “ by the sentence of the judge.” Lastly, there is notorium facti, “a notoriousness of fact,’ when per evidentiam rei nulla potest tergiversatione celari, “the evidence is so clear, as the accusation can by no shifts be avoided.”

Now to which of these three the term notorius in this rubric relateth is a great question. The learned prelate, Bishop Andrewes‘, restraineth it positively to the second: “ Our law of England,” saith he, “will not suffer the minister to judge any man a notorious offender, but he who is so convinced by some legal sentence ;” the law of England will not suffer it, so that should the ecclesiastical permit it, the municipal law would not ; and if it comes to an antinomy, a justle between the canon laws of our Church and the law of the land, this it is must overrule. But doth our canon law give any such toleration? Doth it empower any minister to exclude his parishioner (claiming his Christian privilege in those blessed mysteries) from the Sacrament, or to make his private discretion the supreme judge of the notoriousness here mentioned?

Certainly no. As for the 26th and 27th canons, which are produced to the contrary, they neither speak explicitly enough, nor do they sufficiently direct in this affair. The canon wherein our Church declareth her mind more articulately is the 109th: “if any offend their brethren, either by adultery, whoredom, incest, or drunkenness, or by swearing, ribaldry, usury, or any other uncleanness and wickedness of life, the churchwardens, or questmen and sidemen, in their next presentment to their ordinaries, shall faithfully present all and every of the said offenders, to the intent that they and every of them may be punished by the severity of the laws, according to their deserts, and such notorious offenders shall not be admitted to the Communion till they be reformed ;” where I note, first, the crime must be scandalous, “an offence to the brethren.” Secondly, it must be “ presented to the ordinary.” Thirdly, that such scandalous offenders, so presented to the ordinary, “ are not to be admitted to the Communion.”

But some perhaps will say, this was one of the failings of an ill-regulated state and Church, which justly called for a reformation, and so indeed it was pretended by Dr. Burgess, and Mr. White of Dorchester, at a committee sitting in the Lords’ House, in March 1641. But, upon a full debate, it was determined at that committee, to the very conviction of the opponents, that open and notorious evil livers were none but such as the laws had adjudged to be so. Agreeable to this determination did the parliament afterwards ordain, that no person be suspended from the Communion for any matter of scandal, but, “ either upon his confession before the eldership to have committed such an offence, or upon the testimony of two witnesses at least, and those examined upon oath.” So was it ordained by this parliament, sufficiently presbyterian, against the liking of an assembly of presbyters, which did eniwius dogmatis et argumentis in contrarium, nec semel, sed frustra, contendere ; “vehemently, though all to little purpose, (more than once,) oppose it with all the arguments they could®,” as Mr. Selden assures us.

Having opened the mind of both our Church and state, as to this particular, it will not be amiss to represent the conformity it beareth with the imperial edict, and practice of the primitive Church. As for the imperial law, it speaks loud enough; omnibus episcopis et presbyteris interdicimus segregare aliquem a sacra communione, antequam causa monstretur, propter quam sancte regule hoc fieri jubent, “ we prohibit all, both bishops and presbyters, from shutting out any one from the Communion, before just cause be shewn that the holy canons warrant them so to proceed.” As for the primitive usage, St. Augustine fully, nos a Communione quenquam prohibere non possumus, nisi aut sponte confessum, aut in aliquo judicio ecclesiastico, vel seculari nominatum, atque convictums, “we cannot repel any man from the Communion, unless he hath freely confessed his offence, or hath been accused and convicted in some secular court, or ecclesiastical consistory.”

Indeed so was the legislative pattern of our Saviour, in the first institution of His Supper. Never was there a more detestable crime than Judas’s treason, never was delinquent convicted upon evidence so infallible as his Master’s omniscience. But though he had already projected the conspiracy, and our Saviour already knew it, yet did He not interdict him from participating with His elect Apostles, recommending thereby to His Church this lesson, that no outward communion of the wicked with us in those sacred ordinances, can possibly render them ineffectual to His holy ones. It is true, I grant, some learned men depart from this sense, and because St. John saith that “ Judas, having received the sop, went immediately out,” thence infer his absence at the time of Christ’s instituting His last supper. But our Church is positive in the contrary ; nor can St. John be otherwise reconciled to the rest of the evangelists.

To conclude, the result of all the premises is, that none are to be suspended from this Sacrament but the notorious delinquents, and that none are notorious but they whom the sentence of the law or their own confessions have stated so to be. All reason it should be so. My temporal estate no private person can deprive me of, until it be legally evicted from me by course of law, and shall it be in the power of any mortal man to divest me of my interest in that, blessed banquet, before I be adjudged to have forfeited it upon fair hearing? What were this, but to expose Christians to the infirmities, passions, and somewhat else, quod dicere nolo, of their spiritual pastors?

C. The same order shall the curate use with those betwixt whom he perceiveth malice and hatred to reign, &c.] Amongst the three graces the Apostle hath given the supremacy of dignity to charity, 1 Cor. xiii. 13, and this most excellent grace is never so resplendent as in the celebration of the Eucharist, in relation to which, she is most strictly enjoined by our Saviour Himself, “If thou bringest thy gift unto the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee, leave thy gift before the altar, and go first and be reconciled to thy brother :” which is very rationally thought by learned men to be the institution of an evangelical ordinance, because it was not commanded under the law to such as were to present their oblations, and it is not like that Christ would superinduce any new establishment to former rights, when the ceremonial law was expiring ; concurrent with the Master’s precept is the order of His disciples, St. Paul, 1 Cor. xi. 18, “When ye come together in the church, I hear that there be divisions among you.” What these divisions were he tells them in the 21st verse, viz. that “when they came to their love-feasts,” wherewith this Sacrament was joined, and which were instituted for the preservation of Christian fellowship, and levelling of all, not only animosities, but high thoughts ; this notwithstanding, the rich, who brought plenty, presuming he might be master of what he offered, either fell to apart, or with some select and choice friends of his own exceedings fed liberally, while the poor man had not wherewith to stay his stomach ; which inferred a disdain not agreeable to the design of that charitable collation: upon these proceedings, the Apostle being to pronounce his judgment, he assures them they are much in the wrong, and that this is not to eat the Lord’s Supper, i. 6. that this practice and the Communion are two, inconsistent and incompatible one with the other; charity being so essentially requisite to the right participation of the Sacrament, as it hath imposed denomination to it. It being called the Communion, 1 Cor. x. 16, why so, he tells us in the next verse, “for thereby we being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread.” Now there cannot possibly be union where there is not charity, the breach of this grace being the same in the spiritual body of the Church that a wound is in the natural, solutio continut, a rupture of the part entire.

And in symbolical reference to this, it may be here aptly hinted, that in the primitive Church for certain, and probably in the Apostolic, they used in the celebration of this Sacrament to have but one loaf and one cup for the whole congregation, to which in all likelihood Ignatius alluded εἷς ἄρτος τοῖς πᾶσιν ἐθρύφθη, καὶ ἕν ποτήριον τοῖς ὅλοις διενεμήθη, i. 6. “one bread is broken, and one cup distributed to the whole congregation ;᾽ which passage, though that most excellent edition of Isaacus Vossius (exactly agreeing with the very ancient translation published by the reverend primate of Armagh) doth not own, yet I presume the rather to cite, because he speaketh elsewhere of some éva ἄρτον κλῶντες, i. e. “breaking one bread.” A matter not improbable in such times when communicants were not by the tithe so numerous as now. And though I deny not but this father might have chief regard to Christ, the mystical bread which came down from heaven, yet doth not that hinder but he might also allude to what was then matter of fact in the celebration of the Eucharist.

Besides this nominal indication of the necessity of this virtue from the word Communion, further evidence may be produced from antiquity for its high reputation; as that it was a constant adjunct to those ἀγάπαι, or feasts of love, which were fellow-like collations intended as a repast for the poor, together with the wealthy : and though, several abuses stepping into that sacred confraternity and brotherhood, Christian prudence thought fit soon after in the Greek Church (for in the African they continued together up to Tertullian’s time) to disjoin them, ordering the Lord’s Supper to be celebrated in the morning fasting; yet that it might still lay claim and title to its ancient appellation of a love feast, it was accommodated with ceremonies of like import.

Whence in the entrance into service of those blessed mysteries, the deacon was appointed to cry aloud, μή τις κατὰ τίνος, i. 6. “let no man be at strife one with another,” (a phrase borrowed I conceive from that of Ignatius!, μηδεὶς ὑμῶν τὶ κατὰ τοῦ πλησίον ἐχέτω, 1. 6. “let no man have any controversy with his neighbour ;”) and this proclamation once past, the holy kiss and embraces amongst the faithful presently followed ; ἀλλήλους φιλήματι ἀσπαζόμεθα παυσάμενοι TOV εὐχῶν, i. 6. “prayers ended, we salute one another with an holy kiss,” that is, ἀλλήλους οἱ ἄνδρες, καὶ ἀλλήλας αἱ γυναῖςkes, as the Constitutions have it, “men, men, and women, women ;” and it cannot otherwise be conceived, considering their stations were so disposed in holy assemblies as each sex was severed and apart from the other. From hence also Tertullian calleth this signaculum orationis, “the seal and close of prayer.”

This is that which the council of Laodicea, and the Greeks in their liturgies, call εἰρήνη, the Latins pax, the “ salutation of peace,” and is still retained by the Church of Rome, derived originally from that of the Apostle, Rom. xvi. 16, “salute one another with a holy kiss.” Lastly, when the congregation was departed, this noble virtue of charity was still preserved, by sending sometimes “blessed loaves,” sometimes part of the consecrated bread to their absent friends, as tokens of their Christian correspondence, whereof mention is made in the epistle of Irenaeus to Victor bishop of Rome cited by Eusebius, and in the several epistles of Augustine and Paulinus under the name of panis benedictus, “blessed bread.” The result of all this tends, not as to the decision of a question controverted, but to the exciting us up to a due estimation of this grace, and to mind us that this Sacrament should be somewhat beside ἀνάμνησις τοῦ πάθους, “a memorial of Christ’s sacrifice upon the cross,” (which is granted to be the chief motive to its institution,) and that also it is intended to be ἀμνηστίας ψήφισμα, “an act of oblivion,” according to the Athenian mode, of injuries received.

D. Shall stand in the body of the church or in the chancel.] This rubric being not explicit enough as to the proper station of the holy table, is illustrated by comparing the eighty-second canon with Queen Elizabeth’s first Injunctions, and succeeding orders. In the canon the order is, that the table shall stand where it is placed, viz. at the east end of the chancel, “ saving when the holy Communion is to be administered: at which time the same shall be placed in so good a sort, as thereby the minister may be more conveniently heard of the communicants, and the communicants also may more conveniently and in more number communicate with the minister.” Which one words are almost verbatim transcribed out of the queen’s Injunctions, these only superadding: “and after the Communion done from time to time the same holy table to be placed where it stood before.”

Nothing can be more express and demonstrative, that the table placed where the altar stood, was but seposed, set out of the way, during only the time of non-communication ; and that at the time of the Communion it was to be removed, as the word ‘saving,’ mentioned both in the canon and in the Injunctions, and the cited member of the Injunctions infallibly implieth; if these instances afford not satiety to quiet all scruples, the orders of that queen speak shrill enough. '‘And if in any church the steps be transposed, that they be not erected again, but that the place be decently paved, where the Communion table shall stand, out of the time of receiving of the holy Communion.” Order, Oct. 10, 3 Eliz. So that out of Communion time the table is to stand altar-wise, as we, and only we do phrase it ; for altar-wise is an idiom peculiar to us English, not known abroad in foreign parts; and they who can find popery in that position, have better eyes than ordinary. Altars with them do not observe one regular position; some are placed in the middle of the choir ; some at the upper part, end-ways north and south; and if eye-witnesses may be trusted, the chief altar in St. Peter’s church at Rome stands in the midst of the chancel. As for the priest standing at the north side of the table, this seemeth to avoid the fashion of the priest’s standing with his face towards the east, as is the popish practice.” So the MS. collections of a learned man.

Rubric 1. The ministers to be judged of the fitness of their communicants. FROM what has been said just now above, the design of the first rubric sufficiently appears, viz. That the Curate, by knowing, at least some time the day before, the names of all that intend to be partakers of the holy Communion, may judge what quantity of bread and wine will be sufficient, and also may have time enough to learn, whether those that offer themselves to the Communion are fit to receive. For,

§.2. Rubric 2, 3. And have power to repel scandalous offenders. If any of those be an open or notorious evil liver, or have done any wrong to his neighbours by word or deed, so that the congregation be thereby offended; the Curate, having knowledge thereof, shall call him and advertise him, that in any wise he presume not to come to the Lord’s table until he hath openly declared himself to have truly repented, and amended his former naughty life, that the congregation may thereby be satisfied, which before were offended; and that he hath recompensed the parties to whom he hath done wrong, or at least declare himself to be in full purpose so to do, as soon as he conveniently may.

The same order shall the Curate use with those between whom he perceiveth malice and hatred to reign; not suffering them to be partakers of the Lord’s table, until he know them to be reconciled. And if any one of the parties so at variance be content to forgive, from the bottom of his heart, all that the other hath trespassed against him, and to make amends for that he himself hath offended; and the other party will not be persuaded to a godly unity, but remain still in his frowardness and malice; the Minister in that case ought to admit the penitent person to the holy Communion, and not him that is obstinate.

Now here we must distinguish between absolutely repelling and shutting out any one from the Communion, as by a judicial act, and only suspending him for a time, till the Minister has opportunity to send his case to the Ordinary. The first of these is what the rubric cannot be understood to imply: for by the laws of the land, both ecclesiastical and civil, none are to be shut out from this Sacrament, but such as are notorious delinquents, and none are notorious but such as the sentence of the law hath, either upon their own confession, or full conviction, declared so to be. And this is conformable both to the Imperial Edict, and the practice of the Church, as long ago as St. Austin. The first hath this established law: "We prohibit all, both bishops and presbyters, from shutting out any one from the Communion, before some just cause be shewn for which the holy canons require it to be done." And as to the ancient usage, St. Austin speaks very plain; "We cannot," saith he, "repel any man from the Communion, unless he has freely confessed his offence, or hath been accused and convicted in some ecclesiastical consistory or secular court."

But now all this plainly refers to the power of secluding from the Communion judicially and with authority; whereas the design of this rubric is only to enable the Curate to refuse to administer to any of his congregation (of whose ill life and behaviour he has received sudden notice) till he can have opportunity of laying his case before the Ordinary. For by a clause, added at the last review, it is provided, That every Minister, so repelling any, as is specified in this, or the next precedent paragraph of this rubric, shall he obliged to give an account of the same to the Ordinary, within fourteen days after at the farthest, and the Ordinary is to proceed against the offending person according to the canon. The hundred and ninth canon, I suppose, is meant, which requires the Ordinary to punish all such notorious offenders by the severity of the laws, and not to admit them to the Communion till they be reformed.

But here I know it may be objected, that the persons, whom the Curate is by this rubric empowered to repel, are declared to be such as are notorious evil livers, and that I have already allowed that none are notorious but such as the sentence of the law has declared so to be. But to this I answer, that notoriety in this place is taken in a lower degree; the rubric using the words open and notorious for the same thing, and explaining those to be notorious by whom the congregation is offended. That it cannot mean those whom the law has declared to be notorious, is plain, because such are supposed to be already shut out from the Communion, and consequently the Curate must himself have received notice from his Ordinary not to admit them: whereas the persons, whom the rubric provides against, are such as the Ordinary is supposed not yet to have heard of, whom therefore it requires the Curate to send him notice of, in order that he may proceed against them according to law; and whom, in the mean while, the Curate is empowered by this rubric (which is itself a law, being established by the Act of Uniformity) to refuse the Communion, if, after due admonition to keep away, he obstinately offers himself to receive: insomuch that no damage from any prior law can accrue to him from a conscientious execution of the latter. And that this is no novel or unnecessary power is plain from the practice of the ancient Church; in which though all open offenders, as soon as known, were put under censure, yet if before censure they offered themselves at the Communion, they were repelled. This is evident from St. Chrysostom, who does not more earnestly press the duty, than he does plainly assert the authority of the sacerdotal power to effect it. "Let no Judas," saith he, "no lover of money be present at this table; he that is not Christ's disciple, let him depart from it. Let no inhuman, no cruel person, no uncompassionate man, or unchaste, come hither. I speak this to you that administer, as well as to those that partake: for it is necessary I speak these things to you, that you may take great care, and use your utmost diligence to distribute these offerings aright. For no small punishment hangeth over your heads, if knowing any man to be wicked, you suffer him to be partaker of this table; for his blood shall be required at your hands. Wherefore, if he be a general, or a provincial governor, or the emperor himself, that Cometh unworthily, forbid him and keep him off; thy power is greater than his. If any such get to the table, reject him without fear. If thou darest not remove him, tell it me; I will not suffer it, I will yield my life rather than the Lord's body to any unworthy person: and suffer my own blood to be shed, before I will grant that sacred blood to any but to him that is worthy."

But here again it has been objected, that "all persons, before they are admitted into any office, are obliged by our laws to receive the sacrament as a qualification; and consequently that the Minister is obliged by the same laws, to admit any person that offers himself upon this occasion, to the holy Communion, however unfit he may have rendered himself by his life and actions." But in answer to this, it must be considered, that the power which Christ himself invested his Church with, of admitting persons into her communion, and excluding them from it, is what no human. laws can deprive her of. And therefore when the laws require men to receive this holy Sacrament to qualify themselves for offices, they always suppose that they must first qualify themselves according to the holy laws of the Church, which are founded on those of the Gospel. So that it would be a very great injury to our legislators (as being a very uncharitable opinion of them) to imagine, that if an unbaptized, or excommunicate person, a deist, or notorious sinner, should happen to obtain an office, that they intend to oblige the Church to admit persons, under these bad dispositions, to be partakers of the blessed Eucharist.

The primitive Church was so cautious in this respect, that even persons in the highest stations were rejected, if they offered themselves unworthily. Of which we have a remarkable instance in the case of the emperor Theodosius, whom St. Ambrose boldly and openly refused, upon the commission of a barbarous crime. The story being worth the reader's notice, I shall therefore give it in a few words. There being a sedition among the people of Thessalonica, the emperor ordered the guard to fall on them in heat, who in that hurry and confusion destroyed several thousands of these poor wretches. Soon after which, he coming to Milan, was going to offer himself at St. Ambrose's church to receive the Communion. But the good bishop (when he heard of it) met him courageously at the church doors, and obliged him to return, and first repent himself of his crime. "With what eyes," saith he, "can you behold the temple of him who is the common Lord of all? With what feet can you tread this holy place? How can you put out those hands to receive the blessed elements, which are yet reeking with innocent blood? How can you take the precious blood into that mouth, which gave out such barbarous and bloody orders? Depart therefore, and take heed that you do not increase your first crime by a second. Submit yourself to the bond which the Lord of the world has been pleased to bind you with, which is only medicinal, and intended to work your cure." This repulse the emperor acquiesced in, and offered himself no more to those holy rites, till he had in tears repented of the sad effects of his hasty anger. I have chosen to give this instance, because it is what the Church of England has thought fit to record in her Homilies, and to mention with. marks of approbation and applause.

Other persons disqualified from communicating are, schismatics; persons not confirmed; and strangers from other parishes. But besides persons excommunicated, and those above mentioned, there are other persons, those above mentioned, there are other persons, by the laws of our Church, disabled from communicatmg: such as are of course all schismatics, to whom no Minister, when he celebrateth the Communion, is wittingly to administer the same, under pain of suspension. But of these too, unless they have been legally convicted, the Minister who repels them is obliged upon complaint, or being required by the Ordinary, to signify the cause thereof unto him, and therein to obey his order and direction. And further, by a rubric at the end of the Order of Confirmation, none are to be admitted to the holy Communion, until such time as he be confirmed, or be ready and desirous to be confirmed. The like provision is made by our Provincial Constitutions, which allow none to communicate (unless at the point of death) but such as are confirmed, or at least have a reasonable impediment for not being confirmed: and the Glossary allows no impediment to be reasonable, but the want of a bishop near the place. And lastly, all strangers from other parishes; the Minister is by the canons required to forbid and to remit such home to their own parish churches and ministers, there to receive the Communion with the rest of their neighbours.

So many as intend to be partakers of the holy Communion shall signify their names to the Curate at least some time the day before.

If a Minister be persuaded that any person who presents himself to be a partaker of the holy Communion ought not to be admitted thereunto by reason of malicious and open contention with his neighbours, or other grave and open sin without repentance, he shall give an account of the same to the Ordinary of the place, and therein obey his order and direction, but so as not to refuse the Sacrament to any person until in accordance with such order and direction he shall have called him and advertised him that in any wise he presume not to come to the Lord's Table; Provided that in case of grave and immediate scandal to the Congregation the Minister shall not admit such person, but shall give an account of the same to the Ordinary within seven days after at the latest and therein obey the order and direction given to him by the Ordinary; Provided also that before issuing his order and direction in relation to any such person the Ordinary shall afford him an opportunity for interview.

The Liturgy of the Word

Part. 1. We begin the first part as the Church was wont to begin her Services, with the LORDS PRAYER, concerning which, see the Morning Service.

E. Shall say the Lords Prayer.] The Lord’s Prayer hath been ever since Christianity a considerable portion of the Communion Service, and instituted so to be by Christ Himself, if credit may be given to St. Jerome. Docuit apostolos ut quotidie in corporis illius sacrificio credentes audeant loqui, Pater Noster, &c. i. 6. “Christ taught His Apostles the boldness to address themselves to God in His own words in the daily sacrifice of His body.” The like is affirmed by St, Augustine, epist. 59; and Gregory, lib. vii. epist. 63.

§.3. Rubric 4. Concerning the situation of the Communion table. The last rubric concerning: the covering and situation of the Communion table, was first added in the second Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI, there being no other rubric in his first book than this, The priest, standing humbly afore the middes of the altar, shall saie the Lord's Prayer, &c.* For altar was the name by which the holy board was constantly distinguished for the first three hundred years after Christ; during all which time it does not appear that it was above once called table, and that was in a letter of Dionysius of Alexandria to Xystus of Rome. And when in the fourth century Athanasius called it a table, he thought himself obliged to explain the word, and to let the reader know that by table he meant altar, that being then the constant and familiar name. Afterwards indeed both names came to be promiscuously used; the one having respect to the oblation of the eucharist, the other to the participation: but it was always placed altar-wise in the most sacred part of the Church, and fenced in with rails to secure it from irreverence and disrespect.

But at the beginning of the Reformation, an unhappy dispute arose, viz. whether those tables of the altarfashion, which had been used in the popish times, and on which masses had been celebrated, should still be continued: this point was first started by Bishop Hooper, who, in a sermon before the king in the fourth year of his reign, declared, "That it would do well, that it might please the magistrate, to turn altars into tables, according to the first institution of Christ; to take away the false persuasion of the people, which they have of sacrifice, to be done upon the altars; for as long (says he) as altars remain, both the ignorant people and the ignorant and evil persuaded priest will always dream of sacrifice." This occasioned not only a couple of letters from the king and council, one of which was sent to all the bishops, and the other to Ridley, bishop of London; (in both which they were required to pull down the altars;) but also that, when the Liturgy was reviewed in 1551, the abovesaid rubric was altered, and in the room of it the present one was inserted, viz. The table having at the Communion time a fair white linen cloth upon it, shall stand in the body of the church, or in the chancel, where morning and evening prayer are appointed to be said. And the priest standing at the north side of the table, shall say the Lord's Prayer with the Collect following. But this did not put an end to the controversy; another dispute arising, viz. whether the table placed in the room of the altar ought to stand altar-wise, i.e. in the same place and situation as the altar formerly stood? This was the occasion that in some churches the tables were placed in the middle of the chancels, in others at the east part thereof next to the wall; some again placing it endwise, and others placing it at length. Bishop Ridley endeavoured to compromise this matter, and therefore, in St. Paul's cathedral, suffered the table to stand in the place of the old altar; but beating down the wainscot partition behind, laid all the choir open to the east, leaving the table then to stand in the middle of the chancel, which indeed was more agreeable to the primitive custom. Under this diversity of usage, things went on till the death of king Edward; when queen Mary coming to the throne, altars were again restored wherever they had been demolished: but her reign proving short, and queen Elizabeth succeeding her, the people, (just got free again from the tyranny of popery) through a mistaken zeal, fell in a tumultuous manner to the pulling down of altars: though indeed this happened for the generality only in private churches, they not being meddled with in any of the queen's palaces, and in but very few of the cathedrals. And as soon as the queen was sensible of what had happened in other places, she put out an injunction to restrain the fury of the people, declaring it to be no matter of great moment, whether there mere altars or tables, so that the Sacrament was duly and reverently administered: but ordering, that where an altar was taken down, a holy table should be decently made, and set in the place where the altar stood, and there commonly covered as thereto belonged, and as should be appointed by the visitor, and so to stand, saving when the communion of the Sacrament was to be distributed; at winch time the same was to be placed in good sort within the chancel, as thereby the Minister might be more conveniently heard of the communicants in his prayer and ministration, and the communicants also more conveniently and in more number communicate with the said Minister. And after the Communion done, from time to time the same holy table was to be placed where it stood before. Now it is plain from this injunction, as well as from the eighty-second canon of the Church, (which is almost verbatim the same,) that there is no obligation arising from this rubric to move the table at the time of the Communion, unless the people cannot otherwise conveniently hear and communicate. The injunction declares, that the holy table is to be set in the same place where the altar stood, which every one knows was at the east end of the chancel. And when both the injunction and canon speak of its being moved at the time of the Communion, it supposes that the Minister could not otherwise be heard: the interposition of a belfry between the chancel and body of the church (as I have already observed, p. 116, &c.) hindering the Minister in some churches from being heard by the people, if he continued in the chancel. So that we are not under any obligation to move the table, unless necessity requires. But whenever the churches are built so as the Minister can he heard, and conveniently administer the Sacrament at the place where the table usually stands, he is rather obliged to administer in the chancel, as appears from the rubric before the Commandments, as also from that before the Absolution, by both which rubrics the Priest is directed to turn himself to the people. From whence I argue, that if the table be in the middle of the church, and the people consequently round about the Minister, the Minister cannot turn himself to the people any more at one time than another. Whereas if the table be close to the east wall, the Minister stands on the north side, and looks southward, and consequently, by looking westward, turns himself to the people.

§.4. The priest, why to stand at the north side of the table. Wherever it be placed, the Priest is obliged to stand at the north side, (or end thereof, as the Scotch Liturgy expresses it; which also orders, that it shall stand at the uppermost part of the chancel or church) the design of which is, that the Priest may be the better seen and heard; which, as our altars are now placed, he cannot be but at the north or south side. And therefore the north side being the right hand or upper side of the altar, is certainly the most proper for the officiating Priest, that so the assisting Minister (if there be one) may not be obliged to stand above him. And Bishop Beveridge has shewn that wherever, in the ancient Liturgies, the Minister is directed to stand before the altar, the north side of it is always meant.

§.5. The table to be covered with a linen cloth. The covering of the altar with a fair white linen cloth, at the time of the celebration of the Lord's Supper, was a primitive practice, enjoined at first, and retained ever since for its decency. In the Sacramentary of St. Gregory, this covering is called palla altaris, the pall of the altar; to distinguish it, I suppose, from the corporis palla, or the cloth that was thrown over the consecrated elements. And the Scotch Liturgy orders, that the holy table at the Communion time should have a carpet, and a fair white linen cloth upon it, with other decent furniture, meet far the high mysteries there to be celebrated. And by our own canons, at all other times, when divine service is performed, it is to be covered with a carpet of silk, or rather decent stuffs thought meet by the Ordinary of the place, if any question he made of it; which was originally designed for the clean keeping of the said [white linen] cloth: though the chief use of it now is for ornament and decency.


Why used at the beginning of the office. THERE can be no fitter beginning for this sacred ordinance, which so peculiarly challengeth Christ for its author, than that divine prayer which owes its original to the same person, and which St. Jerome tells us, Christ taught his Apostles, on purpose that they should use it at the holy Communion. To which the primitive Fathers thought it so peculiarly adapted, that they generally expounded that petition, Give us this day our daily bread, of the body of Christ, the bread of life, which in those times they daily received for the nourishment of their souls.

The Table at the Communion time having a fair white linen cloth upon it, shall stand in the body of the Church, or in the Chancel, where Morning and Evening Prayer are appointed to be said. And the Priest standing at the north side of the Table shall say the Lord's Prayer, with the Collect following, the people kneeling.

The Collect for Purity

After this follows an excellent prayer to God to cleanse our hearts by his holy inspiration.

Why used before the Commandments AS people were to be purified before the first publication of the law, so must we have clean hearts before we be fit to hear it; lest, if our minds be impure sin take occasion by the commandment to stir up concupiscence: for prevention of which, when the Commandments were added in the second book of king Edward, it was thought proper that this form should immediately precede them: not but that the form itself was in our first Liturgy, and, as far as appears, in the oldest offices of the Western Church.

Gen 17:1 When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said to him, "I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless.
1 Sam 2:3 Talk no more so very proudly, let not arrogance come from your mouth; for the Lord is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed.
1 Kings 8:39 then hear in heaven your dwelling place, forgive, act, and render to all whose hearts you know--according to all their ways, for only you know what is in every human heart--
1 Chron 28:9 "And you, my son Solomon, know the God of your father, and serve him with single mind and willing heart; for the Lord searches every mind, and understands every plan and thought. If you seek him, he will be found by you; but if you forsake him, he will abandon you forever.
Job 42.4 'Hear, and I will speak; I will question you, and you declare to me.'
Ps 38:9 O Lord, all my longing is known to you; my sighing is not hidden from you.
Ps 44:21 would not God discover this? For he knows the secrets of the heart.
Ps 139:1-4 O Lord, you have searched me and known me. You know when I sit down and when I rise up; you discern my thoughts from far away. You search out my path and my lying down, and are acquainted with all my ways. Even before a word is on my tongue, O Lord, you know it completely.
Jer 17:10 I the Lord test the mind and search the heart, to give to all according to their ways, according to the fruit of their doings.
Ezek 11:5 Then the spirit of the Lord fell upon me, and he said to me, "Say, Thus says the Lord: This is what you think, O house of Israel; I know the things that come into your mind.
Matt 12:25 He knew what they were thinking and said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is laid waste, and no city or house divided against itself will stand.
John 2:24-25 But Jesus on his part would not entrust himself to them, because he knew all people and needed no one to testify about anyone; for he himself knew what was in everyone.
1 Cor 3:20 and again, "The Lord knows the thoughts of the wise, that they are futile."
Heb 4:13 And before him no creature is hidden, but all are naked and laid bare to the eyes of the one to whom we must render an account.
Rev 3:1 "And to the angel of the church in Sardis write: These are the words of him who has the seven spirits of God and the seven stars: "I know your works; you have a name of being alive, but you are dead.
Rev 3:8 "I know your works. Look, I have set before you an open door, which no one is able to shut. I know that you have but little power, and yet you have kept my word and have not denied my name.
Rev 3:15 "I know your works; you are neither cold nor hot. I wish that you were either cold or hot.
Acts 1:24 Then they prayed and said, "Lord, you know everyone's heart. Show us which one of these two you have chosen
Job 32:8 But truly it is the spirit in a mortal, the breath of the Almighty, that makes for understanding.
Ps 51:2 Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin.
Ps 51:10-12 Create in me a clean heart, O God, and put a new and right spirit within me. Do not cast me away from your presence, and do not take your holy spirit from me. Restore to me the joy of your salvation, and sustain in me a willing spirit.
Ps 139:23-24 Search me, O God, and know my heart; test me and know my thoughts. See if there is any wicked way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.
Prov 20:9 Who can say, "I have made my heart clean; I am pure from my sin"?
Matt 15:19 For out of the heart come evil intentions, murder, adultery, fornication, theft, false witness, slander.
1 Cor 3:3 for you are still of the flesh. For as long as there is jealousy and quarreling among you, are you not of the flesh, and behaving according to human inclinations?
Heb 10:22 let us approach with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.
Jam 4:8 Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded.
2 Cor 10:4-5 for the weapons of our warfare are not merely human, but they have divine power to destroy strongholds. We destroy arguments and every proud obstacle raised up against the knowledge of God, and we take every thought captive to obey Christ.
Deut 6:5 You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might.
Josh 23:11 Be very careful, therefore, to love the Lord your God.
Ps 66:18 If I had cherished iniquity in my heart, the Lord would not have listened.
Ps 119:7 I will praise you with an upright heart, when I learn your righteous ordinances.
Ps 119:171 My lips will pour forth praise, because you teach me your statutes.
Matt 22:37 He said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.'
Luke 1:46-47 And Mary said, "My soul magnifies the Lord, and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior,
Luke 21:36 Be alert at all times, praying that you may have the strength to escape all these things that will take place, and to stand before the Son of Man."
Acts 19:17 When this became known to all residents of Ephesus, both Jews and Greeks, everyone was awestruck; and the name of the Lord Jesus was praised.
1 John 4:16-17 So we have known and believe the love that God has for us. God is love, and those who abide in love abide in God, and God abides in them. Love has been perfected among us in this: that we may have boldness on the day of judgment, because as he is, so are we in this world.
1 John 4:20 Those who say, "I love God," and hate their brothers or sisters, are liars; for those who do not love a brother or sister whom they have seen, cannot love God whom they have not seen.
1 John 5:3 For the love of God is this, that we obey his commandments. And his commandments are not burdensome,
Ps 34:3 O magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt his name together.
Ps 103:1 Bless the Lord, O my soul, and all that is within me, bless his holy name.

The Decalogue

Then follow the COMMANDMENTS, with a Kyrie, or Lord have mercy upon us, after every one of them. Which though I cannot say it was ancient, yet surely cannot be denied to be very useful and pious. And if there be any that think this might be spared, as being fitter for poor Publicans than Saints; let them turn to the Parable of the Publican and Pharisee going up to the Temple to pray, S. Luke 18. and there they shall receive an answer.

F. Then shall the priest rehearse the Ten Commandments.] The recital of the Decalogue with the Pater Noster and Creed, were enjoined by Henry VIII., and his son Edward in his first Injunctions. But the rehearsal of them after this sort, that is, before the epistle and gospel, and with these responses, was not introduced until the second liturgy of Edward VI. An order it is of as high prudence as can be devised in such a Christian affair. Here is God speaking by the priest, another Moses to the people: so it should be, “speak thou unto us all that the Lord our God shall say unto thee, and we will hear thee,” Deut. v.27; he stands delivering God’s message to us, while we lie prostrate in the lowest posture we can, stricken down with terror at those dreadful laws, the violation of the least of which were enough in God’s strict eye eternally to condemn us. Laws which never any man without God’s preventing and assisting grace did or can observe, and therefore we are directed by the Church to invoke God’s grace for our performance of His will; to every precept we are taught to apply St. Augustine’s, da quod jubes, “grant me to do what Thou commandest.” The sum of this petitionary response is derived from Deut. v. 29, “Oh that there were such an heart in them that they would keep all My commandments.” And as we crave such an heart from God, so we implore His mercy for our violation of them.

Though true it is, the contriving of the decalogue into a way so edifying towards piety, and making it parcel of God’s public worship, be a peculiar of our Church, yet somewhat not much unlike it is to be found in that manual of prayers, composed by Gilbertus Cognatus for the private use of his kinsman about the year 1553, whose words I shall here set down. Having recited the decalogue, he then subjoineth,

Hic nos premit eterna mors, O Deus, hic fatemur justum judicium tuum, et commeritam nostram condemnationem. Sed hic misereat te nostri, O Jesu Christe, ne pereamus. Tu quoque, O Sancte Spiritus, inscribe hanc legem cordibus nostris, ut secundum eam alacri animo ambulemus, teque revereamus diebus vite nostre universis. Amen.

“Here, O Lord, we be obnoxious to eternal death. Here we can expect nothing but the most just sentence to come upon us, and our deserved condemnation. But here, O Jesu Christ, have mercy upon us, lest we perish. And Thou, O Holy Ghost, write this law in our hearts, we beseech Thee, that we may walk conformable to it, and that we may reverence Thee all the days of our life. Amen.”

How aptly placed here. THESE divine precepts of the moral law as much oblige Christians as they did the Jews: we vowed to keep them at our baptism, and we renew that vow at every Communion: and therefore it is very fit we should hear them often, and especially at those times when we are going to make fresh engagements to observe them. Upon which account, since we are to confess all our sins before we come to this blessed Sacrament of pardon, the Church prudently directs the Minister, now standing in the most holy place, to turn himself to the people,* and from thence, like another Moses from Mount Sinai, to convey God's laws to them, by rehearsing distinctly all the Ten Commandments; by which, as in a glass, they may discover all their offences, and, still kneeling, may, after every Commandment, ask God mercy for their transgression thereof (i.e. as the Scotch Liturgy expresses it, of every duty therein, either according to the letter, or to the mystical importance of the said Commandment) for the time past, and grace to keep the same for the time to come.

Then shall the Priest, turning to the people, rehearse distinctly all the TEN COMMANDMENTS; and the people still kneeling shall, after every Commandment, ask God mercy for their transgression thereof for the time past, and grace to keep the same for the time to come, as followeth.

Deut 5:29 If only they had such a mind as this, to fear me and to keep all my commandments always, so that it might go well with them and with their children forever!
1 Kings 8:57-58 The Lord our God be with us, as he was with our ancestors; may he not leave us or abandon us, but incline our hearts to him, to walk in all his ways, and to keep his commandments, his statutes, and his ordinances, which he commanded our ancestors.
Ps 33:22 Let your steadfast love, O Lord, be upon us, even as we hope in you.
Ps 119:36 Turn my heart to your decrees, and not to selfish gain.
Ezek 36:27 I will put my spirit within you, and make you follow my statutes and be careful to observe my ordinances.
Luke 18:13 But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even look up to heaven, but was beating his breast and saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!'
Ps 41:4 As for me, I said, "O Lord, be gracious to me; heal me, for I have sinned against you."
Heb 8:10 This is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put my laws in their minds, and write them on their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

Ex 20:1-2 Then God spoke all these words: I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery; you shall have no other gods before me.
Ex 20:4-6 You shall not make for yourself an idol, whether in the form of anything that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, punishing children for the iniquity of parents, to the third and the fourth generation of those who reject me, but showing steadfast love to the thousandth generation of those who love me and keep my commandments.
Ex 20:8-11 Remember the sabbath day, and keep it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work. But the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall not do any work—you, your son or your daughter, your male or female slave, your livestock, or the alien resident in your towns. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but rested the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and consecrated it.

Deut 5:29 If only they had such a mind as this, to fear me and to keep all my commandments always, so that it might go well with them and with their children forever!
1 Kings 8:57-58 The Lord our God be with us, as he was with our ancestors; may he not leave us or abandon us, but incline our hearts to him, to walk in all his ways, and to keep his commandments, his statutes, and his ordinances, which he commanded our ancestors.
Ps 33:22 Let your steadfast love, O Lord, be upon us, even as we hope in you.
Ps 119:36 Turn my heart to your decrees, and not to selfish gain.
Ezek 36:27 I will put my spirit within you, and make you follow my statutes and be careful to observe my ordinances.
Luke 18:13 But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even look up to heaven, but was beating his breast and saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!'
Ps 41:4 As for me, I said, "O Lord, be gracious to me; heal me, for I have sinned against you."
Heb 8:10 This is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put my laws in their minds, and write them on their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

Collect for the Queen

Then follows the COLLECT for the day, with another for the King, which the Priest is to say standing, &c. Of this posture enough hath been said in the Morning Service. Though there hath been a Prayer for the King in the Morning Service, and another in the Litany; Yet the Church here appoints one again, that she may strictly observe S. Pauls rule, 1 Tim. 2. who directs that in all our publick prayers for all Men, an especial prayer should be made for the King. Now the Morning Service, Litany and this Communion-Service are three distinct Services, and therefore have each of them such an especial prayer.

The Collects for the king. ST. PAUL seems to command that we should pray for kings in all our prayers: and in the primitive Church they always supplicated for their princes at the time of the celebration of the holy Eucharist; where, by virtue of the sacrifice of Christ's death commemorated, those great requests might be likely to prevail.

§.2. Why placed next after the Commandments In our Liturgy these prayers do not (as in the Roman Missal) disturb the prayer of Consecration, but, as the office is now compiled, are more conveniently placed here: the king is custos utriusque tabulæ, defender of both tables of the law, and therefore we properly pray for him just after the Commandments. Nor do our prayers for him less aptly precede the daily Collect: since when we have prayed for outward prosperity to the Church, the consequent of the king's welfare, we may very seasonably in the Collect pray for inward grace, to make it completely happy.‡ For variety here are two prayers, but they both tend to the same end, and only differ a little in the form.

Then shall follow one of these two Collects for the Queen, the Priest standing as before, and saying,

Deut 5:29 If only they had such a mind as this, to fear me and to keep all my commandments always, so that it might go well with them and with their children forever!
1 Kings 8:57-58 The Lord our God be with us, as he was with our ancestors; may he not leave us or abandon us, but incline our hearts to him, to walk in all his ways, and to keep his commandments, his statutes, and his ordinances, which he commanded our ancestors.
Ps 33:22 Let your steadfast love, O Lord, be upon us, even as we hope in you.
Ps 119:36 Turn my heart to your decrees, and not to selfish gain.
Ezek 36:27 I will put my spirit within you, and make you follow my statutes and be careful to observe my ordinances.
Luke 18:13 But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even look up to heaven, but was beating his breast and saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!'
Ps 41:4 As for me, I said, "O Lord, be gracious to me; heal me, for I have sinned against you."
Heb 8:10 This is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put my laws in their minds, and write them on their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
Ps 102:13 You will rise up and have compassion on Zion, for it is time to favor it; the appointed time has come.
Ps 122:6 Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: "May they prosper who love you.
Ps 132:9 Let your priests be clothed with righteousness, and let your faithful shout for joy.
Eph 5:25-27 Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, in order to make her holy by cleansing her with the washing of water by the word, so as to present the church to himself in splendor, without a spot or wrinkle or anything of the kind--yes, so that she may be holy and without blemish.
Ezra 7:27 Blessed be the Lord, the God of our ancestors, who put such a thing as this into the heart of the king to glorify the house of the Lord in Jerusalem,
Ps 72:1 Give the king your justice, O God, and your righteousness to a king's son.
Prov 8:15 By me kings reign, and rulers decree what is just;
Prov 21:1 The king's heart is a stream of water in the hand of the Lord; he turns it wherever he will.
Is 29:23 For when he sees his children, the work of my hands, in his midst, they will sanctify my name; they will sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and will stand in awe of the God of Israel.
Dan 2:21 He changes times and seasons, deposes kings and sets up kings; he gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who have understanding.
Rom 13:1 Let every person be subject to the governing authorities; for there is no authority except from God, and those authorities that exist have been instituted by God.
2 Sam 7:1-2 Now when the king was settled in his house, and the Lord had given him rest from all his enemies around him, the king said to the prophet Nathan, "See now, I am living in a house of cedar, but the ark of God stays in a tent."
2 Kings 18:1-4 In the third year of King Hoshea son of Elah of Israel, Hezekiah son of King Ahaz of Judah began to reign. He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign; he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Abi daughter of Zechariah. He did what was right in the sight of the Lord just as his ancestor David had done. He removed the high places, broke down the pillars, and cut down the sacred pole. He broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the people of Israel had made offerings to it; it was called Nehushtan.
2 Chron 21:20-21 He was thirty-two years old when he began to reign; he reigned eight years in Jerusalem. He departed with no one's regret. They buried him in the city of David, but not in the tombs of the kings.
Ps 132:1-4 O Lord, remember in David's favor all the hardships he endured; how he swore to the Lord and vowed to the Mighty One of Jacob, "I will not enter my house or get into my bed; I will not give sleep to my eyes or slumber to my eyelids,
Is 49:7 Thus says the Lord, the Redeemer of Israel and his Holy One, to one deeply despised, abhorred by the nations, the slave of rulers, "Kings shall see and stand up, princes, and they shall prostrate themselves, because of the Lord, who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel, who has chosen you."
Is 60:10 Foreigners shall build up your walls, and their kings shall minister to you; for in my wrath I struck you down, but in my favor I have had mercy on you.
Dan 4:25 You shall be driven away from human society, and your dwelling shall be with the wild animals. You shall be made to eat grass like oxen, you shall be bathed with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over you, until you have learned that the Most High has sovereignty over the kingdom of mortals, and gives it to whom he will.
Rom 13:6 For the same reason you also pay taxes, for the authorities are God's servants, busy with this very thing.
2 Sam 7:1-2 Now when the king was settled in his house, and the Lord had given him rest from all his enemies around him, the king said to the prophet Nathan, "See now, I am living in a house of cedar, but the ark of God stays in a tent."
2 Kings 18:1-4 In the third year of King Hoshea son of Elah of Israel, Hezekiah son of King Ahaz of Judah began to reign. He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign; he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Abi daughter of Zechariah. He did what was right in the sight of the Lord just as his ancestor David had done. He removed the high places, broke down the pillars, and cut down the sacred pole. He broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the people of Israel had made offerings to it; it was called Nehushtan.
2 Chron 21:20-21 He was thirty-two years old when he began to reign; he reigned eight years in Jerusalem. He departed with no one's regret. They buried him in the city of David, but not in the tombs of the kings.
Ps 132:1-4 O Lord, remember in David's favor all the hardships he endured; how he swore to the Lord and vowed to the Mighty One of Jacob, "I will not enter my house or get into my bed; I will not give sleep to my eyes or slumber to my eyelids,
Is 49:7 Thus says the Lord, the Redeemer of Israel and his Holy One, to one deeply despised, abhorred by the nations, the slave of rulers, "Kings shall see and stand up, princes, and they shall prostrate themselves, because of the Lord, who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel, who has chosen you."
Is 60:10 Foreigners shall build up your walls, and their kings shall minister to you; for in my wrath I struck you down, but in my favor I have had mercy on you.
Dan 4:25 You shall be driven away from human society, and your dwelling shall be with the wild animals. You shall be made to eat grass like oxen, you shall be bathed with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over you, until you have learned that the Most High has sovereignty over the kingdom of mortals, and gives it to whom he will.
Rom 13:6 For the same reason you also pay taxes, for the authorities are God's servants, busy with this very thing.

Ezra 1:1-3 In the first year of King Cyrus of Persia, in order that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the Lord stirred up the spirit of King Cyrus of Persia so that he sent a herald throughout all his kingdom, and also in a written edict declared: "Thus says King Cyrus of Persia: The Lord, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and he has charged me to build him a house at Jerusalem in Judah. Any of those among you who are of his people--may their God be with them!--are now permitted to go up to Jerusalem in Judah, and rebuild the house of the Lord, the God of Israel--he is the God who is in Jerusalem;
Ezra 7:11-28 This is a copy of the letter that King Artaxerxes gave to the priest Ezra, the scribe, a scholar of the text of the commandments of the Lord and his statutes for Israel: "Artaxerxes, king of kings, to the priest Ezra, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven: Peace. And now I decree that any of the people of Israel or their priests or Levites in my kingdom who freely offers to go to Jerusalem may go with you. For you are sent by the king and his seven counselors to make inquiries about Judah and Jerusalem according to the law of your God, which is in your hand, and also to convey the silver and gold that the king and his counselors have freely offered to the God of Israel, whose dwelling is in Jerusalem, with all the silver and gold that you shall find in the whole province of Babylonia, and with the freewill offerings of the people and the priests, given willingly for the house of their God in Jerusalem. With this money, then, you shall with all diligence buy bulls, rams, and lambs, and their grain offerings and their drink offerings, and you shall offer them on the altar of the house of your God in Jerusalem. Whatever seems good to you and your colleagues to do with the rest of the silver and gold, you may do, according to the will of your God. The vessels that have been given you for the service of the house of your God, you shall deliver before the God of Jerusalem. And whatever else is required for the house of your God, which you are responsible for providing, you may provide out of the king's treasury. "I, King Artaxerxes, decree to all the treasurers in the province Beyond the River: Whatever the priest Ezra, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, requires of you, let it be done with all diligence, up to one hundred talents of silver, one hundred cors of wheat, one hundred baths of wine, one hundred baths of oil, and unlimited salt. Whatever is commanded by the God of heaven, let it be done with zeal for the house of the God of heaven, or wrath will come upon the realm of the king and his heirs. We also notify you that it shall not be lawful to impose tribute, custom, or toll on any of the priests, the Levites, the singers, the doorkeepers, the temple servants, or other servants of this house of God. "And you, Ezra, according to the God-given wisdom you possess, appoint magistrates and judges who may judge all the people in the province Beyond the River who know the laws of your God; and you shall teach those who do not know them. All who will not obey the law of your God and the law of the king, let judgment be strictly executed on them, whether for death or for banishment or for confiscation of their goods or for imprisonment." Blessed be the Lord, the God of our ancestors, who put such a thing as this into the heart of the king to glorify the house of the Lord in Jerusalem, and who extended to me steadfast love before the king and his counselors, and before all the king's mighty officers. I took courage, for the hand of the Lord my God was upon me, and I gathered leaders from Israel to go up with me.
Ps 93:2 your throne is established from of old; you are from everlasting.
Prov 21:1 The king's heart is a stream of water in the hand of the Lord; he turns it wherever he will.
Rom 16:27 to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever! Amen.
Rev 17:17 For God has put it into their hearts to carry out his purpose by agreeing to give their kingdom to the beast, until the words of God will be fulfilled.
1 Kings 4:25 During Solomon's lifetime Judah and Israel lived in safety, from Dan even to Beer-sheba, all of them under their vines and fig trees.
1 Kings 8:17-20 My father David had it in mind to build a house for the name of the Lord, the God of Israel. But the Lord said to my father David, 'You did well to consider building a house for my name; nevertheless you shall not build the house, but your son who shall be born to you shall build the house for my name.' Now the Lord has upheld the promise that he made; for I have risen in the place of my father David; I sit on the throne of Israel, as the Lord promised, and have built the house for the name of the Lord, the God of Israel.
1 Chron 22:9 See, a son shall be born to you; he shall be a man of peace. I will give him peace from all his enemies on every side; for his name shall be Solomon, and I will give peace and quiet to Israel in his days.
1 Chron 29:16-18 O Lord our God, all this abundance that we have provided for building you a house for your holy name comes from your hand and is all your own. I know, my God, that you search the heart, and take pleasure in uprightness; in the uprightness of my heart I have freely offered all these things, and now I have seen your people, who are present here, offering freely and joyously to you. O Lord, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, our ancestors, keep forever such purposes and thoughts in the hearts of your people, and direct their hearts toward you.
2 Chron 18:3-6 King Ahab of Israel said to King Jehoshaphat of Judah, "Will you go with me to Ramoth-gilead?" He answered him, "I am with you, my people are your people. We will be with you in the war." But Jehoshaphat also said to the king of Israel, "Inquire first for the word of the Lord." Then the king of Israel gathered the prophets together, four hundred of them, and said to them, "Shall we go to battle against Ramoth-gilead, or shall I refrain?" They said, "Go up; for God will give it into the hand of the king." But Jehoshaphat said, "Is there no other prophet of the Lord here of whom we may inquire?"
Ezra 9:9 For we are slaves; yet our God has not forsaken us in our slavery, but has extended to us his steadfast love before the kings of Persia, to give us new life to set up the house of our God, to repair its ruins, and to give us a wall in Judea and Jerusalem.
Neh 1:11 O Lord, let your ear be attentive to the prayer of your servant, and to the prayer of your servants who delight in revering your name. Give success to your servant today, and grant him mercy in the sight of this man!" At the time, I was cupbearer to the king.
Neh 2:4-10 Then the king said to me, "What do you request?" So I prayed to the God of heaven. Then I said to the king, "If it pleases the king, and if your servant has found favor with you, I ask that you send me to Judah, to the city of my ancestors' graves, so that I may rebuild it." The king said to me (the queen also was sitting beside him), "How long will you be gone, and when will you return?" So it pleased the king to send me, and I set him a date. Then I said to the king, "If it pleases the king, let letters be given me to the governors of the province Beyond the River, that they may grant me passage until I arrive in Judah; and a letter to Asaph, the keeper of the king's forest, directing him to give me timber to make beams for the gates of the temple fortress, and for the wall of the city, and for the house that I shall occupy." And the king granted me what I asked, for the gracious hand of my God was upon me. Then I came to the governors of the province Beyond the River, and gave them the king's letters. Now the king had sent officers of the army and cavalry with me. When Sanballat the Horonite and Tobiah the Ammonite official heard this, it displeased them greatly that someone had come to seek the welfare of the people of Israel.
Ps 33:12 Happy is the nation whose God is the Lord, the people whom he has chosen as his heritage.
Ps 78:70-72 He chose his servant David, and took him from the sheepfolds; from tending the nursing ewes he brought him to be the shepherd of his people Jacob, of Israel, his inheritance. With upright heart he tended them, and guided them with skillful hand.
Ps 144:12-15 May our sons in their youth be like plants full grown, our daughters like corner pillars, cut for the building of a palace. May our barns be filled, with produce of every kind; may our sheep increase by thousands, by tens of thousands in our fields, and may our cattle be heavy with young. May there be no breach in the walls, no exile, and no cry of distress in our streets. Happy are the people to whom such blessings fall; happy are the people whose God is the Lord.
Dan 3:29-20 Therefore I make a decree: Any people, nation, or language that utters blasphemy against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego shall be torn limb from limb, and their houses laid in ruins; for there is no other god who is able to deliver in this way."
John 16:23 On that day you will ask nothing of me. Very truly, I tell you, if you ask anything of the Father in my name, he will give it to you.
1 Tim 1:2 To Timothy, my loyal child in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.
Dan 5:22-23 And you, Belshazzar his son, have not humbled your heart, even though you knew all this! You have exalted yourself against the Lord of heaven! The vessels of his temple have been brought in before you, and you and your lords, your wives and your concubines have been drinking wine from them. You have praised the gods of silver and gold, of bronze, iron, wood, and stone, which do not see or hear or know; but the God in whose power is your very breath, and to whom belong all your ways, you have not honored.
1 Cor 10:31 So, whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do everything for the glory of God.

The Lessons

After this, the Priest reads the Epistle and Gospel for the day. Concerning the antiquity of which, and the reason of their choice, hath been said already: nothing here remains to be shewn, but the antiquity and piety of those Rites, which were used both by us and the ancient Church, about the reading of the Gospel.

  1. First, when the GOSPEL is named, the Clergy and the people present, say or sing, Glory be to thee O Lord. So it is in S. Chrys. Liturg. Glorifying God that hath sent to them also the word of salvation. As it is in the Acts of the Apost. 11. 18. When they heard these things they glorified God, saying, Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life.

  2. While the Gospel is reading, all that are present stand Grat. de Consr. dist. 1. c. 68. And Zozomen in his Hist. l. 7. c. 19. tells us it was a new fashion in Alexandria, than the Bishop did not rise up when the Gospel was read: [Quod apud alios usquam fieri, neque comperi neque audivi; Which, says he, I never observed nor heard amongst any others whatsoever:] The reason was this. Anciently, whensoever the holy Lessons were read, the people stood, to express their reverence to the holy word. Aug. l. hom. 50. hom. 26. Nehem. 8. 5.

    But because this was counted too great a burden, it was thought fit to shew our reverence, especially at the reading of the Gospel, which historically declares somewhat which our Saviour spake, did, or suffered in his own person: By this gesture, shewing a reverend regard to the Son of God, above other messengers, although speaking as from God. And against Arrians, Jews, Infidels, who derogate from the honour of our LORD, such ceremonies are most profitable. As judicious Mr. Hooker notes.

  3. After the Gospel is ended, the use was to praise God, saying, Thanks be to God for this Gospel. So was it of old ordained, Tolet. Conc. 4. c. 11. that the Lands or Praises should be said, not after the Epistle, but immediately after the Gospel, for the glory of Christ, which is preached in the Gospel.

In some places the fashion was, then to kiss the book. And surely this book, by reason of the rich contents of it; deserves a better regard than too often it findes. It should in this respect be used so, as others may see we prefer it before all other books.

G. The priest shall read the epistle.] The epistle, or as the ancients sometimes called it, the apostle, was instituted to personate and represent the law preceding the gospel, and therefore, for the most part, is formed of such parcels of the Apostolical writings as are more eminent for moral instructions.

H. Glory be to Thee, O Lord.] This doxology is omitted in our reformed liturgy, not out of any particular disgust against it, but because our Church was studious of reducing her sacred rites to a less onerous model. Antiquity did own it with an high regard, and it deserved no less, τοῦ διακόνου ἀνοίγειν μέλλοντος TO τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τετράθυρον, πάντες αὐτῷ ἀτενίζομεν, ἡσυχίαν παρέχοντες καὶ ἡνίκα τοῦ δρόμου τῆς ἀναγ- νώσεως ἄρξηται εὐθέως διανιστάμεθα ἐπιφωνοῦντες Δόξα σοι Κύριε: i.e.“ the deacon going about to open the gospel, consisting of four parts, we all fix our eyes upon him, as still as may be, and when he begins to read the gospel (by declaring whence it is taken) we presently all rise up acclaiming, ‘'Glory be to Thee, O Lord.” Alcuin gives a satisfactory reason for it, quasi dicat, quia verba salutem conferentia mox audituri estis, laudate Dominum cujus beneficio hance gratiam percipere meruistis: “because you expect to hear the words of the gospel which brings salvation to all true believers, therefore praise that God who hath graciously dispensed to you so great a blessing.”

I. Standing up.] Ὅταν ἀναγινωσκόμενον ἢ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, πάντες οἱ πρεσβύτεροι, καὶ οἱ διάκονοι, καὶ πᾶς ὁ λαὸς στηκέTOCA μετὰ πολλῆς ἡσυχίας: “when the gospel is read, let all presbyters, deacons, and all the people stand up with much silence and attention,” Clem. Const., lib. ii. cap. 57. So all the world διανιστάμεθα, mentioned in the foregoing place of Chrysostom, imports a custom anciently observed with that punctual strictness as none of what quality soever was exempted from it, as the same Father assures us, ἀναγινωσκομένων τῶν ἁγίων εὐαγγελίων, οὐκ ὡς ἔτυχε ἀκροώμεθα, ἀλλἱστάμενοι, καὶ νήφοντες παραδεχόμενοι τὰπαραγγέλματα, Xe. καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ τὸ διάδημα Βασιλικὸν περικείμενος ἵσταται μετὰ πάντος φόβου, καὶ οὐδὲ τὸ διάδημα συγχωρεῖ περικεῖσθαι τῆ κεφαλῆ αὐτοῦ, ἀλλ᾽ ὑποκύπτει διὰ τὸν ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις εὐαγγελίοις ὁμιλοῦντα θεὸν, i. 6. “ while the holy gospel is reading, we do not attend in a careless posture, but standing up with much gravity, we so receive the message,” &c. “ yea, the greatest potentate on earth stands up also with awful reverence, takes not the liberty to cover his head with his imperial diadem, but in all submissive manner behaves himself in the presence of God, who speaks in those sacred gospels ;” standing is in truth the most proper posture of attention, and if any part of Scripture requireth attention, the gospel doth it in an eminent degree, the reading whereof is τῶν οὐρανῶν ἄνοιξις, “the setting of heaven gates wide open;” not with the Psalmist, “for the King of Glory to enter in,” but for the “King of Glory to come forth.” Nor shall it pass without a note, that this passage of Chrysostom presents the emperor himself, not only standing, but also standing bare at the reading of the gospel, such honour was then deferred to those evangelical tidings.

But here it will be demanded, what assurance I can give, that those early Christians did not stand at all the rest of the service, kneeling time only excepted; and if they did, my observation signifieth nothing. In answer to which I say, the practice was not uniform in this point in all places. In the African Church the fashion was for the auditory to stand up while the lessons were read. So St. Cyprian” represents Aurelius and Celerinus, both made readers, standing in loco altiore, “in a place of higher advance,” meaning the desk or pulpit, ab omni populo circumstante conspecti, “beheld of all the audience standing round about them,” which mode continued there even up to St. Augustine’s time, who often mentions it ; sedens loquor, vos stando laboratis: “I preach unto you sitting, you toil yourselves in standing to hear me.” Yet in another place he rather commendeth the sitting posture, longe consultius in quibusdam ecclesiis transmarinis, non solum antistites sedentes loguuntur ad populum, sed ipsi etiam populo sedilia subjacent, ne quisquam infirmior stando lassatus, a saluberrima intentione avertatur, aut etiam cogatur abscedere : “it is better ordered in some beyond-sea churches, where not only the preachers sit while they teach the people, but seats are also provided for the audience, lest any through infirmity wearied with long standing, should be either hindered from attention, or enforced to depart the church.” This custom indeed of standing seems a peculiar of Africa, for other Churches used sitting.

So St. Jerome gives the practice of the monks of his time, completis orationibus, cunctisque residentibus, medius incipit disputare, “prayers being ended, and all sitting down again, one from amongst them begins to preach.” And that this was the uniform practice of the Greek Church, is inferrible from Justin Martyr, who laying down how the Scriptures were read, and the sermon delivered in the assemblies, proceeds thus, ἔπευτα ἄνιστάμεθα κοινῇ πάντες καὶ εὐχὰς πέμπομεν : “after this we rise up all together and send forth our prayers.” So also that known proclamation of the deacon, so frequent in St. Chrysostom, στῶμεν καλῶς, “let us stand upright with all reverence,” when there was a transition from one part of divine service to another ; now this rising up, and standing upright, must necessarily infer that they sat before. So also, not to urge the Clementine Constitutions, St. Chrysostom is most express, speaking of the irreverence of some in holy assemblies, av ἀστεῖον ὁ δεῖνα εἴπῃ γέλως εὐθέως ἐν τοῖς καθημένοις γίνεtat: “if the preacher be somewhat more elegant than ordinary, presently they who sit to hear them fall on laughing.” But what can be more either full or authentic than our Saviour’s practice in St. Luke ii. 46, whom His parents “found in the temple sitting in the midst of the doctors, and hearing them.”

Of the Collect, &c. IT is evident, that long before the dividing the Bible into chapters and verses, it was the custom both of the Greek and Latin Churches to read some select portions of the plainest and most practical parts of the New Testament, first for the Epistle, and then for the Gospel, at the celebration of the holy Eucharist, in imitation perhaps of the Jewish mode of reading the history of the Passover before the eating of the paschal lamb.

§.2. Why the Epistle is read first. Epistler and Gospeler, why appointed. As for the antiquity, matter, and suitableness of the several Collects, Epistles, and Gospels, I have already spoken at large. I shall only make this one remark more, that as our Saviour's disciples went before his face to every city and place, whither he himself would come; so here the Epistle, as the word of the servant, is read first, that it may be as a harbinger to the Gospel, to which the last place and greatest honour is reserved, as being the word of their great Master. And for this reason I suppose it was ordered by the advertisements published in the seventh year of queen Elizabeth, and by the twenty-fourth of our present canons, that the principal Minister, at the celebration of the Communion, should be assisted with a Gospeler and Epistler agreeably; i.e. with one Minister to read the Epistle and another to read the Gospel, as is still generally the custom in cathedral churches; which was also provided for by the rubrics in king Edward's first book, which orders that the priest, or he that is appointed, shall read the Epistle in a place assigned for that purpose, (which from the modern practice I take to be on the south side of the table;) and that immediately after the Epistle ended, the priest, or one appointed, (which, as appears from the next rubric, might be a deacon) shall read the Gospel.

§.3. The custom of saying, Glory be to thee, O Lord, &c., of what antiquity. The custom of saying Glory be to thee, O Lord, when the Minister was about to read the holy Gospel, and of singing Hallelujah, or saying, Thanks be to God for his holy Gospel, when he had concluded it, is as old as St. Chrysostom; but we have no authority for it in our present Liturgy. The first indeed was enjoined by king Edward's first Common Prayer Book, and so the custom has continued ever since; and I do not find how it came to be left out of the rubric afterwards. It certainly could have nothing objected against it, and therefore it is restored in the Scotch Liturgy; which also ordered, that, when the Presbyter shall say, So endeth the holy Gospely the people shall answer. Thanks be to thee, O Lord. In our own Common Prayer Book the Priest has no direction to say, The Gospel is ended; the reason of which some imagine to be, because it is still continued in the Creed that followeth.

§.4. Standing up at the Gospel, why commanded. In St. Augustine's time the people always stood when the Lessons were read, to shew their reverence to God's holy word: but afterwards, when this was thought too great a burden, they were allowed to sit down at the Lessons, and were only obliged to stand (as our present order, which was first inserted in the Scotch Common Prayer Book, now enjoins us) at the reading of the Gospel, which always contains something that our Lord did, spoke, or suffered in his own person. By which gesture they shewed they had a greater respect to the Son of God himself, than they had to any other inspired person, though speaking the word of God, and by God's authority.

Then shall be said the Collect of the Day. And immediately after the Collect the Priest shall read the Epistle, saying, The Epistle [or, The portion of Scripture appointed for the Epistle] is written in the -- Chapter of -- beginning at the -- Verse. And the Epistle ended, he shall say, Here endeth the Epistle. Then shall he read the Gospel (the people all standing up) saying, The holy Gospel is written in the -- Chapter of -- beginning at the -- Verse.

The Nicene Creed

Next is the NICENE CREED; so called, because it was for the most part framed at the great Council of Nice. But because the great Council of Constantinople added the latter part, and brought it to the frame which we now use, therefore is it called also the Constantinopolitan Creed. This Creed began to be used in Churches at the Communion Service immediately after the Gospel, in the year of our Lord 339.

Afterward it was established in the Churches of Spain and France, after the custome of the Eastern Church, Conc. Tolet. 3. c. 2. and continued down to our times.

The Reason why this Creed follows immediately after the Epistle and Gospel, is the same that was given for the APOSTLES CREED following next after the Lessons at Morning and Evening prayer. To which the Canon of Toledo last cited, hath added Another Reason of the saying it here before the people draw neer to the holy Communion: namely, [That the breasts of those that approach to those dreadful mysteries may be purified with a true and right faith.]

A third reason is given by Dionys. Eccl. Hierar. c. 3. par. 2. & 3. It will not be amiss to set down some passages of his at large, because they will both give us a third reason of using the Creed in this place, and discover to us, as I conceive, much of the ancient beautiful order of the Communion-Service.

The Bishop or Priest standing at the Altar, begins the melody of Psalms, all the degrees of Ecclesiasticks singing with him. This Psalmody is used, as in almost all Priestly Offices, so in this, to prepare and dispose our souls by holy affections, to the celebration of the holy mysteries following; and by the consent and singing together of divine Psalms, to work in us an unanimous consent and concord one towards another. Then is read by some of the Ministers, first a Lesson out of the Old Testament, then one out of the New, in their order, (for the reasons before mentioned in the discourse of Lessons at Morning Service:) After this the Catechumens, the possessed, and the penitents are dismist, and they only allowed to stay, who are deem'd worthy to receive the holy Sacrament: which being done, some of the under Ministers keep the door of the Church, that no Infidel or unworthy person may intrude into these sacred Mysteries. Then the Ministers and devout people (reverently beholding the holy signs, not yet consecrated, but blest and offered up to God on a by-standing Table, called the Table of Proposition (τράπεζα προθέσεως) Praise and bless the Father of Lights, (from whom, as all good gifts, so this great blessing of the Communion does come) with the Catholick hymn of praise, which some call the Creed; others more divinely, The Pontifical Thanksgiving, as containing in it all the spiritual gifts which flow from Heaven upon us, the whole mystery of our salvation; when this hymn of praise is finished, the Deacons with the Priest, set the holy Bread and Cup of Blessing upon the Altar; after which, the Priest or Bishop saies the most sacred, that is, the Lords Prayer, gives the Blessing to the people; then they (in token of perfect charity, a most necessary vertue at this time of offering at the Altar, S. Mat. 5. 23.) salute each other. After which, the names of holy Men that have lived and died in the faith of Chirst are read out of the Diptychs, and their memories celebrated, to perswade others to a diligent imitation of their vertues, and a stedfast expectation of their heavenly rewards. This commemoration of the Saints, presently upon the setting of the holy signs upon the Altar, is not without some mystery; to shew the inseparable sacred union of the Saints with Christ, who is represented by those sacred signs. These things being rightly performed, the Bishop or Priest, that is to Consecrate, washes his hands, a most decent Ceremony, signifying, that those that are to do these holy Offices should have a special care of purity. I will wash mine hands in innocency, O Lord, and so will I compass thine Altar, Psal. 26. 6. After he hath magnified these divine gifts, and God that gave them, then he consecrates the holy Mysteries: and having uncovered them, reverently shews them to the people, inviting them to the receiving of them. Himself, and the Priests and Deacons receive first, then the people receive in both kinds; and having all received, they end the Service with a Thanksgiving, which was Psal. 34.

K. The Gospel being ended, shall be said the Creed.] Having had formerly occasion to speak of the Latin Creed, surnamed the Apostles, we come now to that of the Greek Church, whereof this following is the most large, I say not the most ancient ; indeed by how much the more copious, so much the less ancient: for the earliest Christian Church knew, I conceive, no other creed, no other confession of faith, as antecedently necessary to baptism, for which and to which all rules of faith were anciently made and applied, than that of belief in the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, as was the direction of our Saviour relating to baptism, which Justin Martyr expoundeth by εἷς 6 τῶν ἁπάντων θεὸς ἐν Πατρὶ, καὶ υἱῷ Kat ἁγίῳ πνεύματι γνωριζόμενος : “one God of the whole universe, under the notions of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.”

Afterwards, as upstart heresies did administer occasion, several articles were added in opposition to those false teachers; for instance, “Maker of heaven and earth,” against Menander, who held the world was created by Angels ; “ His only Son, born of the Virgin Mary,” in opposition to Ebion and Cerinthus, who maintained He was mere man, begat by Joseph; “ crucified, dead, and buried,” in opposition to Simon Magus, who denied Christ’s humanation, or incarnation, saying that all His conversation here on earth was δοκήσει, “ seemingly only,” and not in verity: for which reason Ignatius’, who undertakes him and his adherents, so often repeateth the word, ἀληθῶς, as ἀληθῶς ἐγεννήθη, ἀληθῶς ἐσταυρώθη, ἀληθῶς ἠγέρθη, “ He was truly born, truly crucified, He truly rose again.” Further instances might be produced were it necessary or advantageous to my present purpose.

Though the emergency of such heterodox opinions occasioned the addition of such defensitives against them, yet as learned Grotius hath well noted, all Churches did not observe a vocal uniformity, or bind themselves strictly to the letter, but varied in the make or outward frame, though they agreed in the substance; whence it is that in ancient confessions there appeareth such a verbal diversity, when in truth the mental result of all is the same. And when one precise formula was once agreed upon, yet was that form modelled always suitable to the essential import, and very often in the express words of elder precedents. Take the most ancient of creeds extant, which the most ancient of Churches, that of Jerusalem, is likeliest to afford us; take, say, that creed, and compare it with those few monuments we have of earlier times, and you will find very many parcels thereof so near resembling, as may persuade us they did relate each to other. Several of them Grotius hath collected to my hand, and some others my slender reading shall contribute.

[...]

Nay, even those superstructures which were afterward affixed to this creed by the councils of Nice and Constantinople, have preserved the like regard to antiquity, whereof some instances may be given; as where Christ is rendered to be φῶς ἐκ φωτὸς, “light of light,” Justin Martyr hath the very same expression, ὡς φῶς ἐκ φωτὸς ἐκλάμψαν : so where He is said ὁμοούσιος τῷ πατρὶ, “consubstantial with His Father,’ the same Justin to the same effect, ἐκ τῆς οἰκείας οὐσίας ὁ πατὴρ τὸν υἱὸν ἀπεγέννησεν : so where the council of Constantinople added concerning the Holy Ghost, τὸ ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον, His procession from the Father, the said Justin, ἔστι δὲ ὁ πωτὴρ ἀγένητος, ἀφ᾽ οὗ καὶ TO πνεῦμα προῆλθεν.

This creed, as Nicene, was contrived by the great exemplar of human frailty, Hosius, bishop of Corduba. It passed the council’s so great approbation, that τριακοσίων δεκαοκτὼ ἐπισκόπων συναχθέντων ἑπτὰ μόνον διεφώνησαν', “there were of three hundred and eighteen bishops there present but seven that dissented.” So inconsiderable then was the Arian party, which, not long after, so ranted and domineered as to compel this very Hosius to renounce his own confession, and infallibility itself (the Bishop of Rome) to fail, and subscribe to their faith. The supplemental parcels which relate to the Holy Ghost were added by the Constantinopolitan fathers, and some say, framed by Gregory Nyssen, but I see no full evidence for it.

As for the public use of this creed, in the daily offices of the Church, Durandus, Polydor Virgil, and some late authors, fixed the first original upon Marcus and Damasus, bishops of Rome. But Walafridus Strabo, who flourished 850, and therefore likelier to know the truth than his juniors, delivereth no such thing, referring us to the third council of Toledo, celebrated anno 589. And this council tells us whence she had it, decreeing, ut per omnes Ecclesias Hispanie et Gallicie, secundum formam Orientalium Ecclesiarum Concilit Constantinopolitant Symbolum recitetur, “that throughout all Churches of Spain and Gallicia, according to the mode (of whom, of the western? no, but) “of the eastern Churches, the Constantinopolitan Creed should be rehearsed.” Certainly had the use thereof been in the Church of Rome at this time, the council would not have rambled unto the east for a precedent. And confessed it is by all Romanists generally, that from the Greeks they had, not only the Creed itself, but also the first hint of making it an auctory to the liturgy. If so, then it will be taken tardé, to enter very late and very short of Damasus’s time. For Vossius from Theodorus Lector proveth evidently the Greeks themselves had it not very many years before this council. "Macedonius, an orthodox patriarch of Constantinople, being violently expelled by Anastasius the emperor to make way for Timotheus, an heretic of the Eutychian sect: no sooner was Timotheus settled in his see, but presently, at the entreaty of his friends, he ordered that the Constantinopolitan Creed should be said at every Church meeting, or time of public prayer, to the discredit of Macedonius, as if he were disaffected to it, whereas until that time it was only rehearsed once a year, when the bishop catechised on Maundy Thursday.” Thus Theodorus; and this was about the year 511, which being the first hint we have in all antiquity of this, or any other symbol, represented as parcel of the public liturgy, we will give those ritualists leave to say their pleasure, and we will have the like liberty to think what we list. But though the Church primitive was slow in employing it, as we now do, they having designed it for other very religious intents; yet can that be no competent bar to us, but we may, both this and others, dispose, as we do, to the best improvement of our faith, and edification of the common interest of the Church.

Why placed after the Epistle and Gospel. AS the Apostles' Creed is placed immediately after the daily Lessons, so is this after the Epistle and Gospel: both of them being founded upon the doctrine of Christ and his Apostles. As therefore in the foregoing portions of Scripture we believe with our heart to righteousness, so in the Creed that follows, we confess with our mouth to salvation.

§.2. An account of it. This is commonly called the Nicene Creed, as being, for the greatest part, the Creed that was drawn up by the first general Council of Nice, in the year 325, but enlarged by a fuller explication of some articles about the year 381, especially in relation to the divinity and procession of the Holy Ghost, in order to a more particular confutation and suppression of the Arian and Macedonian heresy. For which reason it was enjoined by the third Council of Toledo to be recited by all the people in Spain before the Sacrament, to shew that they were all free from heresy, and in the strictest league of union with the catholic Church. And since in this sacrament we are to renew our baptismal vow, (one branch of which was, that we would believe all the Articles of the Christian faith) it is very requisite that, before we be admitted, we should declare that we stand firm in the belief of those articles.

And the Gospel ended, shall be sung or said the Creed following, the people still standing, as before.

Ex 6:3 I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as God Almighty, but by my name 'The Lord' I did not make myself known to them.
Deut 4:29 From there you will seek the Lord your God, and you will find him if you search after him with all your heart and soul.
Ps 146:5-6 Happy are those whose help is the God of Jacob, whose hope is in the Lord their God, who made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them; who keeps faith forever;
Matt 11:25 At that time Jesus said, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and the intelligent and have revealed them to infants;
Mark 12:32 Then the scribe said to him, "You are right, Teacher; you have truly said that 'he is one, and besides him there is no other';
1 Cor 8:6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.
Heb 11:3-6 By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was made from things that are not visible. By faith Abel offered to God a more acceptable sacrifice than Cain's. Through this he received approval as righteous, God himself giving approval to his gifts; he died, but through his faith he still speaks. By faith Enoch was taken so that he did not experience death; and "he was not found, because God had taken him." For it was attested before he was taken away that "he had pleased God." And without faith it is impossible to please God, for whoever would approach him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him.
Rev 15:3 And they sing the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb: "Great and amazing are your deeds, Lord God the Almighty! Just and true are your ways, King of the nations!
Gen 1:1 In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth,
Gen 18:14 Is anything too wonderful for the Lord? At the set time I will return to you, in due season, and Sarah shall have a son."
Ex 20:11 For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but rested the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and consecrated it.
Job 38:28 "Has the rain a father, or who has begotten the drops of dew?
Acts 17:27-28 so that they would search for God and perhaps grope for him and find him--though indeed he is not far from each one of us. For 'In him we live and move and have our being'; as even some of your own poets have said, 'For we too are his offspring.'
2 Cor 5:7 for we walk by faith, not by sight.
Ps 2:7 I will tell of the decree of the Lord: He said to me, "You are my son; today I have begotten you.
Luke 10:22 All things have been handed over to me by my Father; and no one knows who the Son is except the Father, or who the Father is except the Son and anyone to whom the Son chooses to reveal him."
John 1:2-3 He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through him, and without him not one thing came into being. What has come into being
John 1:14-18 And the Word became flesh and lived among us, and we have seen his glory, the glory as of a father's only son, full of grace and truth. (John testified to him and cried out, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me ranks ahead of me because he was before me.'") From his fullness we have all received, grace upon grace. The law indeed was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. No one has ever seen God. It is God the only Son, who is close to the Father's heart, who has made him known.
John 9:5 As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world."
John 10:30 The Father and I are one."
John 12:35-36 Jesus said to them, "The light is with you for a little longer. Walk while you have the light, so that the darkness may not overtake you. If you walk in the darkness, you do not know where you are going. While you have the light, believe in the light, so that you may become children of light." After Jesus had said this, he departed and hid from them.
John 14:11 Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father is in me; but if you do not, then believe me because of the works themselves.
Gal 4:4 But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law,
Col 1:15-17 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation; for in him all things in heaven and on earth were created, things visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or powers--all things have been created through him and for him. He himself is before all things, and in him all things hold together.
Col 2:7 rooted and built up in him and established in the faith, just as you were taught, abounding in thanksgiving.
Col 2:9 For in him the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily,
Heb 1:3 He is the reflection of God's glory and the exact imprint of God's very being, and he sustains all things by his powerful word. When he had made purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high,
Heb 1:10 And, "In the beginning, Lord, you founded the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands;
1 John 4:9 God's love was revealed among us in this way: God sent his only Son into the world so that we might live through him.
1 John 5:20 And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding so that we may know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life.
Rev 21:23 And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine on it, for the glory of God is its light, and its lamp is the Lamb.
Rev 22:5 And there will be no more night; they need no light of lamp or sun, for the Lord God will be their light, and they will reign forever and ever.
Is 63:16 For you are our father, though Abraham does not know us and Israel does not acknowledge us; you, O Lord, are our father; our Redeemer from of old is your name.
John 1:14 And the Word became flesh and lived among us, and we have seen his glory, the glory as of a father's only son, full of grace and truth.
1 Pet 1:20 He was destined before the foundation of the world, but was revealed at the end of the ages for your sake.
Matt 20:28 just as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many."
Luke 1:14 You will have joy and gladness, and many will rejoice at his birth,
Luke 1:26-27 In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town in Galilee called Nazareth, to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary.
Luke 1:30-35 The angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And now, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you will name him Jesus. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his ancestor David. He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end." Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I am a virgin?" The angel said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called Son of God.
John 3:13 No one has ascended into heaven except the one who descended from heaven, the Son of Man.
John 6:38 for I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him who sent me.
John 12:47 I do not judge anyone who hears my words and does not keep them, for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world.
Acts 4:12 There is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among mortals by which we must be saved."
1 Cor 15:21 For since death came through a human being, the resurrection of the dead has also come through a human being;
1 Tim 1:15 The saying is sure and worthy of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners--of whom I am the foremost.
1 Tim 2:5 For there is one God; there is also one mediator between God and humankind, Christ Jesus, himself human,
1 John 4:2-3 By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God, and every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God. And this is the spirit of the antichrist, of which you have heard that it is coming; and now it is already in the world.
1 John 4:14 And we have seen and do testify that the Father has sent his Son as the Savior of the world.
Matt 1:21 She will bear a son, and you are to name him Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins."
Phil 2:7 but emptied himself, taking the form of a slave, being born in human likeness. And being found in human form,
Matt 25:31-33 "When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, and he will put the sheep at his right hand and the goats at the left.
Mark 15:34 At three o'clock Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?" which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
Mark 15:37 Then Jesus gave a loud cry and breathed his last.
Mark 15:43 Joseph of Arimathea, a respected member of the council, who was also himself waiting expectantly for the kingdom of God, went boldly to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.
Mark 15:46 Then Joseph bought a linen cloth, and taking down the body, wrapped it in the linen cloth, and laid it in a tomb that had been hewn out of the rock. He then rolled a stone against the door of the tomb.
Mark 16:19 So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God.
Luke 1:33 He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end."
John 19:16-18 Then he handed him over to them to be crucified. So they took Jesus; and carrying the cross by himself, he went out to what is called The Place of the Skull, which in Hebrew is called Golgotha. There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, with Jesus between them.
Rom 4:24-25 but for ours also. It will be reckoned to us who believe in him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, who was handed over to death for our trespasses and was raised for our justification.
1 Cor 5:7 Clean out the old yeast so that you may be a new batch, as you really are unleavened. For our paschal lamb, Christ, has been sacrificed.
1 Cor 15:3-4 For I handed on to you as of first importance what I in turn had received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures, and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures,
Col 3:1 So if you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God.
2 Tim 4:1 In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I solemnly urge you:
1 Pet 3:18 For Christ also suffered for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, in order to bring you to God. He was put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit,
Rev 11:15 Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Messiah, and he will reign forever and ever."
Ps 110:1 The Lord says to my lord, "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool."
Matt 24:30-31 Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see 'the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven' with power and great glory. And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.
Matt 26:37 He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be grieved and agitated.
Matt 27:2-35 They bound him, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate the governor. When Judas, his betrayer, saw that Jesus was condemned, he repented and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and the elders. He said, "I have sinned by betraying innocent blood." But they said, "What is that to us? See to it yourself." Throwing down the pieces of silver in the temple, he departed; and he went and hanged himself. But the chief priests, taking the pieces of silver, said, "It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, since they are blood money." After conferring together, they used them to buy the potter's field as a place to bury foreigners. For this reason that field has been called the Field of Blood to this day. Then was fulfilled what had been spoken through the prophet Jeremiah, "And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of the one on whom a price had been set, on whom some of the people of Israel had set a price, and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord commanded me." Now Jesus stood before the governor; and the governor asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?" Jesus said, "You say so." But when he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he did not answer. Then Pilate said to him, "Do you not hear how many accusations they make against you?" But he gave him no answer, not even to a single charge, so that the governor was greatly amazed. Now at the festival the governor was accustomed to release a prisoner for the crowd, anyone whom they wanted. At that time they had a notorious prisoner, called Jesus Barabbas. So after they had gathered, Pilate said to them, "Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Messiah?" For he realized that it was out of jealousy that they had handed him over. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent word to him, "Have nothing to do with that innocent man, for today I have suffered a great deal because of a dream about him." Now the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed. The governor again said to them, "Which of the two do you want me to release for you?" And they said, "Barabbas." Pilate said to them, "Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Messiah?" All of them said, "Let him be crucified!" Then he asked, "Why, what evil has he done?" But they shouted all the more, "Let him be crucified!" So when Pilate saw that he could do nothing, but rather that a riot was beginning, he took some water and washed his hands before the crowd, saying, "I am innocent of this man's blood; see to it yourselves." Then the people as a whole answered, "His blood be on us and on our children!" So he released Barabbas for them; and after flogging Jesus, he handed him over to be crucified. Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the governor's headquarters, and they gathered the whole cohort around him. They stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him, and after twisting some thorns into a crown, they put it on his head. They put a reed in his right hand and knelt before him and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head. After mocking him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes on him. Then they led him away to crucify him. As they went out, they came upon a man from Cyrene named Simon; they compelled this man to carry his cross. And when they came to a place called Golgotha (which means Place of a Skull), they offered him wine to drink, mixed with gall; but when he tasted it, he would not drink it. And when they had crucified him, they divided his clothes among themselves by casting lots;
Luke 22:44 In his anguish he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.]]
Luke 23:24 So Pilate gave his verdict that their demand should be granted.
Luke 23:33 When they came to the place that is called The Skull, they crucified Jesus there with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left.
Luke 24:39 Look at my hands and my feet; see that it is I myself. Touch me and see; for a ghost does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have."
Luke 24:51 While he was blessing them, he withdrew from them and was carried up into heaven.
John 20:20 After he said this, he showed them his hands and his side. Then the disciples rejoiced when they saw the Lord.
John 20:27 Then he said to Thomas, "Put your finger here and see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it in my side. Do not doubt but believe."
Matt 25:31-33 "When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, and he will put the sheep at his right hand and the goats at the left.
Mark 15:34 At three o'clock Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?" which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
Mark 15:37 Then Jesus gave a loud cry and breathed his last.
Mark 15:43 Joseph of Arimathea, a respected member of the council, who was also himself waiting expectantly for the kingdom of God, went boldly to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.
Mark 15:46 Then Joseph bought a linen cloth, and taking down the body, wrapped it in the linen cloth, and laid it in a tomb that had been hewn out of the rock. He then rolled a stone against the door of the tomb.
Mark 16:19 So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God.
Luke 1:33 He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end."
John 19:16-18 Then he handed him over to them to be crucified. So they took Jesus; and carrying the cross by himself, he went out to what is called The Place of the Skull, which in Hebrew is called Golgotha. There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, with Jesus between them.
Rom 4:24-25 but for ours also. It will be reckoned to us who believe in him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, who was handed over to death for our trespasses and was raised for our justification.
1 Cor 5:7 Clean out the old yeast so that you may be a new batch, as you really are unleavened. For our paschal lamb, Christ, has been sacrificed.
1 Cor 15:3-4 For I handed on to you as of first importance what I in turn had received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures, and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures,
Col 3:1 So if you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God.
2 Tim 4:1 In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I solemnly urge you:
1 Pet 3:18 For Christ also suffered for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, in order to bring you to God. He was put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit,
Rev 11:15 Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Messiah, and he will reign forever and ever."
Ps 110:1 The Lord says to my lord, "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool."
Matt 24:30-31 Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see 'the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven' with power and great glory. And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.
Matt 26:37 He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be grieved and agitated.
Matt 27:2-35 They bound him, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate the governor. When Judas, his betrayer, saw that Jesus was condemned, he repented and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and the elders. He said, "I have sinned by betraying innocent blood." But they said, "What is that to us? See to it yourself." Throwing down the pieces of silver in the temple, he departed; and he went and hanged himself. But the chief priests, taking the pieces of silver, said, "It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, since they are blood money." After conferring together, they used them to buy the potter's field as a place to bury foreigners. For this reason that field has been called the Field of Blood to this day. Then was fulfilled what had been spoken through the prophet Jeremiah, "And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of the one on whom a price had been set, on whom some of the people of Israel had set a price, and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord commanded me." Now Jesus stood before the governor; and the governor asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?" Jesus said, "You say so." But when he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he did not answer. Then Pilate said to him, "Do you not hear how many accusations they make against you?" But he gave him no answer, not even to a single charge, so that the governor was greatly amazed. Now at the festival the governor was accustomed to release a prisoner for the crowd, anyone whom they wanted. At that time they had a notorious prisoner, called Jesus Barabbas. So after they had gathered, Pilate said to them, "Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Messiah?" For he realized that it was out of jealousy that they had handed him over. While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent word to him, "Have nothing to do with that innocent man, for today I have suffered a great deal because of a dream about him." Now the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed. The governor again said to them, "Which of the two do you want me to release for you?" And they said, "Barabbas." Pilate said to them, "Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Messiah?" All of them said, "Let him be crucified!" Then he asked, "Why, what evil has he done?" But they shouted all the more, "Let him be crucified!" So when Pilate saw that he could do nothing, but rather that a riot was beginning, he took some water and washed his hands before the crowd, saying, "I am innocent of this man's blood; see to it yourselves." Then the people as a whole answered, "His blood be on us and on our children!" So he released Barabbas for them; and after flogging Jesus, he handed him over to be crucified. Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the governor's headquarters, and they gathered the whole cohort around him. They stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him, and after twisting some thorns into a crown, they put it on his head. They put a reed in his right hand and knelt before him and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head. After mocking him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes on him. Then they led him away to crucify him. As they went out, they came upon a man from Cyrene named Simon; they compelled this man to carry his cross. And when they came to a place called Golgotha (which means Place of a Skull), they offered him wine to drink, mixed with gall; but when he tasted it, he would not drink it. And when they had crucified him, they divided his clothes among themselves by casting lots;
Luke 22:44 In his anguish he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.]]
Luke 23:24 So Pilate gave his verdict that their demand should be granted.
Luke 23:33 When they came to the place that is called The Skull, they crucified Jesus there with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left.
Luke 24:39 Look at my hands and my feet; see that it is I myself. Touch me and see; for a ghost does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have."
Luke 24:51 While he was blessing them, he withdrew from them and was carried up into heaven.
John 20:20 After he said this, he showed them his hands and his side. Then the disciples rejoiced when they saw the Lord.
John 20:27 Then he said to Thomas, "Put your finger here and see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it in my side. Do not doubt but believe."
Acts 2:42 They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.
Acts 2:47 praising God and having the goodwill of all the people. And day by day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.
Eph 2:19-20 So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are citizens with the saints and also members of the household of God, built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the cornerstone.
Eph 4:1 I therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, beg you to lead a life worthy of the calling to which you have been called,
Eph 4:6 one God and Father of all, who is above all and through all and in all.
Heb 12:23 and to the assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect,
Acts 10:34-35 Then Peter began to speak to them: "I truly understand that God shows no partiality, but in every nation anyone who fears him and does what is right is acceptable to him.
Rom 16:16 Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ greet you.
1 Cor 3:11 For no one can lay any foundation other than the one that has been laid; that foundation is Jesus Christ.
Eph 5:27 so as to present the church to himself in splendor, without a spot or wrinkle or anything of the kind--yes, so that she may be holy and without blemish.
1 Tim 3:15 if I am delayed, you may know how one ought to behave in the household of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and bulwark of the truth.
Mark 16:16 The one who believes and is baptized will be saved; but the one who does not believe will be condemned.
Acts 2:38 Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
Acts 22:16 And now why do you delay? Get up, be baptized, and have your sins washed away, calling on his name.'
Eph 4:5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism,
Eph 1:7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace
Tit 3:5 he saved us, not because of any works of righteousness that we had done, but according to his mercy, through the water of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit.
Mark 16:16 The one who believes and is baptized will be saved; but the one who does not believe will be condemned.
Acts 2:38 Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
Acts 22:16 And now why do you delay? Get up, be baptized, and have your sins washed away, calling on his name.'
Eph 4:5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism,
Eph 1:7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace
Tit 3:5 he saved us, not because of any works of righteousness that we had done, but according to his mercy, through the water of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit.

The Sermon

After the Epistle and Gospel and the confession of that Faith which is taught in holy Writ, follows THE SERMON. Amb. ep. 33. ad Marcel. Leo. 1. Ser. 2. de Pascha, which usually was an exposition of some part of the Epistle or Gospel, or proper Lesson for the day, as we may see in S. Augustine in his Serm. de Temp. according to the pattern in Nehem. 8. 8. They read in the book, in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused the people to understand the reading. And the Preacher was in his Exposition appointed to observe the Catholick interpretation of the old Doctors of the Church; as we may see in the 19. Can. of the sixth Council of Constantinople held in Trull. The Canon is this.

Let the Governors of Churches every Sunday at the least, teach their Clergy and people the Oracles of piety and true Religion; collecting out of Divine Scripture, the sentences and Doctrines of truth, not transgressing the ancient bounds and traditions of the holy Fathers. And if any doubt or controversie arise about Scripture, let them follow that interpretation, which the Lights of the Church and the Doctors have left in their writings. By which they shall more deserve commendation, than by making private interpretations, which if they adhere to, they are in danger to fall from the truth.

To this agrees the Canon made in Queen Elizabeths time. Anno Dom. 1571.

The Preachers chiefly shall take heed that they teach nothing in their preaching, which they would have the people religiously to observe and believe, but that which is agreeable to the Doctrine of the Old Testament and the New, and that which the Catholick Fathers and Ancient Bishops have gathered out of that Doctrine.

These Golden Canons had they been duly observed, would have been a great preservative of Truth and the Churches peace.

The Sermon was not above an hour long. Cyril. Catech. 13.

Before the Sermon no prayer is appointed but the Lords Prayer, the petitions being first consigned upon the people, by the Preacher or Minister, who is appointed to bid the prayers, as it is in Edw. 6. and Queen Eliz. Injunctions; that is, to tell the people beforehand, what they are at that time especially to pray for in the Lords Prayer; which in the 55. Can. of the Constit. Anno Dom. 1603. is called, moving the people to joyn with the Preacher in praying the Lords Prayer. Of old, nothing was said before the Sermon, but Gemina Salutatio, the double Salutation, Clem. Const. l. 8. c. 5. Optat. l. 7. The Bishop or Priest never begins to speak to the people; but first in the Name of God he salutes the people and the salutation is doubled, that is, the Preacher says, The Lord be with you, and the people answer, And with thy Spirit. Much after this manner was the Jews practice, Neh. 8. 4. & 6. Ezra the Scribe stood upon a Pulpit of wood, &c. and opened the book in the sight of all the people; and when he opened it, all the people stood up, and Ezra blessed the Lord the great God, and all the people answered Amen, Amen, and worshipped. Verse 8. Then Ezra read in the Book, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading. So we see, that both amongst Jews and Christians of old, the Preacher before his Sermon used only a short Salutation, or Blessing; to which the people having answered, the Sermon began. And though the Church of England uses not the very same form, yet in this she follows the ancient practice, prescribing only the short prayer of our Lord: and indeed what need any more? For whatsoever we can desire, is abundantly prayed for before in the Liturgy, and needs not be prayed over again immediately. And therefore there being no need of such a solemn prayer, the Church hath appointed none, but only the Lords Prayer: and no other being appointed, no other should be used by the Preacher. For, as hath been shewn, Pag. 1. No prayers should be used publickly, but those that are prescribed; lest through ignorance or carelesness, any thing contrary to the faith should be uttered before God. How necessary such restraint of private mens prayers in publick is, and how good that reason is for such restraint, a little experience of licentious times will abundantly shew. The pulpit is no security from errors. Men may as well speak blasphemy or vanity before the Sermon, as in it. Is it not reason then that the Church should take care what she can, to prevent this danger, by restraining that liberty, which is so likely to run men into it? Suppose some Preachers should be so careful, as not to vent any thing unsavory, yet the Church cannot be secured of all, and therefore must not allow a general liberty. Nay, suppose the Church could be assured of all Preachers care in this particular, that their prayers should be for matter sound and good; yet how should it be reasonable for the Church to allow any private person or Preacher to offer up to God a prayer in the name of the Congregation, as their joynt desire, to which, they never before consented themselves, nor their Governors for them. A Preacher may pray for his Auditory by himself, though they know it not, nor consented to it before hand; but it is not imaginable how he should offer it up in their name, or call it their prayer to God, as sometimes the use hath been, which neither they themselves, nor their Governours, whom Christ hath impowred to make prayer for them, have consented to, or acknowledged for theirs: no more than any man can call that the Petition of a Town, which he shall present in their names, though they never before consented to it, or so much as saw it before it was presented.

This Form of bidding Prayers is very ancient: we may see the like in S. Chrys. and other Liturgies which they called προσφωνήσεις, Allocutions, in which the Deacon speaks to the people from point to point, directing them what to pray for (as hath been said before.) This is all the difference betwixt them and this; that in them the people were to answer to every point severally, Lord have mercy, &c. In this, they are taught to sum up all the Petitions in the Lords Prayer, and to pray for them all together.

This was the practice in King Edw. the Sixth's time, as appears by Bishop Latymer, Iewel, and others in those daies, whose Forms of Bidding Prayers, before Sermon, are to be seen in their writings.

If there be no Sermon, there shall follow one of the Homilies set forth. So was it of old appointed Conc. Vas. c. 4. [If the Parish Priest be sick, or cannot preach, let the homilies of the holy Fathers be read by the Deacon.]

The rubric of directions. AFTER the Creed follows a rubric of directions, instructing the Priest what he is to publish, or make known to the people. I do not find any such rubric in the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI; and in all the rest, quite down to the Restoration, a declaration of the holy-days only was ordered to be made after the Sermon or Homily was ended.

§.2. Why the Curate is to bid holy-days. This is the first thing our rubric mentions now, viz. that the Curate shall declare unto the people what holy-days or fasting -days are in the week following to be observed. The first reason of which was, lest the people should observe any such days as had been formerly kept, but were laid aside at the Reformation: and therefore the Bishops inquired in their visitations, whether any of their Curates bid any other days than mere appointed by the new calendar. This danger is now pretty well over; there being no great fear of the people's observing superstitious holy-days. But there is still as much reason for keeping up the rubric, since now they are run into a contrary extreme, and, instead of observing too many holy-days, regard none; which makes it fit that the Curate should discharge his duty, by telling them beforehand, what holy-days will happen, and then leaving it upon his people to answer for the neglect, if they are passed over without due regard.

§.3. When to give notice of the Communion. And then also (if occasion be) shall notice be given of the Communion: though by another rubric, just before the first exhortation, this is supposed to be done after sermon. For there it is ordered, that when the Minister giveth warning for the celebration of the holy Communion, (which he shall always do upon the Sunday y or some holy-day immediately preceding) after the Sermon or Homily ended, he shall read the exhortation following. The occasion of this difference was the placing of this rubric of directions, at the last review, before the rubric concerning the Sermon or Homily. For by all the old Common Prayer Books, immediately after the Nicene Creed, the Sermon was ordered; and then after that the Curate was to declare unto the people, whether there were any holy-days or fasting-days in the week following, and earnestly to exhort them to remember the poor, by reading one or more of the sentences, as he thought most convenient by his discretion. This was the whole of that rubric then. All the remaining part was added at the Restoration, as was also the rubric above cited just before the exhortation. Now it is plain by that rubric, that the warning to the Communion was intended to be given after the Sermon; and therefore I should have imagined that there was no design to have changed the places of the two rubrics here, but only to have added some other directions concerning the proclaiming or publishing things in the church: and that consequently the placing of them in the order they now stand, might have been owing to the printer's, or some other mistake; but that I observe in the next rubric the priest is ordered to return to the Lord's table, which supposes that he has been in the pulpit since he was at the table before; and therefore inclines me to believe that the rubrics were transposed with design; and that the intent of the revisers was, that when there was nothing in the Sermon itself preparatory to the Communion, both this and the other rubric should be complied with, viz. by giving warning in this place, that there will be a Communion on such a day, and then reading the exhortation after Sermon is ended.

§.4. What things to be published, and what not. At this time also briefs, citations, and excommunications are to be read. But nothing is to be proclaimed or published in the church, during the time of divine service, but by the Minister: nor by him any thing but what is prescribed in the rules of the Common Prayer Book, or enjoined by the king, or by the Ordinary of the place. All this was undoubtedly added, to prevent the custom, that still too much prevails in some country churches, of publishing the most frivolous, unbefitting, and even ridiculous things in the face of the congregation.


The antiquity and design of it. SERMONS have been appointed from the beginning of Christianity, to be used upon all Sundays and holy-days, but especially when the Lord's Supper was to be administered. For by a pious and practical discourse suited to the holy Communion, the minds of the hearers are put into a devout frame, and made much fitter for the succeeding mysteries.

§.2. Formerly performed by bishops. This province indeed, in ancient times, was generally undertaken by the bishops, who at first voluntarily, and afterwards by injunction, preached every Sunday, unless hindered by sickness: but however, in the absence of the bishop, this duty was performed by presbyters, and by his permission in his presence.

§.3. Why ordered here. The reason of its being ordered here, is because the first design of them was to explain some part of the foregoing Epistle and Gospel, in imitation of that practice of the Jews mentioned in Nehemiah 8:8. For which reason they were formerly called Postillis, (quasi post illa, sc. Evangelia,) because they followed the Gospel.

§.4. Of the Homilies. The Homilies mentioned in the rubric, are two books of plain sermons, (for so the word signifies,) set out by public authority, one whereof is to be read upon any Sunday or holy-day, when there is no sermon. The first volume of them was set out in the beginning of king Edward VI's reign, having been composed (as it is thought; by Archbishop Cranmer, Bishop Ridley, and Latimer, at the beginning of the Reformation, when a competent number of Ministers, of sufficient abilities to preach in a public congregation, was not to be found. The second volume was set out in queen Elizabeth's time, by order of Convocation, A.D. 1563. And that this is not at all contrary to the practice of the ancient Church, is evident from the testimony of Sixtus Sinensis, who, in the fourth book of his Library, saith, "That our countryman Alcuinus collected and reduced into order, by the command of Charles the Great, the homilies of the most famous doctors of the Church upon the Gospels, which were read in churches all the year round." He says they were all in number 209: but where that work lies hid, is not known.

§.5. Bidding of prayers enjoined by the Church. I designed in this place to have added a paragraph concerning the form of Bidding of Prayers, which the Church enjoins, by the fifty-fifth canon, to be used by every Minister before his Sermon, Lecture, or Homily: and from thence to have taken occasion to have hinted at the irregularity and ill consequences of the Petitionary Form, which is now the general practice. But finding it necessary to be more particular than I at first foresaw, if I proposed to give any tolerable satisfaction; the design immediately swelled into too large a compass to be inserted in a work of so general a nature. For this reason I have chosen to publish it in a little treatise by itself: by which means too I hope it will be more known, than if it had only been treated of in a few pages here. For the sake of those who may be desirous to look into the question, I have inserted the title at the bottom of the page, not without hopes that my sincere endeavours may contribute a little to put a stop to the custom of praying in the pulpit, which the reader will there see has once been attended with fatal consequences, and which has been discountenanced and prohibited almost in every reign, since the Reformation, by our governors and superiors both in Church and State.

Then the Curate shall declare unto the people what Holy-days, or Fasting-days, are in the week following to be observed. And then also (if occasion be) shall notice be given of the Communion; and Briefs, Citations, and Excommunications read. And nothing shall be proclaimed or published in the Church during the time of Divine Service, but by the Minister : nor by him any thing, but what is prescribed in the Rules of this Book, or enjoined by the Queen, or by the Ordinary of the place.

Then shall follow the Sermon, or one of the Homilies already set forth, or hereafter to be set forth, by authority.

The Liturgy of the Eucharist

The Offertory

Part 2. The OFFERTORY followes, which are certain sentences out of holy Scripture, which are sung or said while the people offered. Durant.

Offerings or Oblations are an high part of Gods service and worship, taught by the light of nature and right reason: which bids us to honour God with our substance, as well as with our bodies and souls: to give a part of our goods to God as an homage or acknowledgement of his Dominion over us, and that all that we have comes from God; 1 Chron. 29. 14. Who am I, and what is my people, that we should be able to offer so willingly after this sort; for all things come of thee, and of thine own have we given thee? To bring presents to him that ought to be feared, Psal. 76. 11. This duty of offerings was practised by the Fathers before the Law, with a gracious acceptation. Witness Abel, Gen. 4. 4. Commanded in the Law, Exod. 25. 2. Speak to the children of Israel that they bring me an offering. So Deut. 16. 16. Confirmed by our Saviour in the Gospel, S. Matth. 5. 23. Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the Altar, and there remembrest that thy brother hath ought against thee, leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way, first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. If any man conceives that this offering here mentioned was a Jewish perishing rite, not a duty of the Gospel to continue; let him consider,

  1. First, that there is the same reason for this duty under the Gospel, as there was under or before the Law, God being Lord of us and ours as well as of them; and therefore to be acknowledged for such by us, as well as by them.
  2. Secondly, that all the rest of our Saviours Sermon upon the Mount was Gospel, and concerning duties obliging us Christians: and it is not likely that our Saviour should intermix one only Judaical rite amongst them.
  3. Thirdly, that our Saviour before all these precepts mentioned in this his Sermon, whereof this of oblations is one, prefaces this severe sanction, S. Matth. 5. 19. Whosoever shall break one of the least of these commandments, and shall teach men so, shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven; which could not be truly said concerning the breach of a Jewish outworn rite.
  4. That our Saviour hath carefully taught us there, the due manner of the performance of this duty of oblations, like as he did concerning alms and prayers, and no man can shew that ever he did any where else; nor is it probable that he should here carefully direct us, how to do that which was presently to be left, and was already out of force, as this was, supposing it to be a Jewish rite. We may then, I conceive, suppose it for a truth, that oblations are here commanded by our Saviour.

Add to this, that offerings were highly commended by the Gospel, in the Wise men that offered Gold, Frankincense and Myrrhe, S. Matth. 2. 11. and that they were practised by the Fathers in the Christian Church. So saies Epiphan. haer. 80. Irenaeus l. 4. c. 34. [By a gift to the King, his honour and our affection is shewn; therefore our Lord willing us to offer with all simplicity and innocency, preached, saying, When thou bringest thy gift to the altar, &c. We must therefore offer of our goods to God, according as Moses commanded, Thou shalt not appear before the Lord empty. There are offerings under the Gospel, as well as under the Law: the kind of offerings is the same: Here is all the difference, they were offered then by servants, now by sons.] S. Hier. ep. ad Heliodor. The axe is laid to the root of the tree, if I bring not my gift to the Altar: nor can I plead poverty, since the poor widow hath cast in two mites,] We should do well to think of this.

Though oblations be acceptable at any time, yet at sometimes they have been thought more necessary, as

  1. First, when the Church is in want, Ex. 35. 4, &c.
  2. Secondly, when we have received some signal and eminent blessing from God. Psal. 76. When David had recounted the great mercy of God in breaking the bow and the shield of the Churches enemies, at the 11. verse, he presses this duty, Bring presents to him that ought to be feared.
  3. Thirdly, at our high and solemn Festivals, Deut. 16. 16. Three times in the year shall they appear before me, and they shall not appear empty; Especially when we receive the holy Communion. Theodoret Hist. l. 5. c. 17. tells us, that it was the ancient custome, before the receiving of the holy Sacrament, to come into the Quire and offer at the holy Table. And surely it becomes not us to be empty-handed, when God comes to us full-handed, as in that Sacrament he does.

N. The offertory.] The whole action of the sacred Communion is elemented of nothing but sacrifices and oblations. So in our Church, so in the Apostolic, which should be the grand exemplar to all; and though our Church varieth somewhat in the mode, from the first original, yet in the substance her practice is conformable. These sacrifices and oblations we may cast into four partitions, and find them all in the primitive, and in our service. I shall name them all, but insist only upon the first, as incident to my present purpose. The first is the bringing of our gifts to the Altar, that is, the species and elements of the sacred symbols, and withal some overplus, according to our abilities, for relief of the poor. And this eleemosynary offering is a sacrifice, so called, Phil. iv. 18, and Heb. xiii. 16, and declared to be “ well pleasing to God;” pleasing to God, though extended to the poor: these have a warrant of attorney from God Himself to receive 1 Cor. 16.2. our alms. “ He that hath pity on the poor, lendeth to the Lord,” Prov. xix. 17. So that when we come together to break bread, in the Scripture notion, that is, to communicate, we must break it to the hungry, to God Himself in his poor members, as ever we expect a share in that last Venite, “Come ye blessed,” &c. These acts of mercy being only set down as the reason of that Venite, “Come ye blessed,” &c., “for 1 was an hungry, and ye gave Me to eat,” &c. Matt. xxv. 35.

The second sacrifice is the consecration of the elements, and presenting them up to God by the prayers of the minister and congregation, whereby they become that Sacrament for which they are set apart and deputed.

The third is the sacrifice of praises and prayers ab God, which are styled sacrifices, Ps. 1. 23, and cxli. 2, Heb. νυ. 7, and xiii. 15.

The fourth is the oblation of ourselves, of our souls and bodies, θυσίαν ζῶσαν, “ a living, holy, and reasonable sacrifice,’' Rom. xii. 1.

Now to restrain my discourse, as I promised, to the sacrifice of alms-deeds, it will be necessary to take notice of the Apostolic and primitive practice in this concernment, and thereby to observe the agreeableness of our own rule with it. First then, we are not ignorant, I hope, that the Apostolic custom of communicating was at their agapes and love-feasts. These feasts were a joint and liberal collation of all the assembly, every man contributing ὅτε ἄν εὐοδῶται, “ as God hath blessed him,” the rich for the poor. Out of the offerings brought, so much as was thought convenient for the Sacrament was taken by the party who officiated, and the cane remains were deputed both for the refreshment of the congregation, and also for relief of the poor: and these oblations were by the Apostle’s constitution to be set apart, κατὰ μίαν σαββάτων, “every Lord’s day.”

Of these feasts St. Jude in his epistle makes mention, speaking of spots in the Christian love-feasts, and not long after him, Ignatius, οὐκ ἐξόν ἐστιν χωρὶς τοῦ ἐπισκόπου ἀγάπην ποιεῖν : “it is not suffered to celebrate the agape without leave from the bishop.” Of the mode Tertullian is most express, modicam unusquisque stipem menstrua die, vel cum velit, et si modo possit, apponit. Hec quasi deposita pietatis sunt: inde non epulis, nec potaculis, nec ingratis voratrinis dispensatur, sed egenis alendis humandisque, et pueris puellisque re ac parentibus destitutis, etateque domitis senibus, item naufragis, et si qui in metallis, et si qui in insulis vel in custodiis duntaxat ex causa Dei, fiunt : '‘some little modicum or portion of contribution, every man once a month or oftener, if he can, and will, layeth aside for this purpose. These collations are the pledges of piety: nor are they disposed to the satisfying of our gluttonous appetites, but for the relief or burial of the poor or orphans, or aged or shipwrecked persons, or for the maintenance of such as suffer imprisonment or exile for the cause of Christ.”

But abuses of excess having crept into these feasts, the junketings, comessations, and mealing together were soon laid aside; and where they were so, though the Sacrament had nothing but of religious import, yet the eleemosynary oblations still continued. For Justin Martyr, rendering the practice of his time, tells us, of εὐποροῦντες καὶ βουλόμενοι κατὰ προαίρεσιν ἕκαστος THY ἑαυτοῦ ὃ βούλεται δίδωσι: καὶ τὸ συλλεγόμενον παρὰ τῷ προεστῶτι ἀποτίθεται, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπικουρεῖ ὀρφανοῖς, καὶ χήραις, καὶ τοῖς διὰ νόσον ἤ διὰ ἄλλην αἰτίαν λειπομένοις, καὶ τοῖς ἐν δέσμοις οὖσι, καὶ τοῖς παρεπιδήμοις οὖσι ζένοις : “they that are well to pass, if they are so disposed, every man as he pleaseth, offereth somewhat of that he hath; and this collection is deposited with the chief president, who therewith relieveth orphans, widows, such as are sick, or in want upon the like cause, such also as are in prison, or travellers which come from far countries:” and to this usage I conceive Clemens Alexandrinus® had an eye, where he said many resorted to hear the word of God, κοινωνικοὺς τῶν ἐπιτηδείων μαθόντες τοὺς καθωσιωμένους τῷ Χριστῷ, “knowing that Christians communicated to the needy things necessary.” ΤῸ the same effect St. Cyprian, “thou art rich and wealthy, and dost thou believe thou canst rightly celebrate the Lord’s Supper, who dost not mind the poor man’s box, who appearest in the Lord’s house empty, without the sacrifice of alms-deeds, nay, who takest thy share of that sacrifice which the poor man himself offered.” Not to trouble you with multiplying more authorities in so clear a matter, it may suffice once for all to remind you, that upon this very account the sacred mysteries gained in the primitive Church so frequently to be called τὰ ἅγια δῶρα, “the sacred gifts,” or “offerings.”

But though alms-giving be a necessary duty, yet doth not God accept it from all, but in these oblations He respects the men, not the gifts; there are some Cains, of whose sacrifices He will none, and therefore in the primitive Church, such persons as had misdemeaned themselves, or scandalized religion, St. Cyprian positively orders, prohibeantur afferre, “let them be kept back from offering;” so also for such as harboured malice against their brethren, the council of Carthage ordained, neque im sacrario, neque in Gazophylacio, recipiantur eorum oblationes, “ that their offerings should be accepted of, neither at the Altar, nor in the Church treasury.” Now although the elements of bread and wine are provided by an establishment of our Church, differing from the ancient custom, yet can there be no reason shewed why we should proscribe and cast away that most necessary sacrifice of alms; which though at first introduced as concomitant with the former, yet hath sufficient interest in religion to entitle itself to a place in the course of the grand sacrifice, and the Church hath very fitly assigned it this place, as preambulatory to the prayers ensuing, it being properly styled by St. Chrysostoml, πτερὸν τῆς εὐχῆς, ‘the wing of prayer,” upon which wing the prayers of Cornelius ascended up into heaven, Acts x. 2.

As to the sentences of this offertory, they which differ in the Scottish service from ours, are taken out of Bishop Andrewes’ notes upon the Book of Common Prayer.


F. The churchwardens or some other.] The ancient mode was an exact pursuance of the text delivered by our Saviour, Matt. v. 23, which implieth that the gifts should be brought to the Altar: there were they presented by the people, and there received by the priest. Gregory Nazianzen sets it down very expressly, speaking of Valens the emperor’s offering, ἐπεὶ τὰ δῶρα TH θείᾳ τραπέζῃ προσενεγκεῖν ἔδει, ὧν avτουργὸς ἦν, συνεπελάβετο οὐδεὶς, ὥσπερ ἣν ἔθος : i. 6. “ when the time was come for him to bring his gifts to the holy table, which he was to do himself, none would, as the custom was, receive them.” ‘The like hath Theodoret concerning Theodosius, but not so full; and more conformable to this usage was the order in the beginning of the Reformation, by which the parishioners were enjoined themselves to “put their alms into the poor man’s chest,” which then was placed near the High Altar. Bishop Andrewes faulteth the churchwardens going up and down to receive the alms: sapit hee collectio per singula capita Genevensem morem; “this collecting alms by the poll savours of the Geneva mode,” whence it is that the Scottish rubric was rectified in this particular, as in others, conformable to his notes.

Almsgiving, a necessary duty. AFTER the confession of our faith in the Nicene Creed, or else after the improvement of it in the Sermon or Homily, follows the exercise of our charity, without which our faith would be dead. The first way of expressing which, is by dedicating some part of what God has given us to his use and service, which is frequently and strictly commanded in the Gospel, hath the best examples for it, and the largest rewards promised to it; being instead of all the vast oblations and costly sacrifices which the Jews did always join with their prayers, and the only chargeable duty to which Christians are obliged. It is, in a word, so necessary to recommend our prayers, that St. Paul prescribes, and the ancient Church, in Justin Martyr's time, used to have collections every Sunday.

However, when we receive the Sacrament, it is by no means to be omitted. When the Jews came before the Lord at the solemn feasts, they were not allowed to appear empty; but every man was required to give as he was able, according to the blessing of the Lord which he had given him. And our Saviour (with respect, no doubt, to the holy table, as Mr. Mede excellently proves) supposes that we should never come to the altar without a gift, but always imitate his practice, whose custom of giving alms at the passover made his disciples mistake his words to him that bare the bag. And it is very probable that at the time of receiving the Sacrament were all those large donations of houses, lands, and money made. For when those first converts were all united to Christ and one another in this feast of love, their very souls were mingled; they cheerfully renounced their property, and easily distributed their goods among those to whom they had given their hearts before. None (of ability) were allowed to receive without giving something; and to reject any man's offering, was to deny him a share in the benefit of those comfortable mysteries.

§.2. The design of the Sentences. Why called offertory. Alms and other devotions, how distinguished. Wherefore, to stir us up more effectually to imitate their pious example, as soon as the Sermon or Homily is ended, the Priest is directed to return to the Lord's Table, and begin the Offertory, saying one or more of the sentences following, as he thinketh most convenient in his discretion, i.e. according to the length or shortness of the time that the people are offering, as it was worded in king Edward's first Common Prayer, and from thence in the Scotch one.* These are in the place of the antiphona or anthem which we find in the old Liturgies after the Gospel, and which, from their being sung whilst the people made their oblations at the altar, were called offertory. The sentences which our Church has here selected for that purpose are such as contain instructions, injunctions, and exhortations to this great duty; setting before us the necessity of performing it, and the manner of doing it. Some of them (viz. those from the sixth to the tenth inclusively, unless the ninth he excepted) respect the clergy. And it was with an eye, I suppose, to this difference, that in the last review there was a distinction made in the rubric that follows these sentences, between the alms for the poor, and the other devotions of the people. In the old Common Prayer there was only mention made of the latter of these, viz. the devotions of the people, by which alms for the poor were then meant, as appears from its being then ordered to be put into the poor man's bow. But then the clergy were included in other words, which ordered, that upon the offering-days appointed, every man and woman should pay to the Curate the due and accustomed offerings. But of this I shall have occasion to say more, when I come to treat of the rubrics at the end of this office. I shall only observe further here, that the words alms for the poor being added at the last review, by which undoubtedly must be understood all that is given for their relief; it is plain, that by the other devotions of the people is now intended something distinct from the said alms. And if so, then the offerings for the clergy, or their share in the collections, must certainly be meant, as is plain from the design of the above-mentioned sentences, which have a direct and immediate regard to them. It is well known, that in the primitive times the clergy had a liberal maintenance out of what the people offered upon these occasions. Now, indeed, whilst they have a stated and legal income, the money collected at these times is generally appropriated to the poor: not but that where the stated income of a parish is not sufficient to maintain the clergy belonging to the Church, they have still a right to claim their share in these offerings.

II. By whom to be collected. And in what manner. The deacons are the most proper persons for this business, it being the very office for which their order was instituted. And for this reason the Scotch Liturgy does not allow the church-wardens to do it, but at such times when there are no deacons present.* It is now indeed grown a custom with us for the churchwardens to perform this office, viz. to gather the alms and devotions of the congregation, which, by all the books before the Scotch Liturgy, they were ordered, as I have observed, to put into the poor man's box; not, I presume, into that fixed in the church, but into a little box which the church-wardens or some other proper persons carried about with them in their hands, as is still the custom at the Temple church in London. Now indeed they are ordered to make use of a decent basin to be provided by the priest for that purpose.† With which, in most places, especially here in town, they go to the several seats and pews of the congregation. Though in other places they collect at the entrance into the chancel, where the people make their offerings as they draw towards the altar. This last way seems the most conformable to the practice of the primitive Church, which, in pursuance of a text delivered by our Saviour, ordered that the people should come up to the rails of the altar, and there make their offerings to the priest.

And with an eye, I suppose, to this practice, the deacons, or church-wardens, or whosoever they be that collect the alms and other devotions of the people, are ordered by the present rubric to bring it reverently to the priest (as in their name) who is humbly to present and place it upon the holy table; in conformity to the practice of the ancient Jews, who, when they brought their gifts and sacrifices to the temple, offered them to God by the hands of the priest.

Then shall the Priest return to the Lord's Table, and begin the Offertory, saying one or more of these Sentences following, as he thinketh most convenient in his discretion.

Matt 6:19-20 "Do not store up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust consume and where thieves break in and steal; but store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consumes and where thieves do not break in and steal.
Luke 19:8 Zacchaeus stood there and said to the Lord, "Look, half of my possessions, Lord, I will give to the poor; and if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I will pay back four times as much."
1 Cor 9:13-14 Do you not know that those who are employed in the temple service get their food from the temple, and those who serve at the altar share in what is sacrificed on the altar? In the same way, the Lord commanded that those who proclaim the gospel should get their living by the gospel.
2 Cor 9:6-7 The point is this: the one who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and the one who sows bountifully will also reap bountifully. Each of you must give as you have made up your mind, not reluctantly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver.
1 Tim 6:18-19 They are to do good, to be rich in good works, generous, and ready to share, thus storing up for themselves the treasure of a good foundation for the future, so that they may take hold of the life that really is life.
Tobit 4:7 give alms from your possessions, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from anyone who is poor, and the face of God will not be turned away from you.
Tobit 4:8-9 If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity.

Whilst these Sentences are in reading, the Deacons, Church-wardens, or other fit person appointed for that purpose, shall receive the Alms for the Poor, and other devotions of the people, in a decent basin to be provided by the Parish for that purpose; and reverently bring it to the Priest, who shall humbly present and place it upon the holy Table.

The Intercessions

Next to the OFFERTORY is that excellent PRAYER for the CHURCH MILITANT, wherein we pray for the Catholick and Apostolick Church; For all Christian Kings, Princes & Governors, for the whole Clergy and people, for all in adversity, Such a prayer hath S. Chr. in his Liturg, a little before the Consecration.

R. For the whole state of Christ’s Church.] This prayer sheweth its warrant at first, that it is derived from 1 Tim. 1. 1: “I exhort therefore that first of all supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all men.” The preface of “ giving thanks for all men,” when in the process of the prayer there is no thanksgiving for any man, was interpreted a slip in the supervisors of the liturgy, who should either have expunged it, or added some such clause as the Scotch liturgy exhibiteth, as eucharistical for the saints departed from the faith.

As for this prayer, there are precedents enough in the like form. Tertullian first, oramus pro imperatoribus, pro ministris eorum, et potestatibus, pro statu seculi, pro rerum quiete, pro mora finis, i. e. “we pray for the emperors and their ministers, for secular potentates, for peaceable times, for long life.” Then Clemens’, προσευχέσθω 6 διάκονος ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἁπάσης, Kal παντὸς τοῦ κόσμου, Kal τῶν ἐν αὐτῷ μερῶν, καὶ ἐκφορίων, ὑπὲρ τῶν ἱερέων, καὶ τῶν ἀρχόντων, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, καὶ τοῦ βασιλέως, καὶ τῆς καθόλου εἰρήνης, 1. 6. “let the deacon pray for the universal Church, the whole world, and all the parts thereof, and the fruits of the earth; for the priests and governors, for the chief priests and kings, and the general peace.” Next Eusebius, speaking how the priests were employed at the celebrity of the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem, he gives in part this account, ὑπὲρ τῆς κοινῆς εἰρήνης, ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐκκλησίας Tod θεοῦ, αὐτοῦ τε βασίλέως, παίδων τε αὐτοῦ θεοφιλῶν, ἱκετηρίας εὐχάς τῷ θεῷ προσαναφέροντες, i. 6. 181 they offered up their supplications for the general peace, for the Church of God, for the emperor, and for his children beloved of God.” After him Cyril, declaring the practice of his time at the celebration of the Eucharist, thus: ἐπὶ τῆς θυσίας ἐκείνης τοῦ ἱλασμοῦ, παρακαλοῦμεν τὸν θεὸν ὑπὲρ κοινῆς τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν εἰρήνης, τῆς τοῦ κόσμου εὐσταθείας, ὑπὲρ βασίλέων, ὑπὲρ στρατιωτῶν, καὶ συμμάχων, i.e. “ over this propitiatory sacrifice, we call upon God for the general peace of all Churches, for the tranquillity of the world, for emperors, their armies, and all that fight for them.” I shall conclude with St. Ambrose’, oratio premittitur pro populo, pro regibus, pro ceteris: “ first,’ before consecration, “prayer is made for the people, for kings, and for others:” and though this prayer be in our Church only a peculiar of morning service, yet St. Chrysostom seemeth to render the same usage in his time at the evening prayers also; for putting the question, ri δέ ἐστι TO, πρῶτον πάντων, “what meaneth this speech ; ‘ first of all,’” he resolveth it thus: τουτέστιν ἐν τῇ λατρείᾳ καθημερινῇ, “that is in the daily service ; καὶ τοῦτο ἴσασιν οἱ μύσται πῶς καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν γίνεται, καὶ ἐν ἑσπέρᾳ, καὶ πρώϊᾳ, i. 8. “and this is well known to the priests that it is performed every day, both at evening and morning prayers.” But I will not over-confidently assert it upon this single testimony, especially when perhaps his words may bear another sense.

The bread and wine, when and by whom to be placed on the table. Which rubric being added to our own Liturgy at the same time with the word oblations, in the prayer following, (i.e. at the last review,) it is clearly evident, as Bishop Patrick has observed, that by that word are to be understood the elements of bread and wine, which the priest is to offer solemnly to God, as an acknowledgment of his sovereignty over his creatures, and that from thenceforth they might become properly and peculiarly his. For in all the Jewish sacrifices, of which the people were partakers, the viands or materials of the feast were first made God's by a solemn oblation, and then afterwards eaten by the communicants, not as man's, but as God's provision; who, by thus entertaining them at his own table, declared himself reconciled and again in covenant with them. And therefore our blessed Saviour, when he instituted the new sacrifice of his own body and blood, first gave thanks and blessed the elements, i. e. offered them up to God as Lord of the creatures, as the most ancient Fathers expound that passage: who, for that reason, whenever they celebrated the holy eucharist, always offered the bread and wine for the Communion to God, upon the altar, by this, or some such short ejaculation, Lord, we offer thee thy own, out of what thou hast bountifully given us. After which they received them, as it were, from him again, in order to convert them into the sacred banquet of the body and blood of his dear Son. In the ancient Church, they had generally a side-table near the altar, upon which the elements were laid till the first part of the Communion service was over, at which the catechumens were allowed to be present; but when they were gone, the elements were removed and placed upon the holy altar itself, with a solemn prayer. Now though we have no side-table authorized by our Church, yet in the first Common Prayer of king Edward VI the priest himself was ordered in this place to set both the bread and wine upon the altar:* but at the review in 1551, this and several other such ancient usages were thrown out, I suppose, at the instance of Bucer and Martyr. After which the Scotch Liturgy was the first wherein we find it restored: but there the presbyter is directed to offer up and place the bread and tome prepared for the Sacrament upon the Lord's table, that it may be ready for that service. And Mr. Mede, having observed our own Liturgy to be defective in this particular, was probably the occasion, that, in the review of it after the Restoration, this primitive practice was restored, and the bread and wine ordered by the rubric to be set solemnly upon the table by the Priest himself. From whence it appears, that the placing the elements upon the Lord's table, before the beginning of morning prayer, by the hands of a clerk or sexton, (as is now the general practice) is a profane and shameful breach of the aforesaid rubric; ana consequently that it is the duty of every Minister to prevent it for the future, and reverently to place the bread and wine himself upon the table, immediately after he has placed on the alms.

IV. Mixing water with the wine, a primitive practice, but not essential to the Sacrament. In the rubric I have given, out of king Edward s first Liturgy, the Minister, when he put wine into the chalice, was directed by the rubric to put thereto a little pure and clean water. This was ordered in conformity to a very ancient and primitive practice, and with an eye perhaps to our Saviour's institution. For the wine among the Jews being very strong, it was generally their custom, as at their ordinary meals, so also at the passover, to qualify it with water: and therefore, since the cup which our Saviour blessed was probably one of those which were prepared for that feast, some have concluded that, at the time of the institution, he made use of wine in which water had been mixed. But of this they can produce no certainty of proof. For though it is allowed that the Jews often mingled their wine, yet it does not appear that they always did so, or thought it necessary. For Dr. Lightfoot observes, that he that drank pure wine performed his duty; and Buxtorf adds further, that it was indifferent whether it was mixed or not, and that they drank it sometimes one way and sometimes the other: so that we must not affirm that our Saviour's cup was certainly mixed, before we are assured whether the wine which he had prepared for his last passover was so. Our Saviour intimates, that what he had delivered to his Apostles was the fruit of the vine; and Dr. Lightfoot observes, from the Babylonish Talmud, that this was a term which the Jews used in their blessing for wine mixed with water, to distinguish it from pure wine, which they called the fruit of the tree. But now, not to insist upon the absurdity of calling it the fruit of the vine, from its being mixed with water, which makes it less the fruit of the vine than it was in its purity; it is plain that this expression, wherever we meet with it in other places of Scripture, is used to denote the pure product of the tree. From whence we may be assured, that in the time of our Saviour, no such distinction as this had obtained: nor indeed does the Mishna itself allow of it: for the determination of the wise men is, that wine is to be called the fruit of the time, as well before the mixture as after it. And the reason why they give it a particular blessing, calling it the fruit of the vine, instead of the fruit of the tree, is not upon the account of its being mixed with water, but because the vine is more excellent than any tree besides. And if this distinction fail, I do not know that there is so much as a hint given in Scripture, from whence we may judge whether the wine used by our Saviour was mixed or not; which yet we might reasonably expect to have found, if our Lord had designed the mixture as essential. Though were it ever so clear, that the cup was mixed; yet if it does not also appear that it was mixed with design, our Saviour's practice would no more oblige us to mix it now, than it would that we should consecrate unleavened bread. For it is certain that our Saviour, at the time of institution, used unleavened bread: and yet since the reason of his doing so was, because there was no other at that time in the house; our Church thinks it sufficient, in her present rubric, to prescribe such bread as is usual to be eaten. Consequently since he made use of wine that was mixed, only because he found it ready prepared, or at most because the strength of the wine used in that country required it; therefore our Church thinks it not necessary to mix it with us, because we ordinarily drink it pure. But I say this upon supposition that it could be clearly proved that the cup which our Saviour used was mixed; whereas I have shewn that there is no intimation in Scripture about it. Nor do any of the first Fathers assert or mention it. Origen (who is the first that speaks either one way or the other) says, that our Saviour administered in wine unmixed, which he would not sure have done, had there been any certain tradition, or so much as a general opinion, to the contrary. We do not indeed deny, but that, before his time, the mixture was the general practice of the Church: but then it is no where said, that this was done in conformity to our Saviour's institution; but since the same wine, perhaps, that was prepared for the Communion, served also for the love-feasts, (which, in the first ages of the Church, were always held at the same time) water might be mixed with it, for what we know, to prevent those disorders, which, even in the Apostles' time, were, apt to arise from their drinking of it to excess: or possibly it might be instituted as an emblem of the indissoluble union between Christ and his Church, as St. Cyprian explains it; or, lastly, (as is asserted by some other of the ancients,) to be more expressive and significant of that blood and water which flowed from our Saviour's side, when he was pierced upon the cross. St Cyprian indeed pleads strenuously for me mixture, and urges it from the practice and example of our Lord; but then it is to be observed, that he is arguing against those who used water alone, (for fear the heathens should discover them by the smell of the wine) and therefore might insist upon the mixture as necessary, because otherwise the wine was the part that was wanting; which he plainly enough allows to be the only essential in the cup, when he asserts that wine alone would be better than pure water. For if both of them were essential, neither of them could be said to be better than the other. And for the same reason it is, that some other Fathers and Councils enjoin the mixture so strictly, viz. because the Encratites and others, who looked upon wine and flesh to be forbidden, would administer the cup in the sacrament of the eucharist, with pure water alone. Though it is true the Armenians, who administered in pure wine alone, are equally condemned by the Council in Trullo, who produce the authority of St. James's and St. Basil's Liturgies against them: to which may be added, the Liturgies under the name of St. Mark and St. Chrysostom, and that which is contained in the eighth hook of the Constitution. And indeed it must he confessed, that the mixture has, in all ages, been the general practice, and for that reason was enjoined, as has been noted above, to be continued in our own Church, by the first reformers. And though in the next review the order for it was omitted, yet the practice of it was continued in the king's chapel royal, all the time that Bishop Andrews was dean of it; who also in the form that he drew up for the consecration of a church, &c., expressly directs and orders it to be used. How it came to be neglected in the review of our Liturgy in king Edward's reign, I have not yet been able to discover. I am apt to suspect that it was thrown out upon some objection of Calvin or Bucer, who were no friends to any practice for its being ancient and catholic, if it did not happen to suit with their fancy or humour. But whatever may have been the cause of laying it aside, since there is no reason to believe it essential; and since every Church has liberty to determine for herself in things not essential; it must be an argument sure of a very indiscreet and over-hasty zeal, to urge the omission of it as a ground for separation.


How properly used here. THE alms, and devotions, and oblations of the people being now presented to God, and placed before him upon the holy table; it is a proper time to proceed to the exercise of another branch of our charity, I mean that of intercession. Our alms perhaps are confined to a few indigent neighbours; but our prayers may extend to all mankind, by recommending them all to the mercies of God, who is able to supply and relieve them all. Nor can we at any time hope to intercede more effectually for the whole Church of God, than just when we are about to represent and shew forth to the divine Majesty that meritorious sacrifice, by virtue whereof our great High Priest did once redeem us, and for ever continues to intercede for us in heaven. For which reason we find that the ancient and primitive Christians, whenever they celebrated these holy mysteries, used a form of intercession for the whole catholic Church. But there is this difference between our practice and theirs, that whereas we use it immediately after the placing the elements upon the table; it is in all the ancient Liturgies, except in St. Mark's and the Ethiopian, deferred till after the consecration.

And when there is a Communion, the Priest shall then place upon the Table so much Bread and Wine, as he shall think sufficient. After which done, the Priest shall say,

Ps 122:6 Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: "May they prosper who love you.
Is 40:1-2 Comfort, O comfort my people, says your God. Speak tenderly to Jerusalem, and cry to her that she has served her term, that her penalty is paid, that she has received from the Lord's hand double for all her sins.
2 Cor 10:4 for the weapons of our warfare are not merely human, but they have divine power to destroy strongholds. We destroy arguments
Col 1:24 I am now rejoicing in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I am completing what is lacking in Christ's afflictions for the sake of his body, that is, the church.
Rev 6:9-10 When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slaughtered for the word of God and for the testimony they had given; they cried out with a loud voice, "Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long will it be before you judge and avenge our blood on the inhabitants of the earth?"
Jer 51:50 You survivors of the sword, go, do not linger! Remember the Lord in a distant land, and let Jerusalem come into your mind:
John 17:20-21 "I ask not only on behalf of these, but also on behalf of those who will believe in me through their word, that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me.

§.2. Prayers for the dead an ancient and catholic practice. In the primitive Church too their prayers were more extensive, and took in the dead as well as the living: not that they had any notion of the Romish purgatory, or so much as imagined that those whom they prayed for were racked or tormented with any temporary pain. There were some of the ancients, it is true, who believed (and it seems to have been the current opinion from Origen downwards) that the trial we shall undergo at the last great day will be a state of purgation; which they imagined to consist of a probational fire, through which all must pass, (even the prophets and apostles, and the Virgin Mary herself not excepted,) and which shall differently affect us, as we shall be differently prepared: and upon this perhaps some of them might found the prayers they used for the departed saints. Others again believed that Christ should reign a thousand years upon earth, before the final day of judgment; and also supposed that the saints should rise to enjoy and partake of this happy state, before the general resurrection of the dead: and therefore they prayed for the souls of the deceased, that they might not only rest in peace for the present, but also obtain part in the first resurrection. However they all agreed in this, that the interval between death and the end of the world is a state of expectation and imperfect bliss, in which the souls of the righteous wait for the completion and perfection of their happiness at the consummation of all things: and therefore, whilst they were praying for the catholic Church, they thought it not improper to add a petition in behalf of that larger and better part of it which had gone before them, that they might all together attain a blessed and glorious resurrection, and be brought at last to a perfect fruition of happiness in heaven. By this means they testified their love and respect to the dead, declared their belief in the communion of saints, and kept up in themselves a lively sense of the soul's immortality. And with this intent a petition for the deceased was continued by our reformers, in this very prayer of which we are now discoursing, in the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI. But this, with a larger thanksgiving for the examples of the saints,* than what we now use, was left out of the second book, upon the exceptions of Bucer and Calvin, and the words, militant here on earth, were added to the exhortation, Let us pray for the whole state of Christ's Church, in order to limit the prayer to the living only. The substance of the thanksgiving indeed was added again afterwards, first to the Scotch Liturgy, and then to our own at the last review: though that in the Scotch Liturgy† keeps closest to the words in the first book of king Edward. And though the direct petition for the faithful departed is still discontinued, yet, were it not for the restriction of the words, militant here on earth, they might be supposed to be implied in our present form, when we beg of God that we WITH THEM may be partakers of his heavenly kingdom.

Deut 32:40 For I lift up my hand to heaven, and swear: As I live forever,
Phil 4:6 Do not worry about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God.
1 Tim 2:1-2 First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for everyone, for kings and all who are in high positions, so that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and dignity.
1 Tim 2:8 I desire, then, that in every place the men should pray, lifting up holy hands without anger or argument;
Rev 4:8 And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and inside. Day and night without ceasing they sing, "Holy, holy, holy, the Lord God the Almighty, who was and is and is to come."
1 Kings 8:41-43 "Likewise when a foreigner, who is not of your people Israel, comes from a distant land because of your name --for they shall hear of your great name, your mighty hand, and your outstretched arm--when a foreigner comes and prays toward this house, then hear in heaven your dwelling place, and do according to all that the foreigner calls to you, so that all the peoples of the earth may know your name and fear you, as do your people Israel, and so that they may know that your name has been invoked on this house that I have built.
Ps 67:1-4 May God be gracious to us and bless us and make his face to shine upon us,Selah that your way may be known upon earth, your saving power among all nations. Let the peoples praise you, O God; let all the peoples praise you. Let the nations be glad and sing for joy, for you judge the peoples with equity and guide the nations upon earth.Selah
2 Sam 16:4 Then the king said to Ziba, "All that belonged to Mephibosheth is now yours." Ziba said, "I do obeisance; let me find favor in your sight, my lord the king."
Ps 6:9 The Lord has heard my supplication; the Lord accepts my prayer.
Ps 20:1 The Lord answer you in the day of trouble! The name of the God of Jacob protect you!
Ps 20:3 May he remember all your offerings, and regard with favor your burnt sacrifices.Selah
Matt 25:40 And the king will answer them, 'Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me.'
Acts 20:19 serving the Lord with all humility and with tears, enduring the trials that came to me through the plots of the Jews.
Acts 24:17 Now after some years I came to bring alms to my nation and to offer sacrifices.
Gal 6:6 Those who are taught the word must share in all good things with their teacher.
Heb 6:10 For God is not unjust; he will not overlook your work and the love that you showed for his sake in serving the saints, as you still do.
Heb 13:16 Do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for such sacrifices are pleasing to God.
1 Chron 29:14-16 "But who am I, and what is my people, that we should be able to make this freewill offering? For all things come from you, and of your own have we given you. For we are aliens and transients before you, as were all our ancestors; our days on the earth are like a shadow, and there is no hope. O Lord our God, all this abundance that we have provided for building you a house for your holy name comes from your hand and is all your own.
2 Chron 7:1 When Solomon had ended his prayer, fire came down from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the Lord filled the temple.
Heb 11:4 By faith Abel offered to God a more acceptable sacrifice than Cain's. Through this he received approval as righteous, God himself giving approval to his gifts; he died, but through his faith he still speaks.
2 Sam 16:4 Then the king said to Ziba, "All that belonged to Mephibosheth is now yours." Ziba said, "I do obeisance; let me find favor in your sight, my lord the king."
Ps 6:9 The Lord has heard my supplication; the Lord accepts my prayer.
Ps 20:1 The Lord answer you in the day of trouble! The name of the God of Jacob protect you!
Ps 20:3 May he remember all your offerings, and regard with favor your burnt sacrifices.Selah
Matt 25:40 And the king will answer them, 'Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me.'
Acts 20:19 serving the Lord with all humility and with tears, enduring the trials that came to me through the plots of the Jews.
Acts 24:17 Now after some years I came to bring alms to my nation and to offer sacrifices.
Gal 6:6 Those who are taught the word must share in all good things with their teacher.
Heb 6:10 For God is not unjust; he will not overlook your work and the love that you showed for his sake in serving the saints, as you still do.
Heb 13:16 Do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for such sacrifices are pleasing to God.
1 Chron 29:14-16 "But who am I, and what is my people, that we should be able to make this freewill offering? For all things come from you, and of your own have we given you. For we are aliens and transients before you, as were all our ancestors; our days on the earth are like a shadow, and there is no hope. O Lord our God, all this abundance that we have provided for building you a house for your holy name comes from your hand and is all your own.
2 Chron 7:1 When Solomon had ended his prayer, fire came down from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the Lord filled the temple.
Heb 11:4 By faith Abel offered to God a more acceptable sacrifice than Cain's. Through this he received approval as righteous, God himself giving approval to his gifts; he died, but through his faith he still speaks.
2 Sam 16:4 Then the king said to Ziba, "All that belonged to Mephibosheth is now yours." Ziba said, "I do obeisance; let me find favor in your sight, my lord the king."
Ps 6:9 The Lord has heard my supplication; the Lord accepts my prayer.
Ps 20:1 The Lord answer you in the day of trouble! The name of the God of Jacob protect you!
Ps 20:3 May he remember all your offerings, and regard with favor your burnt sacrifices.Selah
Matt 25:40 And the king will answer them, 'Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me.'
Acts 20:19 serving the Lord with all humility and with tears, enduring the trials that came to me through the plots of the Jews.
Acts 24:17 Now after some years I came to bring alms to my nation and to offer sacrifices.
Gal 6:6 Those who are taught the word must share in all good things with their teacher.
Heb 6:10 For God is not unjust; he will not overlook your work and the love that you showed for his sake in serving the saints, as you still do.
Heb 13:16 Do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for such sacrifices are pleasing to God.
1 Chron 29:14-16 "But who am I, and what is my people, that we should be able to make this freewill offering? For all things come from you, and of your own have we given you. For we are aliens and transients before you, as were all our ancestors; our days on the earth are like a shadow, and there is no hope. O Lord our God, all this abundance that we have provided for building you a house for your holy name comes from your hand and is all your own.
2 Chron 7:1 When Solomon had ended his prayer, fire came down from heaven and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the Lord filled the temple.
Heb 11:4 By faith Abel offered to God a more acceptable sacrifice than Cain's. Through this he received approval as righteous, God himself giving approval to his gifts; he died, but through his faith he still speaks.
Ex 18:21-22 You should also look for able men among all the people, men who fear God, are trustworthy, and hate dishonest gain; set such men over them as officers over thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens. Let them sit as judges for the people at all times; let them bring every important case to you, but decide every minor case themselves. So it will be easier for you, and they will bear the burden with you.
Deut 1:17 You must not be partial in judging: hear out the small and the great alike; you shall not be intimidated by anyone, for the judgment is God's. Any case that is too hard for you, bring to me, and I will hear it."
1 Sam 10:24 Samuel said to all the people, "Do you see the one whom the Lord has chosen? There is no one like him among all the people." And all the people shouted, "Long live the king!"
Ps 71:1 In you, O Lord, I take refuge; let me never be put to shame.
Ps 144:10 the one who gives victory to kings, who rescues his servant David.
Prov 11:14 Where there is no guidance, a nation falls, but in an abundance of counselors there is safety.
Rom 13:3-4 For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Do you wish to have no fear of the authority? Then do what is good, and you will receive its approval; for it is God's servant for your good. But if you do what is wrong, you should be afraid, for the authority does not bear the sword in vain! It is the servant of God to execute wrath on the wrongdoer.
1 Tim 2:1-2 First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for everyone, for kings and all who are in high positions, so that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and dignity.
1 Pet 2:13-14 For the Lord's sake accept the authority of every human institution, whether of the emperor as supreme, or of governors, as sent by him to punish those who do wrong and to praise those who do right.
Ex 23:2-9 You shall not follow a majority in wrongdoing; when you bear witness in a lawsuit, you shall not side with the majority so as to pervert justice; nor shall you be partial to the poor in a lawsuit. When you come upon your enemy's ox or donkey going astray, you shall bring it back. When you see the donkey of one who hates you lying under its burden and you would hold back from setting it free, you must help to set it free. You shall not pervert the justice due to your poor in their lawsuits. Keep far from a false charge, and do not kill the innocent and those in the right, for I will not acquit the guilty. You shall take no bribe, for a bribe blinds the officials, and subverts the cause of those who are in the right. You shall not oppress a resident alien; you know the heart of an alien, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt.
Num 25:11 "Phinehas son of Eleazar, son of Aaron the priest, has turned back my wrath from the Israelites by manifesting such zeal among them on my behalf that in my jealousy I did not consume the Israelites.
Num 35:19 The avenger of blood is the one who shall put the murderer to death; when they meet, the avenger of blood shall execute the sentence.
Deut 17:15 you may indeed set over you a king whom the Lord your God will choose. One of your own community you may set as king over you; you are not permitted to put a foreigner over you, who is not of your own community.
1 Kings 3:9 Give your servant therefore an understanding mind to govern your people, able to discern between good and evil; for who can govern this your great people?"
Ps 20:1-4 The Lord answer you in the day of trouble! The name of the God of Jacob protect you! May he send you help from the sanctuary, and give you support from Zion. May he remember all your offerings, and regard with favor your burnt sacrifices.Selah May he grant you your heart's desire, and fulfill all your plans.
Ps 132:9 Let your priests be clothed with righteousness, and let your faithful shout for joy.
Jer 3:15 I will give you shepherds after my own heart, who will feed you with knowledge and understanding.
Matt 5:13 "You are the salt of the earth; but if salt has lost its taste, how can its saltiness be restored? It is no longer good for anything, but is thrown out and trampled under foot.
Matt 5:16 In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father in heaven.
Matt 28:19 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
Luke 22:8 So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover meal for us that we may eat it."
Luke 22:19 Then he took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me."
John 6:63 It is the spirit that gives life; the flesh is useless. The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life.
John 17:17 Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.
Acts 7:38 He is the one who was in the congregation in the wilderness with the angel who spoke to him at Mount Sinai, and with our ancestors; and he received living oracles to give to us.
Acts 8:36-38 As they were going along the road, they came to some water; and the eunuch said, "Look, here is water! What is to prevent me from being baptized?" He commanded the chariot to stop, and both of them, Philip and the eunuch, went down into the water, and Philip baptized him.
Acts 16:31-33 They answered, "Believe on the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household." They spoke the word of the Lord to him and to all who were in his house. At the same hour of the night he took them and washed their wounds; then he and his entire family were baptized without delay.
Acts 20:7 On the first day of the week, when we met to break bread, Paul was holding a discussion with them; since he intended to leave the next day, he continued speaking until midnight.
Acts 20:28 Keep watch over yourselves and over all the flock, of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God that he obtained with the blood of his own Son.
1 Cor 14:26 What should be done then, my friends? When you come together, each one has a hymn, a lesson, a revelation, a tongue, or an interpretation. Let all things be done for building up.
1 Cor 14:40 but all things should be done decently and in order.
Eph 6:18-19 Pray in the Spirit at all times in every prayer and supplication. To that end keep alert and always persevere in supplication for all the saints. Pray also for me, so that when I speak, a message may be given to me to make known with boldness the mystery of the gospel,
Phil 1:1-2 Paul and Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus, To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are in Philippi, with the bishops and deacons: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Thess 3:1 Finally, brothers and sisters, pray for us, so that the word of the Lord may spread rapidly and be glorified everywhere, just as it is among you,
1 Tim 4:12 Let no one despise your youth, but set the believers an example in speech and conduct, in love, in faith, in purity.
1 Tim 4:16 Pay close attention to yourself and to your teaching; continue in these things, for in doing this you will save both yourself and your hearers.
2 Tim 2:7 Think over what I say, for the Lord will give you understanding in all things.
2 Tim 2:15 Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved by him, a worker who has no need to be ashamed, rightly explaining the word of truth.
Tit 2:7-8 Show yourself in all respects a model of good works, and in your teaching show integrity, gravity, and sound speech that cannot be censured; then any opponent will be put to shame, having nothing evil to say of us.
Luke 12:42-43 And the Lord said, "Who then is the faithful and prudent manager whom his master will put in charge of his slaves, to give them their allowance of food at the proper time? Blessed is that slave whom his master will find at work when he arrives.
1 Tim 1:2 To Timothy, my loyal child in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.
Ex 3:5 Then he said, "Come no closer! Remove the sandals from your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground."
Deut 32:46-47 he said to them: "Take to heart all the words that I am giving in witness against you today; give them as a command to your children, so that they may diligently observe all the words of this law. This is no trifling matter for you, but rather your very life; through it you may live long in the land that you are crossing over the Jordan to possess."
Neh 8:2-5 Accordingly, the priest Ezra brought the law before the assembly, both men and women and all who could hear with understanding. This was on the first day of the seventh month. He read from it facing the square before the Water Gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women and those who could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive to the book of the law. The scribe Ezra stood on a wooden platform that had been made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, Shema, Anaiah, Uriah, Hilkiah, and Maaseiah on his right hand; and Pedaiah, Mishael, Malchijah, Hashum, Hash-baddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam on his left hand. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people, for he was standing above all the people; and when he opened it, all the people stood up.
Ps 119:18 Open my eyes, so that I may behold wondrous things out of your law.
Ps 119:36 Turn my heart to your decrees, and not to selfish gain.
Prov 16:1 The plans of the mind belong to mortals, but the answer of the tongue is from the Lord.
Ezek 36:27 I will put my spirit within you, and make you follow my statutes and be careful to observe my ordinances.
Acts 10:33 Therefore I sent for you immediately, and you have been kind enough to come. So now all of us are here in the presence of God to listen to all that the Lord has commanded you to say."
1 Thess 2:14 For you, brothers and sisters, became imitators of the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are in Judea, for you suffered the same things from your own compatriots as they did from the Jews,
Jam 1:19 You must understand this, my beloved: let everyone be quick to listen, slow to speak, slow to anger;
Jam 1:21 Therefore rid yourselves of all sordidness and rank growth of wickedness, and welcome with meekness the implanted word that has the power to save your souls.
Rev 2:11 Let anyone who has an ear listen to what the Spirit is saying to the churches. Whoever conquers will not be harmed by the second death.
Ex 4:30-31 Aaron spoke all the words that the Lord had spoken to Moses, and performed the signs in the sight of the people. The people believed; and when they heard that the Lord had given heed to the Israelites and that he had seen their misery, they bowed down and worshiped.
Prov 3:34 Toward the scorners he is scornful, but to the humble he shows favor.
Acts 13:46 Then both Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, saying, "It was necessary that the word of God should be spoken first to you. Since you reject it and judge yourselves to be unworthy of eternal life, we are now turning to the Gentiles.
Acts 28:23-28 After they had set a day to meet with him, they came to him at his lodgings in great numbers. From morning until evening he explained the matter to them, testifying to the kingdom of God and trying to convince them about Jesus both from the law of Moses and from the prophets. Some were convinced by what he had said, while others refused to believe. So they disagreed with each other; and as they were leaving, Paul made one further statement: "The Holy Spirit was right in saying to your ancestors through the prophet Isaiah, 'Go to this people and say, You will indeed listen, but never understand, and you will indeed look, but never perceive. For this people's heart has grown dull, and their ears are hard of hearing, and they have shut their eyes; so that they might not look with their eyes, and listen with their ears, and understand with their heart and turn-- and I would heal them.' Let it be known to you then that this salvation of God has been sent to the Gentiles; they will listen."
Mic 4:5 For all the peoples walk, each in the name of its god, but we will walk in the name of the Lord our God forever and ever.
Luke 1:74-75 that we, being rescued from the hands of our enemies, might serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him all our days.
Rom 6:22 But now that you have been freed from sin and enslaved to God, the advantage you get is sanctification. The end is eternal life.
Gal 6:9 So let us not grow weary in doing what is right, for we will reap at harvest time, if we do not give up.
2 Tim 3:16-17 All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, so that everyone who belongs to God may be proficient, equipped for every good work.
Jam 1:22 But be doers of the word, and not merely hearers who deceive themselves.
Tit 2:11-12 For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all, training us to renounce impiety and worldly passions, and in the present age to live lives that are self-controlled, upright, and godly,
Mic 4:5 For all the peoples walk, each in the name of its god, but we will walk in the name of the Lord our God forever and ever.
Luke 1:74-75 that we, being rescued from the hands of our enemies, might serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him all our days.
Rom 6:22 But now that you have been freed from sin and enslaved to God, the advantage you get is sanctification. The end is eternal life.
Gal 6:9 So let us not grow weary in doing what is right, for we will reap at harvest time, if we do not give up.
2 Tim 3:16-17 All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, so that everyone who belongs to God may be proficient, equipped for every good work.
Jam 1:22 But be doers of the word, and not merely hearers who deceive themselves.
Tit 2:11-12 For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all, training us to renounce impiety and worldly passions, and in the present age to live lives that are self-controlled, upright, and godly,
Mic 4:5 For all the peoples walk, each in the name of its god, but we will walk in the name of the Lord our God forever and ever.
Luke 1:74-75 that we, being rescued from the hands of our enemies, might serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him all our days.
Rom 6:22 But now that you have been freed from sin and enslaved to God, the advantage you get is sanctification. The end is eternal life.
Gal 6:9 So let us not grow weary in doing what is right, for we will reap at harvest time, if we do not give up.
2 Tim 3:16-17 All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, so that everyone who belongs to God may be proficient, equipped for every good work.
Jam 1:22 But be doers of the word, and not merely hearers who deceive themselves.
Tit 2:11-12 For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all, training us to renounce impiety and worldly passions, and in the present age to live lives that are self-controlled, upright, and godly,

The Exhortations

After which follow some wholsom Exhortations to those that are coming to the holy Communion, seriously exhorting the unprepared to forbear. So was the custome of old in the Greek Church. The Priest admonishes all that are coming to that holy Sacrament, driving away the unworthy, but inviting the prepared, and that with a loud voice, and hands lifted up, standing aloft, where he may be seen and heard of all. Chrys. in Heb. hom. 9. in Ethic.

Due preparation necessary to the receiving the Sacrament. GREAT mysteries ought to be ushered in with the solemnities of a great preparation: God gave the Israelites three days' warning of his design to publish the Law, and ordered their festivals to be proclaimed by the sound of a trumpet some time before. The Paschal Lamb (the type of Christ in this sacrament) was to be chosen and kept by them four days, to put them in mind of preparing for the celebration of the passover: and Christians, having more and higher duties to do in order to this holy feast, ought not to have less time or shorter warning. Wherefore, as good Hezekiah published, by particular expresses, his intended passover long before; so hath our Church prudently ordered timely notice to be given, that none might pretend to stay away out of ignorance of the time, or unfitness for the duty, but that all might come, and with due preparation.

First Exhortation

§.2. Why there were no Exhortations in the primitive Church. The ancient Church indeed had no such exhortations: for their daily, or at least weekly communions, made it known that there was then no solemn assembly of Christians without it; and every one (not under censure) was expected to communicate. But now, when the time is somewhat uncertain, and our long omissions have made some of us ignorant, and others forgetful of this duty; most of us unwilling, and all of us more or less indisposed for it; it was thought both prudent and necessary to provide these exhortations, to be read when the Minister gives warning of the Communion, which he is always to do, upon the Sunday or some Holy-day immediately preceding.

When the Minister giveth warning for the celebration of the holy Communion, (which he shall always do upon the Sunday, or some Holy-day, immediately preceding,) after the Sermon or Homily ended, he shall read this Exhortation following.

Lev 23:1-3 The Lord spoke to Moses, saying: Speak to the people of Israel and say to them: These are the appointed festivals of the Lord that you shall proclaim as holy convocations, my appointed festivals. Six days shall work be done; but the seventh day is a sabbath of complete rest, a holy convocation; you shall do no work: it is a sabbath to the Lord throughout your settlements.
2 Chron 35:6 Slaughter the passover lamb, sanctify yourselves, and on behalf of your kindred make preparations, acting according to the word of the Lord by Moses."
Matt 7:6 "Do not give what is holy to dogs; and do not throw your pearls before swine, or they will trample them under foot and turn and maul you.
Acts 2:41-42 So those who welcomed his message were baptized, and that day about three thousand persons were added. They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.
Phil 4:1 Therefore, my brothers and sisters, whom I love and long for, my joy and crown, stand firm in the Lord in this way, my beloved.
Heb 12:28 Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, let us give thanks, by which we offer to God an acceptable worship with reverence and awe;
Heb 13:10 We have an altar from which those who officiate in the tent have no right to eat.
Jam 4:1-15 Those conflicts and disputes among you, where do they come from? Do they not come from your cravings that are at war within you? You want something and do not have it; so you commit murder. And you covet something and cannot obtain it; so you engage in disputes and conflicts. You do not have, because you do not ask. You ask and do not receive, because you ask wrongly, in order to spend what you get on your pleasures. Adulterers! Do you not know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Therefore whoever wishes to be a friend of the world becomes an enemy of God. Or do you suppose that it is for nothing that the scripture says, "God yearns jealously for the spirit that he has made to dwell in us"? But he gives all the more grace; therefore it says, "God opposes the proud, but gives grace to the humble." Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded. Lament and mourn and weep. Let your laughter be turned into mourning and your joy into dejection. Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will exalt you. Do not speak evil against one another, brothers and sisters. Whoever speaks evil against another or judges another, speaks evil against the law and judges the law; but if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law but a judge. There is one lawgiver and judge who is able to save and to destroy. So who, then, are you to judge your neighbor? Come now, you who say, "Today or tomorrow we will go to such and such a town and spend a year there, doing business and making money." Yet you do not even know what tomorrow will bring. What is your life? For you are a mist that appears for a little while and then vanishes. Instead you ought to say, "If the Lord wishes, we will live and do this or that."
Rev 3:20 Listen! I am standing at the door, knocking; if you hear my voice and open the door, I will come in to you and eat with you, and you with me.
Acts 1:3 After his suffering he presented himself alive to them by many convincing proofs, appearing to them during forty days and speaking about the kingdom of God.
1 Cor 11:23-25 For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, "This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." In the same way he took the cup also, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me."
Gal 6:14 May I never boast of anything except the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world.
Col 1:20 and through him God was pleased to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, by making peace through the blood of his cross.
Heb 2:9-10 but we do see Jesus, who for a little while was made lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone. It was fitting that God, for whom and through whom all things exist, in bringing many children to glory, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
1 Pet 1:18-19 You know that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your ancestors, not with perishable things like silver or gold, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without defect or blemish.
Matt 5:3 "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Acts 4:12 There is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among mortals by which we must be saved."
Eph 1:7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace
Col 1:12 giving thanks to the Father, who has enabled you to share in the inheritance of the saints in the light.
Heb 9:11-12 But when Christ came as a high priest of the good things that have come, then through the greater and perfect tent (not made with hands, that is, not of this creation), he entered once for all into the Holy Place, not with the blood of goats and calves, but with his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption.
Heb 9:22 Indeed, under the law almost everything is purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins.
Heb 10:12 But when Christ had offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, "he sat down at the right hand of God,"
Heb 10:14 For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are sanctified.
1 Pet 4:13 But rejoice insofar as you are sharing Christ's sufferings, so that you may also be glad and shout for joy when his glory is revealed.
Ps 107:8 Let them thank the Lord for his steadfast love, for his wonderful works to humankind.
Ps 116:12-13 What shall I return to the Lord for all his bounty to me? I will lift up the cup of salvation and call on the name of the Lord,
Luke 1:46-47 And Mary said, "My soul magnifies the Lord, and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior,
Eph 5:20 giving thanks to God the Father at all times and for everything in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Col 3:15 And let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, to which indeed you were called in the one body. And be thankful.
Heb 13:15 Through him, then, let us continually offer a sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of lips that confess his name.
John 3:16 "For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life.
John 6:53-56 So Jesus said to them, "Very truly, I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood have eternal life, and I will raise them up on the last day; for my flesh is true food and my blood is true drink. Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood abide in me, and I in them.
Rom 5:8 But God proves his love for us in that while we still were sinners Christ died for us.
Rom 8:32 He who did not withhold his own Son, but gave him up for all of us, will he not with him also give us everything else?
1 Cor 15:3 For I handed on to you as of first importance what I in turn had received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures,
2 Cor 5:21 For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.
Gal 2:20 and it is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.
1 Cor 10:16 The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a sharing in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a sharing in the body of Christ?
1 Cor 11:26-27 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be answerable for the body and blood of the Lord.
Gen 28:17 And he was afraid, and said, "How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven."
Ps 4:4 When you are disturbed, do not sin; ponder it on your beds, and be silent.Selah
Ezek 3:18-19 If I say to the wicked, "You shall surely die," and you give them no warning, or speak to warn the wicked from their wicked way, in order to save their life, those wicked persons shall die for their iniquity; but their blood I will require at your hand. But if you warn the wicked, and they do not turn from their wickedness, or from their wicked way, they shall die for their iniquity; but you will have saved your life.
Acts 24:16 Therefore I do my best always to have a clear conscience toward God and all people.
1 Cor 11:28-29 Examine yourselves, and only then eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For all who eat and drink without discerning the body, eat and drink judgment against themselves.
2 Cor 13:5 Examine yourselves to see whether you are living in the faith. Test yourselves. Do you not realize that Jesus Christ is in you?--unless, indeed, you fail to meet the test!
1 Tim 1:5 But the aim of such instruction is love that comes from a pure heart, a good conscience, and sincere faith.
Job 13:16 This will be my salvation, that the godless shall not come before him.
Job 36:13 "The godless in heart cherish anger; they do not cry for help when he binds them.
Ps 26:4 I do not sit with the worthless, nor do I consort with hypocrites;
Jer 42:20 that you have made a fatal mistake. For you yourselves sent me to the Lord your God, saying, 'Pray for us to the Lord our God, and whatever the Lord our God says, tell us and we will do it.'
1 Cor 11:31 But if we judged ourselves, we would not be judged.
2 Cor 13:5 Examine yourselves to see whether you are living in the faith. Test yourselves. Do you not realize that Jesus Christ is in you?--unless, indeed, you fail to meet the test!
Ps 51:10 Create in me a clean heart, O God, and put a new and right spirit within me.
Is 1:16-17 Wash yourselves; make yourselves clean; remove the evil of your doings from before my eyes; cease to do evil, learn to do good; seek justice, rescue the oppressed, defend the orphan, plead for the widow.
Is 61:10 I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my whole being shall exult in my God; for he has clothed me with the garments of salvation, he has covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decks himself with a garland, and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.
Matt 22:11-13 "But when the king came in to see the guests, he noticed a man there who was not wearing a wedding robe, and he said to him, 'Friend, how did you get in here without a wedding robe?' And he was speechless. Then the king said to the attendants, 'Bind him hand and foot, and throw him into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.'
John 13:10-11 Jesus said to him, "One who has bathed does not need to wash, except for the feet, but is entirely clean. And you are clean, though not all of you." For he knew who was to betray him; for this reason he said, "Not all of you are clean."
John 15:3 You have already been cleansed by the word that I have spoken to you.
1 Cor 10:21 You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons.
1 Pet 1:15-16 Instead, as he who called you is holy, be holy yourselves in all your conduct; for it is written, "You shall be holy, for I am holy."
Rev 3:4 Yet you have still a few persons in Sardis who have not soiled their clothes; they will walk with me, dressed in white, for they are worthy.
Rev 19:8 to her it has been granted to be clothed with fine linen, bright and pure"-- for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints.
Ps 19:8-11 the precepts of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart; the commandment of the Lord is clear, enlightening the eyes; the fear of the Lord is pure, enduring forever; the ordinances of the Lord are true and righteous altogether. More to be desired are they than gold, even much fine gold; sweeter also than honey, and drippings of the honeycomb. Moreover by them is your servant warned; in keeping them there is great reward.
Is 8:20 for teaching and for instruction?" surely, those who speak like this will have no dawn!
Hag 1:5 Now therefore thus says the Lord of hosts: Consider how you have fared.
Luke 10:26 He said to him, "What is written in the law? What do you read there?"
Luke 16:29 Abraham replied, 'They have Moses and the prophets; they should listen to them.'
John 12:47-48 I do not judge anyone who hears my words and does not keep them, for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. The one who rejects me and does not receive my word has a judge; on the last day the word that I have spoken will serve as judge,
2 Tim 3:16 All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness,
Ps 19:8-11 the precepts of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart; the commandment of the Lord is clear, enlightening the eyes; the fear of the Lord is pure, enduring forever; the ordinances of the Lord are true and righteous altogether. More to be desired are they than gold, even much fine gold; sweeter also than honey, and drippings of the honeycomb. Moreover by them is your servant warned; in keeping them there is great reward.
Is 8:20 for teaching and for instruction?" surely, those who speak like this will have no dawn!
Hag 1:5 Now therefore thus says the Lord of hosts: Consider how you have fared.
Luke 10:26 He said to him, "What is written in the law? What do you read there?"
Luke 16:29 Abraham replied, 'They have Moses and the prophets; they should listen to them.'
John 12:47-48 I do not judge anyone who hears my words and does not keep them, for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. The one who rejects me and does not receive my word has a judge; on the last day the word that I have spoken will serve as judge,
2 Tim 3:16 All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness,
Job 34:31-32 "For has anyone said to God, 'I have endured punishment; I will not offend any more; teach me what I do not see; if I have done iniquity, I will do it no more'?
Job 40:4 "See, I am of small account; what shall I answer you? I lay my hand on my mouth.
Job 42:5-6 I had heard of you by the hearing of the ear, but now my eye sees you; therefore I despise myself, and repent in dust and ashes."
Ps 32:5 Then I acknowledged my sin to you, and I did not hide my iniquity; I said, "I will confess my transgressions to the Lord," and you forgave the guilt of my sin.Selah
Ps 119:59-60 When I think of your ways, I turn my feet to your decrees; I hurry and do not delay to keep your commandments.
Prov 28:13 No one who conceals transgressions will prosper, but one who confesses and forsakes them will obtain mercy.
Jer 7:3 Thus says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel: Amend your ways and your doings, and let me dwell with you in this place.
Jer 31:18-19 Indeed I heard Ephraim pleading: "You disciplined me, and I took the discipline; I was like a calf untrained. Bring me back, let me come back, for you are the Lord my God. For after I had turned away I repented; and after I was discovered, I struck my thigh; I was ashamed, and I was dismayed because I bore the disgrace of my youth."
2 Cor 7:10-11 For godly grief produces a repentance that leads to salvation and brings no regret, but worldly grief produces death. For see what earnestness this godly grief has produced in you, what eagerness to clear yourselves, what indignation, what alarm, what longing, what zeal, what punishment! At every point you have proved yourselves guiltless in the matter.
Ex 22:6-7 When fire breaks out and catches in thorns so that the stacked grain or the standing grain or the field is consumed, the one who started the fire shall make full restitution. When someone delivers to a neighbor money or goods for safekeeping, and they are stolen from the neighbor's house, then the thief, if caught, shall pay double.
Matt 5:23-26 So when you are offering your gift at the altar, if you remember that your brother or sister has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar and go; first be reconciled to your brother or sister, and then come and offer your gift. Come to terms quickly with your accuser while you are on the way to court with him, or your accuser may hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the guard, and you will be thrown into prison. Truly I tell you, you will never get out until you have paid the last penny.
Luke 19:8 Zacchaeus stood there and said to the Lord, "Look, half of my possessions, Lord, I will give to the poor; and if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I will pay back four times as much."
Matt 18:34-35 And in anger his lord handed him over to be tortured until he would pay his entire debt. So my heavenly Father will also do to every one of you, if you do not forgive your brother or sister from your heart."
Mark 11:25 "Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father in heaven may also forgive you your trespasses."
Luke 11:4 And forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone indebted to us. And do not bring us to the time of trial."
Luke 17:3-4 Be on your guard! If another disciple sins, you must rebuke the offender, and if there is repentance, you must forgive. And if the same person sins against you seven times a day, and turns back to you seven times and says, 'I repent,' you must forgive."
1 Cor 11:29 For all who eat and drink without discerning the body, eat and drink judgment against themselves.
Col 3:13 Bear with one another and, if anyone has a complaint against another, forgive each other; just as the Lord has forgiven you, so you also must forgive.
Matt 27:3-5 When Judas, his betrayer, saw that Jesus was condemned, he repented and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and the elders. He said, "I have sinned by betraying innocent blood." But they said, "What is that to us? See to it yourself." Throwing down the pieces of silver in the temple, he departed; and he went and hanged himself.
Luke 11:52 Woe to you lawyers! For you have taken away the key of knowledge; you did not enter yourselves, and you hindered those who were entering."
Luke 22:3-5 Then Satan entered into Judas called Iscariot, who was one of the twelve; he went away and conferred with the chief priests and officers of the temple police about how he might betray him to them. They were greatly pleased and agreed to give him money.
Luke 22:21-22 But see, the one who betrays me is with me, and his hand is on the table. For the Son of Man is going as it has been determined, but woe to that one by whom he is betrayed!"
Acts 1:18 (Now this man acquired a field with the reward of his wickedness; and falling headlong, he burst open in the middle and all his bowels gushed out.
Acts 3:19 Repent therefore, and turn to God so that your sins may be wiped out,
Rom 3:8 And why not say (as some people slander us by saying that we say), "Let us do evil so that good may come"? Their condemnation is deserved!
1 Cor 6:9-10 Do you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived! Fornicators, idolaters, adulterers, male prostitutes, sodomites, thieves, the greedy, drunkards, revilers, robbers--none of these will inherit the kingdom of God.
1 Cor 10:21 You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons.
1 Cor 11:31 But if we judged ourselves, we would not be judged.
Col 3:8 But now you must get rid of all such things--anger, wrath, malice, slander, and abusive language from your mouth.
2 Tim 3:1-2 You must understand this, that in the last days distressing times will come. For people will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boasters, arrogant, abusive, disobedient to their parents, ungrateful, unholy,
2 Tim 4:14-15 Alexander the coppersmith did me great harm; the Lord will pay him back for his deeds. You also must beware of him, for he strongly opposed our message.
Jam 2:7 Is it not they who blaspheme the excellent name that was invoked over you?
Ps 52:8 But I am like a green olive tree in the house of God. I trust in the steadfast love of God forever and ever.
Is 12:2 Surely God is my salvation; I will trust, and will not be afraid, for the Lord God is my strength and my might; he has become my salvation.
Acts 16:31 They answered, "Believe on the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household."
Rom 14:5 Some judge one day to be better than another, while others judge all days to be alike. Let all be fully convinced in their own minds.
Heb 10:19-29 Therefore, my friends, since we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain (that is, through his flesh), and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us approach with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold fast to the confession of our hope without wavering, for he who has promised is faithful. And let us consider how to provoke one another to love and good deeds, not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day approaching. For if we willfully persist in sin after having received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, but a fearful prospect of judgment, and a fury of fire that will consume the adversaries. Anyone who has violated the law of Moses dies without mercy "on the testimony of two or three witnesses." How much worse punishment do you think will be deserved by those who have spurned the Son of God, profaned the blood of the covenant by which they were sanctified, and outraged the Spirit of grace?
Heb 12:22 But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering,
Heb 12:24 and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel.
1 John 3:20-21 whenever our hearts condemn us; for God is greater than our hearts, and he knows everything. Beloved, if our hearts do not condemn us, we have boldness before God;

Second Exhortation

§.3. The usefulness of these composures. As to the composures themselves, they are so extraordinary suitable, that if every communicant would duly weigh and consider them, they would be no small help towards a due preparation. The first contains proper exhortations and instructions how to prepare ourselves: the latter is more urgent, and applicable to those who generally turn their backs upon those holy mysteries, and shews the danger of those vain and frivolous excuses which men frequently make for their staying away. For which reason it is appointed by the rubric to be used instead of the former, whenever the Minister shall observe that the people are negligent to come.*

§.4. How this rubric is to be reconciled with that after the Nicene Creed. How the rubric that orders these exhortations to be read after the Sermon or Homily is ended, may be reconciled to the rubric that orders the Minister to give notice of the Communion before Sermon, I have already shewed upon that place.

Or, in case he shall see the people negligent to come to the holy Communion, instead of the former, he shall use this Exhortation.

Ps 52:8 But I am like a green olive tree in the house of God. I trust in the steadfast love of God forever and ever.
Is 12:2 Surely God is my salvation; I will trust, and will not be afraid, for the Lord God is my strength and my might; he has become my salvation.
Acts 16:31 They answered, "Believe on the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household."
Rom 14:5 Some judge one day to be better than another, while others judge all days to be alike. Let all be fully convinced in their own minds.
Heb 10:19-29 Therefore, my friends, since we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain (that is, through his flesh), and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us approach with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold fast to the confession of our hope without wavering, for he who has promised is faithful. And let us consider how to provoke one another to love and good deeds, not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day approaching. For if we willfully persist in sin after having received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, but a fearful prospect of judgment, and a fury of fire that will consume the adversaries. Anyone who has violated the law of Moses dies without mercy "on the testimony of two or three witnesses." How much worse punishment do you think will be deserved by those who have spurned the Son of God, profaned the blood of the covenant by which they were sanctified, and outraged the Spirit of grace?
Heb 12:22 But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering,
Heb 12:24 and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel.
1 John 3:20-21 whenever our hearts condemn us; for God is greater than our hearts, and he knows everything. Beloved, if our hearts do not condemn us, we have boldness before God;
Prov 9:1-12 Wisdom has built her house, she has hewn her seven pillars. She has slaughtered her animals, she has mixed her wine, she has also set her table. She has sent out her servant-girls, she calls from the highest places in the town, "You that are simple, turn in here!" To those without sense she says, "Come, eat of my bread and drink of the wine I have mixed. Lay aside immaturity, and live, and walk in the way of insight." Whoever corrects a scoffer wins abuse; whoever rebukes the wicked gets hurt. A scoffer who is rebuked will only hate you; the wise, when rebuked, will love you. Give instruction to the wise, and they will become wiser still; teach the righteous and they will gain in learning. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and the knowledge of the Holy One is insight. For by me your days will be multiplied, and years will be added to your life. If you are wise, you are wise for yourself; if you scoff, you alone will bear it.
Matt 22:2-9 "The kingdom of heaven may be compared to a king who gave a wedding banquet for his son. He sent his slaves to call those who had been invited to the wedding banquet, but they would not come. Again he sent other slaves, saying, 'Tell those who have been invited: Look, I have prepared my dinner, my oxen and my fat calves have been slaughtered, and everything is ready; come to the wedding banquet.' But they made light of it and went away, one to his farm, another to his business, while the rest seized his slaves, mistreated them, and killed them. The king was enraged. He sent his troops, destroyed those murderers, and burned their city. Then he said to his slaves, 'The wedding is ready, but those invited were not worthy. Go therefore into the main streets, and invite everyone you find to the wedding banquet.'
Luke 14:16-24 Then Jesus said to him, "Someone gave a great dinner and invited many. At the time for the dinner he sent his slave to say to those who had been invited, 'Come; for everything is ready now.' But they all alike began to make excuses. The first said to him, 'I have bought a piece of land, and I must go out and see it; please accept my regrets.' Another said, 'I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I am going to try them out; please accept my regrets.' Another said, 'I have just been married, and therefore I cannot come.' So the slave returned and reported this to his master. Then the owner of the house became angry and said to his slave, 'Go out at once into the streets and lanes of the town and bring in the poor, the crippled, the blind, and the lame.' And the slave said, 'Sir, what you ordered has been done, and there is still room.' Then the master said to the slave, 'Go out into the roads and lanes, and compel people to come in, so that my house may be filled. For I tell you, none of those who were invited will taste my dinner.'"
Matt 7:12 "In everything do to others as you would have them do to you; for this is the law and the prophets.
Heb 3:7-12 Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says, "Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, as on the day of testing in the wilderness, where your ancestors put me to the test, though they had seen my works for forty years. Therefore I was angry with that generation, and I said, 'They always go astray in their hearts, and they have not known my ways.' As in my anger I swore, 'They will not enter my rest.'" Take care, brothers and sisters, that none of you may have an evil, unbelieving heart that turns away from the living God.
Heb 10:25 not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day approaching.
Heb 10:38-39 but my righteous one will live by faith. My soul takes no pleasure in anyone who shrinks back." But we are not among those who shrink back and so are lost, but among those who have faith and so are saved.
Num 9:10 Speak to the Israelites, saying: Anyone of you or your descendants who is unclean through touching a corpse, or is away on a journey, shall still keep the passover to the Lord.
Ps 119:6 Then I shall not be put to shame, having my eyes fixed on all your commandments.
Is 1:16-17 Wash yourselves; make yourselves clean; remove the evil of your doings from before my eyes; cease to do evil, learn to do good; seek justice, rescue the oppressed, defend the orphan, plead for the widow.
Is 65:13 Therefore thus says the Lord God: My servants shall eat, but you shall be hungry; my servants shall drink, but you shall be thirsty; my servants shall rejoice, but you shall be put to shame;
Jer 17:13 O hope of Israel! O Lord! All who forsake you shall be put to shame; those who turn away from you shall be recorded in the underworld, for they have forsaken the fountain of living water, the Lord.
Matt 21:28-29 "What do you think? A man had two sons; he went to the first and said, 'Son, go and work in the vineyard today.' He answered, 'I will not'; but later he changed his mind and went.
Luke 13:3 No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all perish as they did.
Luke 14:16 Then Jesus said to him, "Someone gave a great dinner and invited many.
Acts 17:30-31 While God has overlooked the times of human ignorance, now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will have the world judged in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed, and of this he has given assurance to all by raising him from the dead."
Prov 1:24-27 Because I have called and you refused, have stretched out my hand and no one heeded, and because you have ignored all my counsel and would have none of my reproof, I also will laugh at your calamity; I will mock when panic strikes you, when panic strikes you like a storm, and your calamity comes like a whirlwind, when distress and anguish come upon you.
Matt 25:7-12 Then all those bridesmaids got up and trimmed their lamps. The foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.' But the wise replied, 'No! there will not be enough for you and for us; you had better go to the dealers and buy some for yourselves.' And while they went to buy it, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went with him into the wedding banquet; and the door was shut. Later the other bridesmaids came also, saying, 'Lord, lord, open to us.' But he replied, 'Truly I tell you, I do not know you.'
Rom 2:4 Or do you despise the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience? Do you not realize that God's kindness is meant to lead you to repentance?
Gal 6:7-8 Do not be deceived; God is not mocked, for you reap whatever you sow. If you sow to your own flesh, you will reap corruption from the flesh; but if you sow to the Spirit, you will reap eternal life from the Spirit.
Heb 12:25 See that you do not refuse the one who is speaking; for if they did not escape when they refused the one who warned them on earth, how much less will we escape if we reject the one who warns from heaven!
Luke 14:16-24 Then Jesus said to him, "Someone gave a great dinner and invited many. At the time for the dinner he sent his slave to say to those who had been invited, 'Come; for everything is ready now.' But they all alike began to make excuses. The first said to him, 'I have bought a piece of land, and I must go out and see it; please accept my regrets.' Another said, 'I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I am going to try them out; please accept my regrets.' Another said, 'I have just been married, and therefore I cannot come.' So the slave returned and reported this to his master. Then the owner of the house became angry and said to his slave, 'Go out at once into the streets and lanes of the town and bring in the poor, the crippled, the blind, and the lame.' And the slave said, 'Sir, what you ordered has been done, and there is still room.' Then the master said to the slave, 'Go out into the roads and lanes, and compel people to come in, so that my house may be filled. For I tell you, none of those who were invited will taste my dinner.'"
Acts 13:46 Then both Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, saying, "It was necessary that the word of God should be spoken first to you. Since you reject it and judge yourselves to be unworthy of eternal life, we are now turning to the Gentiles.
Jer 50:5 They shall ask the way to Zion, with faces turned toward it, and they shall come and join themselves to the Lord by an everlasting covenant that will never be forgotten.
Matt 24:45 "Who then is the faithful and wise slave, whom his master has put in charge of his household, to give the other slaves their allowance of food at the proper time?
Luke 22:8 So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover meal for us that we may eat it."
Luke 22:13 So they went and found everything as he had told them; and they prepared the Passover meal.
2 Cor 5:20 So we are ambassadors for Christ, since God is making his appeal through us; we entreat you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God.
Heb 2:3 how can we escape if we neglect so great a salvation? It was declared at first through the Lord, and it was attested to us by those who heard him,
Heb 10:25 not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day approaching.
1 Pet 5:2 to tend the flock of God that is in your charge, exercising the oversight, not under compulsion but willingly, as God would have you do it--not for sordid gain but eagerly.
Matt 27:40 and saying, "You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days, save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross."
Matt 27:50 Then Jesus cried again with a loud voice and breathed his last.
Luke 22:70 All of them asked, "Are you, then, the Son of God?" He said to them, "You say that I am."
Luke 23:46 Then Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, "Father, into your hands I commend my spirit." Having said this, he breathed his last.
Acts 4:12 There is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among mortals by which we must be saved."
1 Cor 11:23-25 For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, "This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." In the same way he took the cup also, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me."
1 Cor 15:3 For I handed on to you as of first importance what I in turn had received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures,
Num 9:13 But anyone who is clean and is not on a journey, and yet refrains from keeping the passover, shall be cut off from the people for not presenting the Lord's offering at its appointed time; such a one shall bear the consequences for the sin.
Ps 50:22 "Mark this, then, you who forget God, or I will tear you apart, and there will be no one to deliver.
Luke 10:16 "Whoever listens to you listens to me, and whoever rejects you rejects me, and whoever rejects me rejects the one who sent me."
John 6:53 So Jesus said to them, "Very truly, I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you.
2 Cor 8:12 For if the eagerness is there, the gift is acceptable according to what one has--not according to what one does not have.
Heb 10:28-31 Anyone who has violated the law of Moses dies without mercy "on the testimony of two or three witnesses." How much worse punishment do you think will be deserved by those who have spurned the Son of God, profaned the blood of the covenant by which they were sanctified, and outraged the Spirit of grace? For we know the one who said, "Vengeance is mine, I will repay." And again, "The Lord will judge his people." It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.
Prov 22:2 The rich and the poor have this in common: the Lord is the maker of them all.
Gal 5:1 For freedom Christ has set us free. Stand firm, therefore, and do not submit again to a yoke of slavery.
Heb 10:38-39 but my righteous one will live by faith. My soul takes no pleasure in anyone who shrinks back." But we are not among those who shrink back and so are lost, but among those who have faith and so are saved.
Jude 19 It is these worldly people, devoid of the Spirit, who are causing divisions.
Deut 32:19 The Lord saw it, and was jealous; he spurned his sons and daughters.
Ps 2:12 kiss his feet, or he will be angry, and you will perish in the way; for his wrath is quickly kindled. Happy are all who take refuge in him.
Ps 4:4 When you are disturbed, do not sin; ponder it on your beds, and be silent.Selah
Ps 119:59-60 When I think of your ways, I turn my feet to your decrees; I hurry and do not delay to keep your commandments.
Lam 3:40 Let us test and examine our ways, and return to the Lord.
Hag 1:7 Thus says the Lord of hosts: Consider how you have fared.
2 Tim 2:7 Think over what I say, for the Lord will give you understanding in all things.
1 Sam 12:23 Moreover as for me, far be it from me that I should sin against the Lord by ceasing to pray for you; and I will instruct you in the good and the right way.
1 Kings 18:37 Answer me, O Lord, answer me, so that this people may know that you, O Lord, are God, and that you have turned their hearts back."
Lam 5:21 Restore us to yourself, O Lord, that we may be restored; renew our days as of old--
Rom 10:1 Brothers and sisters, my heart's desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved.

Third Exhortation

A. And above all things, &c.] That the holy Communion, even in the Apostolical age, was celebrated at the same both table and time, when Christians met for their ordinary repast at meals, hath been said before. No part of that, either spiritual or temporal food, was received without some religious application to God, relative and directed to the ends for which those collations were prepared; which application, whether it concerned the creature destined for bodily or for mystical refreshment, consisted of either two prayers distinct, or two distinct members of one prayer. The first was εὐχαριστία, “thanksgiving” to God for those benefits. The second εὐλογία, “invocation” of His blessing upon them. To speak appositely to the matter in hand, when this application related to the elements separated for the holy Communion, thanksgiving was made to God the Father much to the same effect of this, that is, “for the redemption of the world by the death and passion of our Saviour Jesus Christ,” &c. And from this very use the Communion contracted the name of Eucharist, and not, as hitherto hath been commonly supposed, from any words constituting consecration. Consecration of the elements was made indeed with thanksgiving, not by it; by blessing it was performed, by blessing joined with thanksgiving in one continued form of prayer, or by blessing concomitant with thanksgiving in two distinct forms. Clear it is, though I grant the words were anciently used in a promiscuous sense, these two, thanksgiving and blessing, as distinct things, have in antiquity several designs, and also several forms.

Justin Martyr, describing the Eucharist or thanksgiving, in his time, saith, Ὃ Κύριος παρέδωκε, ἵνα ἅμα τὲ εὐχαριστῶμεν TO θεῷ ὑπὲρ τοῦ τὸν κόσμον ἐκτικέναι σὺν πᾶσι τοῖς ἐν αὐτῷ διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον, καὶ ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς κακίας ἐν ἧ γεγόναμεν ἠλευθερωκέναι ἡμᾶς, καὶ τὰς ἀρχὰς, καὶ τὰς ἐξουσίας καταλελυκέναι τελείαν κατά- λυσιν, διὰ τοῦ παθητοῦ γενομένου κατὰ τὴν βουλὴν αὐτοῦ, “the Lord hath commanded that withal we should give thanks to God for the creation of the world, and all things therein for the benefit of man; and for His delivering us from the misery wherein we were born, and overthrowing principalities and powers with a total defeat, by Him that suffered according to His counsel.” For farther illustration of this place, you must know, that though the agape were now, for the cause afore specified, antiquated in the Greek Church, yet in regard the collations were so very bountiful, as the Communion accommodations served, there remained fair dole for the poor, the ancient form of thanksgiving, used at their ordinary meals, was in part retained, viz. that by which special recognizance was made to God as the Creator, Lord, and giver of all things.

After this, relating to the creatures deputed for Christ’s redemption and passion, and as he elsewhere addeth, ὑπὲρ τοῦ κατηξιῶσθαι τούτων παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ, “for that God did deign them the favour of those gifts of bread and wine.” ‘To the very same purpose is that εὐχαριστία μυστικὴ in the Clementine Constitutions; evyaριστοῦμεν col πάτερ ἡμῶν ὑπὲρ ζωῆς ἧς ἐγνώρισας ἡμῖν διὰ ᾿Ιησοῦ τοῦ παῖδός σου, &c.; “we give Thee hearty thanks, our Father, for the life Thou hast given us by Thy Son Jesus Christ,” &c., dv ἀπέστειλας ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ γίνεσθαι ἄνθρωπον, &c., “whom Thou sentest to become man for our salvation,” &c.: so gradually proceeding through the whole economy of His mediatorship, it concludeth thus; ἔτι evyaριστοῦμεν πάτερ ἡμῶν, ὑπὲρ τοῦ τιμίου αἵματος ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ ἐκχυθέντος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν, καὶ τοῦ τιμίου σώματος, οὗ καὶ ἀντίτυπα ταῦτα ἐπιτελοῦμεν, αὐτοῦ διαταξαμένου ἡμῖν καταγγέλλειν τὸν αὐτοῦ θάνατον ; “we further thank Thee, O our Father, for the precious blood of Jesus Christ shed for us, and for His precious body, the antitypes whereof we now celebrate, He having commanded us to shew forth His death.” Thus have I made it evident whence the word Eucharist is derived, and that this thanksgiving was anciently distinct from the consecrating or blessing of the elements, whereof the several forms are also as easily to be produced, but I shall supersede them for the present, having occasion anon to declare them.

The design of it. THE former exhortations are designed to increase the numbers of the communicants, and this to rectify their dispositions; that so they may be not only many but good. In the ancient Greek Church, besides all other preparatory matters, when the congregation were all placed in order to receive the Sacrament; the Priest, even then standing on the steps to be seen of all, stretched out his hand, and lifted up his voice in the midst of that profound silence, inviting the worthy, and warning the unworthy to forbear.* Which if it were necessary in those blessed days, how much more requisite is it in our looser age, wherein men have learned to trample upon Church discipline, and to come out of fashion at set times, whether they be prepared or not! Every one hopes to pass in the crowd; but knowing the terror of the Lord, though the people have been exhorted before, and though they are now come with a purpose of communicating, and are even conveniently placed for the receiving of the holy Sacrament, yet the Priest again exhorts them in the words of St. Paul, diligently to try and examine themselves before they presume to eat of that breads and drink of that cup, &c.

§.2. The Communications when and how to be conveniently placed. The ordering that the communicants shall be conveniently placed for the receiving of the holy Sacrament, before the Minister reads the exhortation, seems to have an eye to an old custom, still retained in some country churches, where the communicants kneel down in rows one behind another, and there continue till the Minister comes to them. In the first Common Prayer of king Edward, it is thus ordered, just after the Offertory or Sentences: Then so many as shall be partakers of the holy Communion shall tarry still in the choir, the men on the one side, and the women on the other side; where it may be remarked, that the separating the men from the women, and allotting to each sex a distinct place, was what was very strictly observed in the primitive Church.

At the time of the Celebration of the Communion, the Communicants being conveniently placed for the receiving of the holy Sacrament, the Priest shall say this Exhortation.

Ps 4:4 When you are disturbed, do not sin; ponder it on your beds, and be silent.Selah
1 Cor 10:16 The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a sharing in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a sharing in the body of Christ?
1 Cor 11:28 Examine yourselves, and only then eat of the bread and drink of the cup.
2 Cor 13:5 Examine yourselves to see whether you are living in the faith. Test yourselves. Do you not realize that Jesus Christ is in you?--unless, indeed, you fail to meet the test!
Gal 6:4 All must test their own work; then that work, rather than their neighbor's work, will become a cause for pride.
Phil 4:1 Therefore, my brothers and sisters, whom I love and long for, my joy and crown, stand firm in the Lord in this way, my beloved.
1 Pet 2:11 Beloved, I urge you as aliens and exiles to abstain from the desires of the flesh that wage war against the soul.
Luke 18:13 But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even look up to heaven, but was beating his breast and saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!'
John 6:54-56 Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood have eternal life, and I will raise them up on the last day; for my flesh is true food and my blood is true drink. Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood abide in me, and I in them.
John 6:68-69 Simon Peter answered him, "Lord, to whom can we go? You have the words of eternal life. We have come to believe and know that you are the Holy One of God."
John 15:4 Abide in me as I abide in you. Just as the branch cannot bear fruit by itself unless it abides in the vine, neither can you unless you abide in me.
John 17:20-23 "I ask not only on behalf of these, but also on behalf of those who will believe in me through their word, that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me. The glory that you have given me I have given them, so that they may be one, as we are one, I in them and you in me, that they may become completely one, so that the world may know that you have sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me.
Acts 2:38-47 Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. For the promise is for you, for your children, and for all who are far away, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to him." And he testified with many other arguments and exhorted them, saying, "Save yourselves from this corrupt generation." So those who welcomed his message were baptized, and that day about three thousand persons were added. They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers. Awe came upon everyone, because many wonders and signs were being done by the apostles. All who believed were together and had all things in common; they would sell their possessions and goods and distribute the proceeds to all, as any had need. Day by day, as they spent much time together in the temple, they broke bread at home and ate their food with glad and generous hearts, praising God and having the goodwill of all the people. And day by day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.
Acts 20:21 as I testified to both Jews and Greeks about repentance toward God and faith toward our Lord Jesus.
1 John 3:24 All who obey his commandments abide in him, and he abides in them. And by this we know that he abides in us, by the Spirit that he has given us.
1 John 4:12 No one has ever seen God; if we love one another, God lives in us, and his love is perfected in us.
1 John 4:16 So we have known and believe the love that God has for us. God is love, and those who abide in love abide in God, and God abides in them.
Ex 12:15 Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread; on the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses, for whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day shall be cut off from Israel.
Lev 17:4 and does not bring it to the entrance of the tent of meeting, to present it as an offering to the Lord before the tabernacle of the Lord, he shall be held guilty of bloodshed; he has shed blood, and he shall be cut off from the people.
Lev 17:9 and does not bring it to the entrance of the tent of meeting, to sacrifice it to the Lord, shall be cut off from the people.
Lev 19:8 All who eat it shall be subject to punishment, because they have profaned what is holy to the Lord; and any such person shall be cut off from the people.
Num 9:13 But anyone who is clean and is not on a journey, and yet refrains from keeping the passover, shall be cut off from the people for not presenting the Lord's offering at its appointed time; such a one shall bear the consequences for the sin.
Ps 2:12 kiss his feet, or he will be angry, and you will perish in the way; for his wrath is quickly kindled. Happy are all who take refuge in him.
1 Cor 11:27-32 Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be answerable for the body and blood of the Lord. Examine yourselves, and only then eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For all who eat and drink without discerning the body, eat and drink judgment against themselves. For this reason many of you are weak and ill, and some have died. But if we judged ourselves, we would not be judged. But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned along with the world.
Lev 10:1-2 Now Aaron's sons, Nadab and Abihu, each took his censer, put fire in it, and laid incense on it; and they offered unholy fire before the Lord, such as he had not commanded them. And fire came out from the presence of the Lord and consumed them, and they died before the Lord.
Ps 26:6 I wash my hands in innocence, and go around your altar, O Lord,
Ps 34:13-14 Keep your tongue from evil, and your lips from speaking deceit. Depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it.
Is 45:22 Turn to me and be saved, all the ends of the earth! For I am God, and there is no other.
Is 55:7 let the wicked forsake their way, and the unrighteous their thoughts; let them return to the Lord, that he may have mercy on them, and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon.
Matt 3:8 Bear fruit worthy of repentance.
Mark 1:15 and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news."
Luke 17:5 The apostles said to the Lord, "Increase our faith!"
John 6:37 Everything that the Father gives me will come to me, and anyone who comes to me I will never drive away;
Col 3:14 Above all, clothe yourselves with love, which binds everything together in perfect harmony.
1 John 4:7-12 Beloved, let us love one another, because love is from God; everyone who loves is born of God and knows God. Whoever does not love does not know God, for God is love. God's love was revealed among us in this way: God sent his only Son into the world so that we might live through him. In this is love, not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the atoning sacrifice for our sins. Beloved, since God loved us so much, we also ought to love one another. No one has ever seen God; if we love one another, God lives in us, and his love is perfected in us.
Mark 11:22 Jesus answered them, "Have faith in God.
John 3:14-15 And just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up, that whoever believes in him may have eternal life.
John 3:36 Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever disobeys the Son will not see life, but must endure God's wrath.
Ps 50:13 Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?
Ps 116:12-13 What shall I return to the Lord for all his bounty to me? I will lift up the cup of salvation and call on the name of the Lord,
Ps 116:17 I will offer to you a thanksgiving sacrifice and call on the name of the Lord.
1 Cor 1:30 He is the source of your life in Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification and redemption,
2 Cor 9:15 Thanks be to God for his indescribable gift!
Eph 5:20 giving thanks to God the Father at all times and for everything in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Heb 9:12 he entered once for all into the Holy Place, not with the blood of goats and calves, but with his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption.
1 John 2:2 and he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.
Rev 5:9 They sing a new song: "You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, for you were slaughtered and by your blood you ransomed for God saints from every tribe and language and people and nation;
Rev 1:5 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and freed us from our sins by his blood,
John 3:13 No one has ascended into heaven except the one who descended from heaven, the Son of Man.
Phil 2:6-8 who, though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God as something to be exploited, but emptied himself, taking the form of a slave, being born in human likeness. And being found in human form, he humbled himself and became obedient to the point of death-- even death on a cross.
Luke 2:6-7 While they were there, the time came for her to deliver her child. And she gave birth to her firstborn son and wrapped him in bands of cloth, and laid him in a manger, because there was no place for them in the inn.
Heb 2:9 but we do see Jesus, who for a little while was made lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone.
Luke 1:78-79 By the tender mercy of our God, the dawn from on high will break upon us, to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace."
Luke 19:10 For the Son of Man came to seek out and to save the lost."
John 6:47 Very truly, I tell you, whoever believes has eternal life.
John 10:10 The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy. I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly.
1 Cor 15:19 If for this life only we have hoped in Christ, we are of all people most to be pitied.
Gal 3:26 for in Christ Jesus you are all children of God through faith.
Col 1:12-14 giving thanks to the Father, who has enabled you to share in the inheritance of the saints in the light. He has rescued us from the power of darkness and transferred us into the kingdom of his beloved Son, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.
Col 1:21-22 And you who were once estranged and hostile in mind, doing evil deeds, he has now reconciled in his fleshly body through death, so as to present you holy and blameless and irreproachable before him--
1 Tim 1:15 The saying is sure and worthy of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners--of whom I am the foremost.
Ps 107:10 Some sat in darkness and in gloom, prisoners in misery and in irons,
Gal 4:6 And because you are children, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!"
Gal 6:8 If you sow to your own flesh, you will reap corruption from the flesh; but if you sow to the Spirit, you will reap eternal life from the Spirit.
Luke 1:78-79 By the tender mercy of our God, the dawn from on high will break upon us, to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace."
Luke 19:10 For the Son of Man came to seek out and to save the lost."
John 6:47 Very truly, I tell you, whoever believes has eternal life.
John 10:10 The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy. I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly.
1 Cor 15:19 If for this life only we have hoped in Christ, we are of all people most to be pitied.
Gal 3:26 for in Christ Jesus you are all children of God through faith.
Col 1:12-14 giving thanks to the Father, who has enabled you to share in the inheritance of the saints in the light. He has rescued us from the power of darkness and transferred us into the kingdom of his beloved Son, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.
Col 1:21-22 And you who were once estranged and hostile in mind, doing evil deeds, he has now reconciled in his fleshly body through death, so as to present you holy and blameless and irreproachable before him--
1 Tim 1:15 The saying is sure and worthy of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners--of whom I am the foremost.
Ps 107:10 Some sat in darkness and in gloom, prisoners in misery and in irons,
Gal 4:6 And because you are children, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!"
Gal 6:8 If you sow to your own flesh, you will reap corruption from the flesh; but if you sow to the Spirit, you will reap eternal life from the Spirit.
Is 64:5 You meet those who gladly do right, those who remember you in your ways. But you were angry, and we sinned; because you hid yourself we transgressed.
Ps 17:15 As for me, I shall behold your face in righteousness; when I awake I shall be satisfied, beholding your likeness.
Ps 23:4-5 Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I fear no evil; for you are with me; your rod and your staff-- they comfort me. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; you anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows.
Ps 94:19 When the cares of my heart are many, your consolations cheer my soul.
Luke 22:15 He said to them, "I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer;
Luke 22:17-20 Then he took a cup, and after giving thanks he said, "Take this and divide it among yourselves; for I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes." Then he took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me." And he did the same with the cup after supper, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.
1 Cor 11:23-25 For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, "This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." In the same way he took the cup also, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me."
Tit 2:13-14 while we wait for the blessed hope and the manifestation of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ. He it is who gave himself for us that he might redeem us from all iniquity and purify for himself a people of his own who are zealous for good deeds.
1 Sam 3:18 So Samuel told him everything and hid nothing from him. Then he said, "It is the Lord; let him do what seems good to him."
2 Kings 20:19 Then Hezekiah said to Isaiah, "The word of the Lord that you have spoken is good." For he thought, "Why not, if there will be peace and security in my days?"
Ps 40:8 I delight to do your will, O my God; your law is within my heart."
Ps 89:1 I will sing of your steadfast love, O Lord, forever; with my mouth I will proclaim your faithfulness to all generations.
Ps 95:2 Let us come into his presence with thanksgiving; let us make a joyful noise to him with songs of praise!
Ps 100:4 Enter his gates with thanksgiving, and his courts with praise. Give thanks to him, bless his name.
Ps 103:2 Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all his benefits--
Ps 108:1 My heart is steadfast, O God, my heart is steadfast; I will sing and make melody. Awake, my soul!
Ps 116:13-14 I will lift up the cup of salvation and call on the name of the Lord, I will pay my vows to the Lord in the presence of all his people.
Ps 143:10 Teach me to do your will, for you are my God. Let your good spirit lead me on a level path.
Luke 1:74-75 that we, being rescued from the hands of our enemies, might serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him all our days.
Luke 22:42 "Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me; yet, not my will but yours be done."
2 Cor 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and the God of all consolation,
1 Thess 4:1 Finally, brothers and sisters, we ask and urge you in the Lord Jesus that, as you learned from us how you ought to live and to please God (as, in fact, you are doing), you should do so more and more.
2 Thess 1:3 We must always give thanks to God for you, brothers and sisters, as is right, because your faith is growing abundantly, and the love of every one of you for one another is increasing.
Heb 13:15 Through him, then, let us continually offer a sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of lips that confess his name.
Heb 13:20-21 Now may the God of peace, who brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the eternal covenant, make you complete in everything good so that you may do his will, working among us that which is pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
Rev 4:8 And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and inside. Day and night without ceasing they sing, "Holy, holy, holy, the Lord God the Almighty, who was and is and is to come."

The Confession & Absolution

Those that after these exhortations stay to receive, the Church supposing prepared, invites, to draw near; and after their humble confession the Priest or Bishop absolves and comforts them with some choice sentences taken out of holy Scripture.

D. Draw near.] This exhortation, with the former, should regularly be said before the people ascend into the chancel ; for the first, I have the suffrage of a very learned bishop concurring in opinion with me; and for the latter, these very words, “draw near,’' seem to imply as much, which would sound very superfluous and idle, were the communicants already ascended. Therefore Bishop Andrewes hath affixed this marginal note, forte non est opus his verbis, quia jam accesserunt, “perhaps these words might be better spared, because they are already come.” Again, the rubric before this invitation confirms this opinion, enjoining it to be said to them that come (not those that are already come) to receive the holy Communion.

Now to enquire into the practice of antiquity; first, you must know, that the laity, the people, were not permitted so much as to enter the chancel: μόνοις ἐξόν ἐστιν τοῖς iepatixois εἰσιέναι εἰς TO θυσιαστήριον, καὶ κοινωνεῖν, “it is only lawful for the clergy to enter the chancel, and there to communicate.” So also another canon of another council, μὴ ἐξέστῳ τινὶ τῶν arraytov ἐν λαϊκοῖς τελοῦντι, ἔνδον ἱεροῦ εἰσιέναι θυσιαστηρίου ἷ, “Jet no layman be permitted to come within the choir ;” but this is with an exception of honour to the emperor, who had a dispensation to enter this holy place, ἡνίκα ἀν βουληθείη προσάξαι δῶρα τῷ πλάσαντι, “when he had a mind to present his oblations to his Creator.” I do not think that this is the first council which passed this grace to the emperor, because Nazianzen before cited, in the last chapter, gives so clear an account of the matter of fact. I shall not overcharge you with too many proofs in so known a custom, which needs no further demonstration than that familiar phrase, of ' ‘laic communion,” so frequent in St. Cyprian and the African fathers, which denoted the deposing of a clergyman, and compelling him to communicate amongst the people, in a place distinct from the clergy.

Whence first this distinction grew, Bishop Jewel gives this reason, “ that they might not be disturbed in the office of their ministry.” I may assign another, because, at that time, the choir was not susceptible of both states; for, without dispute, the clergy were then surpassing numerous, so as Nazianzen speaks complainingly, εἰσὶ σχεδόν τι πλείους κατ᾽ ἀριθμὸν, : ἣ ὁπόσων ἄρχουσι, “they were very near as many as the flock under their cure.” In the Church of Constantinople there were, by imperial determination, sixty priests, a hundred deacons, a hundred and ten readers, and twenty-five singers.

The people being thus shut out of the choir, some place they must of necessity be allotted, to which the phrase “draw near” (for it was of ancient usage) must have respect; this was the chancel door, or entrance into it; for the clergy having communicated, “‘the superior orders within the rails, at the Communion table, the inferior within the body of the choir,” the priest went down to the chancel door, opened both leaves, which before were kept shut; upon which occasion St. Chrysostom hath this excellent advertisement ; ὅταν oe ions ἀνελκόμενα τὰ ἀμφίθυρα, τότε νόμισον διαστέλλεσθαι τὸν οὐρανὸν ἄνωθεν, καὶ κατιέναι τοὺς ἀγγέλους, “ when thou beholdest the two doors of the cancellum, or traverse doors opened, think with thyself thou then beholdest heaven itself displayed, and the Angels descending from above,” there, μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ, φρικτῇ τῇ Bon, καθάπερ Tis κήρυξ, THY χεῖρα αἴρων εἰς τὸ ὕψος, ὑψηλὸς ἑστῶς, πᾶσι κατάδηλος γεγονὼς, τοὺς μὲν καλεῖ, τοὺς δ᾽ ἀπείργει, “with a loud voice, and thundering noise, like a crier, lifting his hand on high, mounted up visible to all men, these he inviteth to participate, those he driveth away.”

The form of invitation, if we may credit the liturgy which beareth St. Chrysostom’s name, was this, μετὰ φόβου Θεοῦ καὶ πίστεως προσέλθετε, “in the fear of God with faith draw near ; and the very same is in the liturgy ascribed to James. Certain it is the priest did not run ambling with the elements up and down from man to man, but that the communicants came to him; and this is farther manifest by the Constitutions, called Apostolical ; μεταλαμβανέτω ἑκάστη τάξις καθ᾽ ἑαυτὴν, τοῦ κυριακοῦ σώματος, καὶ τοῦ τιμίου αἵματος, ἐν τάξει μετὰ αἰδοῦς καὶ εὐλαβείας ὡς βασίλέως προσερχόμενοι σώματι: “let every order by itself, in course, participate of the body of the Lord, and of His precious blood, with all fear and reverence, as approaching to the presence of a king.”

Then shall the Priest say to them that come to receive the holy Communion,

Job 34:31-32 "For has anyone said to God, 'I have endured punishment; I will not offend any more; teach me what I do not see; if I have done iniquity, I will do it no more'?
1 Cor 5:7-8 Clean out the old yeast so that you may be a new batch, as you really are unleavened. For our paschal lamb, Christ, has been sacrificed. Therefore, let us celebrate the festival, not with the old yeast, the yeast of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
2 Cor 7:10-11 For godly grief produces a repentance that leads to salvation and brings no regret, but worldly grief produces death. For see what earnestness this godly grief has produced in you, what eagerness to clear yourselves, what indignation, what alarm, what longing, what zeal, what punishment! At every point you have proved yourselves guiltless in the matter.
Ex 23:4-5 When you come upon your enemy's ox or donkey going astray, you shall bring it back. When you see the donkey of one who hates you lying under its burden and you would hold back from setting it free, you must help to set it free.
Matt 22:39 And a second is like it: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.'
1 Cor 13:4 Love is patient; love is kind; love is not envious or boastful or arrogant
1 Cor 13:7 It bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.
1 John 1:7 but if we walk in the light as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin.
1 John 2:9-10 Whoever says, "I am in the light," while hating a brother or sister, is still in the darkness. Whoever loves a brother or sister lives in the light, and in such a person there is no cause for stumbling.
1 John 4:7-11 Beloved, let us love one another, because love is from God; everyone who loves is born of God and knows God. Whoever does not love does not know God, for God is love. God's love was revealed among us in this way: God sent his only Son into the world so that we might live through him. In this is love, not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the atoning sacrifice for our sins. Beloved, since God loved us so much, we also ought to love one another.
1 John 3:11-12 For this is the message you have heard from the beginning, that we should love one another. We must not be like Cain who was from the evil one and murdered his brother. And why did he murder him? Because his own deeds were evil and his brother's righteous.
Ps 119:32 I run the way of your commandments, for you enlarge my understanding.
Ps 143:10 Teach me to do your will, for you are my God. Let your good spirit lead me on a level path.
Luke 9:57 As they were going along the road, someone said to him, "I will follow you wherever you go."
Rom 6:4 Therefore we have been buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.
Rom 6:6 We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin.
2 Cor 5:14-17 For the love of Christ urges us on, because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore all have died. And he died for all, so that those who live might live no longer for themselves, but for him who died and was raised for them. From now on, therefore, we regard no one from a human point of view; even though we once knew Christ from a human point of view, we know him no longer in that way. So if anyone is in Christ, there is a new creation: everything old has passed away; see, everything has become new!
Eph 4:22-24 You were taught to put away your former way of life, your old self, corrupt and deluded by its lusts, and to be renewed in the spirit of your minds, and to clothe yourselves with the new self, created according to the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness.
Gen 5:24 Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, because God took him.
Luke 3:10-14 And the crowds asked him, "What then should we do?" In reply he said to them, "Whoever has two coats must share with anyone who has none; and whoever has food must do likewise." Even tax collectors came to be baptized, and they asked him, "Teacher, what should we do?" He said to them, "Collect no more than the amount prescribed for you." Soldiers also asked him, "And we, what should we do?" He said to them, "Do not extort money from anyone by threats or false accusation, and be satisfied with your wages."
Ps 73:28 But for me it is good to be near God; I have made the Lord God my refuge, to tell of all your works.
Mark 10:49 Jesus stood still and said, "Call him here." And they called the blind man, saying to him, "Take heart; get up, he is calling you."
1 Cor 10:16 The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a sharing in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a sharing in the body of Christ?
Heb 10:22 let us approach with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.
1 Pet 1:7-8 so that the genuineness of your faith--being more precious than gold that, though perishable, is tested by fire--may be found to result in praise and glory and honor when Jesus Christ is revealed. Although you have not seen him, you love him; and even though you do not see him now, you believe in him and rejoice with an indescribable and glorious joy,
1 Pet 4:13 But rejoice insofar as you are sharing Christ's sufferings, so that you may also be glad and shout for joy when his glory is revealed.
Heb 11:6 And without faith it is impossible to please God, for whoever would approach him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him.

The design of it. THE feast being now ready, and the guests prepared with due instruction, the Priest (who is the steward of those mysteries) invites them to draw near; thereby putting them in mind, that they are now invited into Christ's more special presence, to sit down with him at his own table: (and therefore I think it would be more proper if all the communicants were, at these words, to come from the more remote parts of the Church as near to the Lord's table as they could.) But then he adviseth them, in the words of the primitive Liturgies, (i.e. according to our present book) to draw near with faith, without which all their bodily approaches will avail them nothing, it being only by faith that they can really draw near to Christ, and take this holy Sacrament to their comfort.

Ezra 10:11 Now make confession to the Lord the God of your ancestors, and do his will; separate yourselves from the peoples of the land and from the foreign wives."
Ps 51:3 For I know my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me.
Ps 95:6 O come, let us worship and bow down, let us kneel before the Lord, our Maker!
Jer 3:13 Only acknowledge your guilt, that you have rebelled against the Lord your God, and scattered your favors among strangers under every green tree, and have not obeyed my voice, says the Lord.
Luke 22:41 Then he withdrew from them about a stone's throw, knelt down, and prayed,
Acts 21:5 When our days there were ended, we left and proceeded on our journey; and all of them, with wives and children, escorted us outside the city. There we knelt down on the beach and prayed
Jam 4:8 Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded.
Jam 4:10 Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will exalt you.
Dan 6:10 Although Daniel knew that the document had been signed, he continued to go to his house, which had windows in its upper room open toward Jerusalem, and to get down on his knees three times a day to pray to his God and praise him, just as he had done previously.

But seeing they cannot exercise their faith as they ought, until they have heartily confessed and repented of their sins; therefore he further calls upon them to make their humble confession to Almighty God, meekly kneeling upon their knees.

The Confession

E. Then shall this general confession be made.] The Church very aptly disposeth confession at the beginning of the Communion service; for considering that solemn penance, of so laudable practice in the primitive Church, is laid aside, and the necessity of auricular confession worthily abolished ; reason good some account should be given to the Church, and in the Church, of our humble acknowledgment of our sins, and hearty contrition for them, as preparatives necessary to the ensuing duty.

During the whole time of the priest’s officiating at the Communion, setting aside in the very instant of his receiving, you find him but twice upon his knees, whereof this is the first ; at all other times, and parts of the service, he is ordered to stand, and so was the practice of the primitive Church: so the Constitutions, ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς λαμπρὰν ἐσθῆτα μετενδὺς, Kal στὰς πρὸς τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ εὑξάμενος : “the bishop in a white and shining vestment, and standing at the Altar praying.” So Augustine very often, especially where he expostulateth, Quis audivit aliquando fidelium stantem sacerdotem ad altare dicere in precibus, Offero tibi sacrificium Petre vel Paule? &c., “What one of all the faithful ever heard the priest, standing at the Altar, say in his prayers, I offer sacrifice to thee, Peter, or thee, Paul?” This posture was taken up by the Christian Church, in imitation of the Temple service, where the legal sacrifices were offered by the priest standing.

Now the correspondence betwixt the legal and our evangelical sacrifice being such as is betwixt the substance and the shadow, why should we not agree in the posture also? For the priest performing the agenda of this office, is employed in several oblations; first, to offer τὸ εὐχῶν θυμίαμα, “the incense of prayers and praises,” those of the congregation. Secondly, the oblation of our alms. Thirdly, the oblation of ourselves, souls and bodies. Lastly, the grand sacrifice of all, the Lamb of God slain for us, and His death represented in the blessed symbols. But why then doth he not stand at this prayer also? I answer, because it is not part of the former oblations, but an humble confession of his own and the congregation’s transgressions.

The suitableness of it in this place. BESIDES the private confession of the closet, and that made to the Priest in cases of great doubt, there was anciently a general prayer for forgiveness and mercy in the public service of the Church, used by all the communicants when they were come to the altar. And since Christ*s sufferings are here commemorated, it is very reasonable we should confess our sins which were the causes of them: and since we hope to have our pardon sealed, we ought first with shame and sorrow to own our transgressions, for his honour who so freely forgives them: which the congregation here does in words so apposite and pathetical, that if their repentance be answerable to the form, it is impossible it should ever be more hearty and sincere.

Then shall this general Confession be made, in the name of all those that are minded to receive the holy Communion, by one of the Ministers; both he and all the people kneeling humbly upon their knees, and saying,

Ezra 10:11 Now make confession to the Lord the God of your ancestors, and do his will; separate yourselves from the peoples of the land and from the foreign wives."
Ps 51:3 For I know my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me.
Ps 95:6 O come, let us worship and bow down, let us kneel before the Lord, our Maker!
Jer 3:13 Only acknowledge your guilt, that you have rebelled against the Lord your God, and scattered your favors among strangers under every green tree, and have not obeyed my voice, says the Lord.
Luke 22:41 Then he withdrew from them about a stone's throw, knelt down, and prayed,
Acts 21:5 When our days there were ended, we left and proceeded on our journey; and all of them, with wives and children, escorted us outside the city. There we knelt down on the beach and prayed
Jam 4:8 Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded.
Jam 4:10 Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will exalt you.
Dan 6:10 Although Daniel knew that the document had been signed, he continued to go to his house, which had windows in its upper room open toward Jerusalem, and to get down on his knees three times a day to pray to his God and praise him, just as he had done previously.
2 Sam 24:17 When David saw the angel who was destroying the people, he said to the Lord, "I alone have sinned, and I alone have done wickedly; but these sheep, what have they done? Let your hand, I pray, be against me and against my father's house."
Ps 32:3-5 While I kept silence, my body wasted away through my groaning all day long. For day and night your hand was heavy upon me; my strength was dried up as by the heat of summer.Selah Then I acknowledged my sin to you, and I did not hide my iniquity; I said, "I will confess my transgressions to the Lord," and you forgave the guilt of my sin.Selah
Ps 38:4 For my iniquities have gone over my head; they weigh like a burden too heavy for me.
Is 59:12 For our transgressions before you are many, and our sins testify against us. Our transgressions indeed are with us, and we know our iniquities:
Amos 5:12 For I know how many are your transgressions, and how great are your sins-- you who afflict the righteous, who take a bribe, and push aside the needy in the gate.
2 Cor 12:20-21 For I fear that when I come, I may find you not as I wish, and that you may find me not as you wish; I fear that there may perhaps be quarreling, jealousy, anger, selfishness, slander, gossip, conceit, and disorder. I fear that when I come again, my God may humble me before you, and that I may have to mourn over many who previously sinned and have not repented of the impurity, sexual immorality, and licentiousness that they have practiced.
Jam 4:9-10 Lament and mourn and weep. Let your laughter be turned into mourning and your joy into dejection. Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will exalt you.
Neh 9:29 And you warned them in order to turn them back to your law. Yet they acted presumptuously and did not obey your commandments, but sinned against your ordinances, by the observance of which a person shall live. They turned a stubborn shoulder and stiffened their neck and would not obey.
Neh 9:33-34 You have been just in all that has come upon us, for you have dealt faithfully and we have acted wickedly; our kings, our officials, our priests, and our ancestors have not kept your law or heeded the commandments and the warnings that you gave them.
Jer 14:7 Although our iniquities testify against us, act, O Lord, for your name's sake; our apostasies indeed are many, and we have sinned against you.
Lam 1:18 The Lord is in the right, for I have rebelled against his word; but hear, all you peoples, and behold my suffering; my young women and young men have gone into captivity.
Lam 1:20 See, O Lord, how distressed I am; my stomach churns, my heart is wrung within me, because I have been very rebellious. In the street the sword bereaves; in the house it is like death.
Dan 9:5-6 we have sinned and done wrong, acted wickedly and rebelled, turning aside from your commandments and ordinances. We have not listened to your servants the prophets, who spoke in your name to our kings, our princes, and our ancestors, and to all the people of the land.
Ps 94:11 The Lord knows our thoughts, that they are but an empty breath.
Ps 106:6 Both we and our ancestors have sinned; we have committed iniquity, have done wickedly.
Ps 119:113 I hate the double-minded, but I love your law.
Prov 13:3 Those who guard their mouths preserve their lives; those who open wide their lips come to ruin.
Prov 24:9 The devising of folly is sin, and the scoffer is an abomination to all.
Jer 4:14 O Jerusalem, wash your heart clean of wickedness so that you may be saved. How long shall your evil schemes lodge within you?
Matt 12:36-37 I tell you, on the day of judgment you will have to give an account for every careless word you utter; for by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned."
Tit 3:3 For we ourselves were once foolish, disobedient, led astray, slaves to various passions and pleasures, passing our days in malice and envy, despicable, hating one another.
Jam 3:2 For all of us make many mistakes. Anyone who makes no mistakes in speaking is perfect, able to keep the whole body in check with a bridle.
1 John 1:8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.
Gen 39:9 He is not greater in this house than I am, nor has he kept back anything from me except yourself, because you are his wife. How then could I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?"
Deut 9:7 Remember and do not forget how you provoked the Lord your God to wrath in the wilderness; you have been rebellious against the Lord from the day you came out of the land of Egypt until you came to this place.
Neh 9:33 You have been just in all that has come upon us, for you have dealt faithfully and we have acted wickedly;
Job 37:22 Out of the north comes golden splendor; around God is awesome majesty.
Ps 51:4 Against you, you alone, have I sinned, and done what is evil in your sight, so that you are justified in your sentence and blameless when you pass judgment.
Dan 9:14 So the Lord kept watch over this calamity until he brought it upon us. Indeed, the Lord our God is right in all that he has done; for we have disobeyed his voice.
Luke 15:18 I will get up and go to my father, and I will say to him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you;
Rom 2:8-9 while for those who are self-seeking and who obey not the truth but wickedness, there will be wrath and fury. There will be anguish and distress for everyone who does evil, the Jew first and also the Greek,
Ps 78:40-41 How often they rebelled against him in the wilderness and grieved him in the desert! They tested God again and again, and provoked the Holy One of Israel.
Ps 78:58 For they provoked him to anger with their high places; they moved him to jealousy with their idols.
2 Chron 6:37 then if they come to their senses in the land to which they have been taken captive, and repent, and plead with you in the land of their captivity, saying, 'We have sinned, and have done wrong; we have acted wickedly';
Job 7:20 If I sin, what do I do to you, you watcher of humanity? Why have you made me your target? Why have I become a burden to you?
Job 42:5-6 I had heard of you by the hearing of the ear, but now my eye sees you; therefore I despise myself, and repent in dust and ashes."
Ps 38:18 I confess my iniquity; I am sorry for my sin.
2 Cor 7:10 For godly grief produces a repentance that leads to salvation and brings no regret, but worldly grief produces death.
2 Sam 12:13 David said to Nathan, "I have sinned against the Lord." Nathan said to David, "Now the Lord has put away your sin; you shall not die.
Gen 4:13 Cain said to the Lord, "My punishment is greater than I can bear!
Job 7:20-21 If I sin, what do I do to you, you watcher of humanity? Why have you made me your target? Why have I become a burden to you? Why do you not pardon my transgression and take away my iniquity? For now I shall lie in the earth; you will seek me, but I shall not be."
Ps 31:9-10 Be gracious to me, O Lord, for I am in distress; my eye wastes away from grief, my soul and body also. For my life is spent with sorrow, and my years with sighing; my strength fails because of my misery, and my bones waste away.
Ps 38:4 For my iniquities have gone over my head; they weigh like a burden too heavy for me.
Ps 130:3 If you, O Lord, should mark iniquities, Lord, who could stand?
Prov 18:14 The human spirit will endure sickness; but a broken spirit--who can bear?
Prov 23:32 At the last it bites like a serpent, and stings like an adder.
Jer 31:19 For after I had turned away I repented; and after I was discovered, I struck my thigh; I was ashamed, and I was dismayed because I bore the disgrace of my youth."
Ezek 16:63 in order that you may remember and be confounded, and never open your mouth again because of your shame, when I forgive you all that you have done, says the Lord God.
Ezek 36:31-32 Then you shall remember your evil ways, and your dealings that were not good; and you shall loathe yourselves for your iniquities and your abominable deeds. It is not for your sake that I will act, says the Lord God; let that be known to you. Be ashamed and dismayed for your ways, O house of Israel.
Matt 26:75 Then Peter remembered what Jesus had said: "Before the cock crows, you will deny me three times." And he went out and wept bitterly.
Gen 4:13 Cain said to the Lord, "My punishment is greater than I can bear!
Job 7:20-21 If I sin, what do I do to you, you watcher of humanity? Why have you made me your target? Why have I become a burden to you? Why do you not pardon my transgression and take away my iniquity? For now I shall lie in the earth; you will seek me, but I shall not be."
Ps 31:9-10 Be gracious to me, O Lord, for I am in distress; my eye wastes away from grief, my soul and body also. For my life is spent with sorrow, and my years with sighing; my strength fails because of my misery, and my bones waste away.
Ps 38:4 For my iniquities have gone over my head; they weigh like a burden too heavy for me.
Ps 130:3 If you, O Lord, should mark iniquities, Lord, who could stand?
Prov 18:14 The human spirit will endure sickness; but a broken spirit--who can bear?
Prov 23:32 At the last it bites like a serpent, and stings like an adder.
Jer 31:19 For after I had turned away I repented; and after I was discovered, I struck my thigh; I was ashamed, and I was dismayed because I bore the disgrace of my youth."
Ezek 16:63 in order that you may remember and be confounded, and never open your mouth again because of your shame, when I forgive you all that you have done, says the Lord God.
Ezek 36:31-32 Then you shall remember your evil ways, and your dealings that were not good; and you shall loathe yourselves for your iniquities and your abominable deeds. It is not for your sake that I will act, says the Lord God; let that be known to you. Be ashamed and dismayed for your ways, O house of Israel.
Matt 26:75 Then Peter remembered what Jesus had said: "Before the cock crows, you will deny me three times." And he went out and wept bitterly.
Rom 6:4 Therefore we have been buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.
Rom 6:6 We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin.
Rom 6:13 No longer present your members to sin as instruments of wickedness, but present yourselves to God as those who have been brought from death to life, and present your members to God as instruments of righteousness.
1 Cor 6:20 For you were bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body.
2 Cor 5:14-17 For the love of Christ urges us on, because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore all have died. And he died for all, so that those who live might live no longer for themselves, but for him who died and was raised for them. From now on, therefore, we regard no one from a human point of view; even though we once knew Christ from a human point of view, we know him no longer in that way. So if anyone is in Christ, there is a new creation: everything old has passed away; see, everything has become new!
Gal 2:20 and it is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.
1 Thess 4:1 Finally, brothers and sisters, we ask and urge you in the Lord Jesus that, as you learned from us how you ought to live and to please God (as, in fact, you are doing), you should do so more and more.
1 Tim 1:17 To the King of the ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen.
Rev 15:4 Lord, who will not fear and glorify your name? For you alone are holy. All nations will come and worship before you, for your judgments have been revealed."
2 Cor 4:6 For it is the God who said, "Let light shine out of darkness," who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
Gal 6:15 For neither circumcision nor uncircumcision is anything; but a new creation is everything!
Eph 3:21 to him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations, forever and ever. Amen.
Tit 2:11-12 For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all, training us to renounce impiety and worldly passions, and in the present age to live lives that are self-controlled, upright, and godly,

The Absolution

The necessity of it before the Sacrament. WHEN the discipline of the ancient Church was in force, no notorious offender could escape the censures that his sin deserved: nor was he admitted to the Sacrament without a public and solemn absolution upon his repentance. But this godly discipline being now every where laid aside, (to the great detriment of the Church) it is so much the more necessary to supply it by a general Confession and Absolution: of which see more upon the morning and evening service.

§.2. WHy used in this place. As to this particular form, it shall suffice to note, that it is in imitation of that ancient form of blessing recorded, Num 6:24, &c. And since it is certain that there is such a power vested in the Ministers of the Gospel, as to support the spirit of a dejected penitent, by assuring him of a pardon in the name of God; there can be no fitter opportunity to exercise it than now, viz. when so many humbled sinners are kneeling before him, and begging forgiveness at his hands: which therefore thus coming accordingly from a person commissionated by Christ for this end, ought to be received with faith and gratitude, since it is the only way to quiet people's consciences, now revelations are ceased.

Then shall the Priest (or the Bishop, being present,) standing up, and turning himself to the people, pronounce this Absolution.

Rom 6:4 Therefore we have been buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.
Rom 6:6 We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin.
Rom 6:13 No longer present your members to sin as instruments of wickedness, but present yourselves to God as those who have been brought from death to life, and present your members to God as instruments of righteousness.
1 Cor 6:20 For you were bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body.
2 Cor 5:14-17 For the love of Christ urges us on, because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore all have died. And he died for all, so that those who live might live no longer for themselves, but for him who died and was raised for them. From now on, therefore, we regard no one from a human point of view; even though we once knew Christ from a human point of view, we know him no longer in that way. So if anyone is in Christ, there is a new creation: everything old has passed away; see, everything has become new!
Gal 2:20 and it is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.
1 Thess 4:1 Finally, brothers and sisters, we ask and urge you in the Lord Jesus that, as you learned from us how you ought to live and to please God (as, in fact, you are doing), you should do so more and more.
1 Tim 1:17 To the King of the ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen.
Rev 15:4 Lord, who will not fear and glorify your name? For you alone are holy. All nations will come and worship before you, for your judgments have been revealed."
2 Cor 4:6 For it is the God who said, "Let light shine out of darkness," who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
Gal 6:15 For neither circumcision nor uncircumcision is anything; but a new creation is everything!
Eph 3:21 to him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations, forever and ever. Amen.
Tit 2:11-12 For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all, training us to renounce impiety and worldly passions, and in the present age to live lives that are self-controlled, upright, and godly,
Ps 25:11 For your name's sake, O Lord, pardon my guilt, for it is great.
Prov 28:13 No one who conceals transgressions will prosper, but one who confesses and forsakes them will obtain mercy.
Is 30:18 Therefore the Lord waits to be gracious to you; therefore he will rise up to show mercy to you. For the Lord is a God of justice; blessed are all those who wait for him.
Is 54:8 In overflowing wrath for a moment I hid my face from you, but with everlasting love I will have compassion on you, says the Lord, your Redeemer.
Jer 33:8 I will cleanse them from all the guilt of their sin against me, and I will forgive all the guilt of their sin and rebellion against me.
Hos 14:4 I will heal their disloyalty; I will love them freely, for my anger has turned from them.
Mark 3:28 "Truly I tell you, people will be forgiven for their sins and whatever blasphemies they utter;
John 3:16 "For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life.
Rom 6:14 For sin will have no dominion over you, since you are not under law but under grace.
Gal 1:4 who gave himself for our sins to set us free from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father,
Col 1:13 He has rescued us from the power of darkness and transferred us into the kingdom of his beloved Son,
Tit 2:11-14 For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all, training us to renounce impiety and worldly passions, and in the present age to live lives that are self-controlled, upright, and godly, while we wait for the blessed hope and the manifestation of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ. He it is who gave himself for us that he might redeem us from all iniquity and purify for himself a people of his own who are zealous for good deeds.
Rom 7:24-25 Wretched man that I am! Who will rescue me from this body of death? Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, with my mind I am a slave to the law of God, but with my flesh I am a slave to the law of sin.
Num 6:24-26 The Lord bless you and keep you; the Lord make his face to shine upon you, and be gracious to you; the Lord lift up his countenance upon you, and give you peace.
Ps 20:1-2 The Lord answer you in the day of trouble! The name of the God of Jacob protect you! May he send you help from the sanctuary, and give you support from Zion.
Dan 11:1 As for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to support and strengthen him.
John 6:47 Very truly, I tell you, whoever believes has eternal life.
John 20:31 But these are written so that you may come to believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that through believing you may have life in his name.
Acts 20:32 And now I commend you to God and to the message of his grace, a message that is able to build you up and to give you the inheritance among all who are sanctified.
Rom 6:22 But now that you have been freed from sin and enslaved to God, the advantage you get is sanctification. The end is eternal life.
1 Cor 1:7-8 so that you are not lacking in any spiritual gift as you wait for the revealing of our Lord Jesus Christ. He will also strengthen you to the end, so that you may be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Gal 5:22 By contrast, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness,
Eph 3:14 For this reason I bow my knees before the Father,
Eph 3:16 I pray that, according to the riches of his glory, he may grant that you may be strengthened in your inner being with power through his Spirit,
Col 1:10-11 so that you may lead lives worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing to him, as you bear fruit in every good work and as you grow in the knowledge of God. May you be made strong with all the strength that comes from his glorious power, and may you be prepared to endure everything with patience, while joyfully
2 Tim 4:18 The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and save me for his heavenly kingdom. To him be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
1 Pet 5:10-11 And after you have suffered for a little while, the God of all grace, who has called you to his eternal glory in Christ, will himself restore, support, strengthen, and establish you. To him be the power forever and ever. Amen.
2 Pet 1:10-11 Therefore, brothers and sisters, be all the more eager to confirm your call and election, for if you do this, you will never stumble. For in this way, entry into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ will be richly provided for you.

The Comfortable Words

The advantage of them in this place. IT is so necessary for every one that would receive comfort and benefit by this blessed Sacrament, to have a lively faith, and a mind freed from unreasonable fears; that the Church, lest any should doubt of the validity of the foregoing Absolution, hath subjoined these Sentences; which are the very promises on which it is grounded, and so overflowing with sweet and powerful comforts, that if duly considered they will satisfy the most fearful souls, heal the most broken hearts, and utterly banish the blackest clouds of sorrow and despair.

Then shall the Priest say,

Is 40:1 Comfort, O comfort my people, says your God.
Matt 13:9 Let anyone with ears listen!"
John 10:11 "I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.
John 10:27-28 My sheep hear my voice. I know them, and they follow me. I give them eternal life, and they will never perish. No one will snatch them out of my hand.
Rev 2:7 Let anyone who has an ear listen to what the Spirit is saying to the churches. To everyone who conquers, I will give permission to eat from the tree of life that is in the paradise of God.
1 John 2:1-2 My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.

The Eucharistic Prayer

Sursum corda

The antiquity of them. AFTER we have exercised our charity, repentance, and faith, the next part of the office is thanksgiving, which is so considerable a part of our present duty, that it hath given name to the whole, and caused it to be called the Eucharist or Sacrifice of Praise, And here we begin with the Lauds and Anthem, which, together with most of the remaining part of the office, are purely primitive, near as old as Christianity itself, being to be found almost verbatim amongst the ancient writers. Having therefore exercised our faith upon the foregoing sentences, and so got above this world, we are now ready to go into the other, and to join with the glorified saints and angels, in praising and adoring that God who hath done so great things for us.

After which the Priest shall proceed, saying,

Ps 27:14 Wait for the Lord; be strong, and let your heart take courage; wait for the Lord!
Lam 3:41 Let us lift up our hearts as well as our hands to God in heaven.

After which the Priest saies, Lift up your hearts. For certainly at that hour when we are to receive the most dreadful Sacrament, it is necessary to lift up our hearts to God, and not to have them groveling upon the earth: for this purpose the Priest exhorts all, to leave all cares of this life and domestick thoughts, and to have our hearts and minds in heaven upon the lover of mankind.

F. Lift up your hearts.] Of the excellent design and antiquity of this preface, with its responsory, St. Cyprian gives undeniable evidence. Quando stamus ad orationem, cogitatio omnis carnalis et secularis abscedat ; nec quicquam tune animus quam id solum cogitet quod precatur: ideo et sacerdos ante orationem, prefatione premissa, parat fratrum mentes dicendo, Sursum corda; et dum respondet plebs, Habemus ad Dominum, admoneatur, nihil se quam Dominum cogitare ; “when we are employed in prayer, all carnal and worldly thoughts should be banished ; nor must we mind any thing but what we are about, our prayers ; and therefore the priest, before he begins to pray, prepareth the hearts of the people with this preface, saying, Lift up your hearts; and when they reply, We lift them up unto the Lord, they are thereby admonished to think of nothing but God.”

In order to this, the Minister calls upon us to lift up our hearts, viz. by a most quick and lively faith in the most high God, the supreme Governor of the whole world...

Ps 25:1 To you, O Lord, I lift up my soul.
Ps 27:8 "Come," my heart says, "seek his face!" Your face, Lord, do I seek.
Ps 39:7 "And now, O Lord, what do I wait for? My hope is in you.

The people then answer, We lift them up unto the Lord, assenting to the Priests admonition. And it behoves us all to say it seriously: For as we ought alwayes to have our minds in heaven, so especially at that hour we should more earnestly endeavour it.

... which being ready to do, we immediately answer, We lift them up unto the Lord; and so casting off all thoughts of the world, turn our minds to God alone.

Ps 34:3 O magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt his name together.
Ps 95:1 O come, let us sing to the Lord; let us make a joyful noise to the rock of our salvation!
Ps 118:1 O give thanks to the Lord, for he is good; his steadfast love endures forever!
Col 2:6-7 As you therefore have received Christ Jesus the Lord, continue to live your lives in him, rooted and built up in him and established in the faith, just as you were taught, abounding in thanksgiving.

The Priest goes on, Let us give thanks to our Lord God, and many thanks we ought to render him, that calls and invites such unworthy sinners as we be, to so high grace and favour, as to eat the Flesh and drink the Bloud of the Son of God.

G. Let us give thanks unto the Lord.] These verses are but labels annexed to the other of sursum corda, and have reference to them: quis gratias agit Deo, nisi qui sursum habet cor ad Dominum; “who doth give thanks to God, but he who hath his heart lift up unto the Lord,” with Augustine : and elsewhere more fully, de hoc tanto bonoy levati cordis, non nobis gloriam quasi nostrarum virium tribuimus, hoc enim continuo admonemur, quia hoc dignum, hoc justum est : “ for this so great benefit of our hearts lifted up, we ascribe not glory to ourselves, as proceeding from our own natural power; for we are presently admonished, it is meet and right so to do.”

Much it is for the honour of this preface, that whereas the east and west in other parcels differed very much, yet in this they both agreed, as is to be seen in all the liturgies extant of those ancient times, whereof having given you instance for the Latin, I shall for brevity sake, only for the Greek produce the Apostolical Constitutions’: ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς ἅνω Tov vodv' καὶ πάντες ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν κύριον ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς εὐχαριστήσωμεν τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ πάντες ἄξιον καὶ δίκαιον καὶ ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς εἰπάτω: ἄξιον ὧς ἀληθῶς καὶ δίκαιον πρὸ πάντων ἀνυμνεῖν σε τὸν ὄντως ὄντα θεὸν : “The bishop: Lift up your hearts. The people: We lift them up unto the Lord. The bishop: Let us give thanks unto the Lord. The people: It is meet and right. The bishop: True, it is very meet and right to praise Thee the true God,” &c.

§.2. And our hearts being now all elevated together, and in a right posture to celebrate the praises of God, the Minister invites us all to join with him in doing it, saying, Let us give thanks unto our Lord God...

Ps 147:1 Praise the Lord! How good it is to sing praises to our God; for he is gracious, and a song of praise is fitting.
2 Cor 5:14-15 For the love of Christ urges us on, because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore all have died. And he died for all, so that those who live might live no longer for themselves, but for him who died and was raised for them.
2 Thess 1:3 We must always give thanks to God for you, brothers and sisters, as is right, because your faith is growing abundantly, and the love of every one of you for one another is increasing.

The people answer, It is meet and right so to do. For when we give thanks to God, we do a work that is just, and of right due to so much bounty.

which the people having consented to and approved of, by saying, It is meet and right so to do...

Preface

... he turns himself to the Lord's table, and acknowledgeth to the divine Majesty there specially present, that It is very meet, right, and our bounden duty, that we should at all times, and in all places, give thanks, &c.

§.3. A large thanksgiving always used in the primitive Church. But this, in the primitive Church, was only the introduction to the εὐχαριστία, properly so called, which was a great and long thanksgiving to God for all his mercies of creation, providence, and redemption, from whence the whole service took the name of eucharist or thanksgiving. For in all the ancient Liturgies, as soon as ever the aforesaid words were pronounced, there was immediately subjoined a commemoration of all that God had done for man from the foundation of the world, and more particularly in the great and wonderful mystery of our redemption. And in some part or other of this solemn glorification, was always included the trisagion or seraphical hymn that follows next in our own Liturgy; which was sung, as with us, by the Minister and whole congregation jointly,* after which the Minister again went on alone to finish the thanksgiving. We have no where else indeed so long a thanksgiving as that in the Constitutions; but the length of this is no argument against its antiquity. For Justin Martyr, when he describes the Christian rites and mysteries, says, that "as soon as the common prayers were ended, and they had saluted one another with a kiss, bread and wine was brought to him who presided over the brethren, who receiving them, gave praise and glory to the Father of all things, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and make εὐχαριστίαν ἐπὶ πολὺ, a very long thanksgiving, for the blessings which he bestowed upon them." Afterwards indeed, as devotion grew cold, this long doxology was contracted; but still so that the two greatest blessings of God, i.e. the creation and redemption by Christ, together with the words of institution, were always set forth, and thanks given to God for these things. And this is supposed to have been according to our Saviour's own example. For the Jews at the Passover constantly commemorated their redemption from Egypt, their settlement in the good land which they then possessed, and all the other blessings which God had bestowed upon them: and therefore it is not to be doubted but that as our Saviour imitated the ceremonies of the Jews in so many other particulars of this holy Sacrament; so also, when he gave thanks, he used a form to the same purpose; only adding a thanksgiving for the redemption of the world by his sufferings and death, which was probably what he ordered his Apostles to perform, when he commanded them to do this in remembrance of him, and to shew forth his death till he come. And accordingly we find, that all the ancient Liturgies have an eucharistical prayer, agreeable in all points to that described by Justin Martyr, (excepting in its length, to which that in the Constitutions only comes up) setting forth the mercies of God in our creation and redemption, and particularly in the death and resurrection of his Son. The Roman Missal, I believe, was the first that omitted it; and the omission of it there might perhaps be the occasion of its not being taken notice of when our own Liturgy was compiled. For the more solemn festivals indeed there are some short prefaces provided to commemorate the particular mercies of each season: but upon ordinary occasions (as our Liturgy stands now) we have no other thanksgiving than what these lauds contain.

Then shall the Priest turn to the Lord's Table, and say,

Ps 147:1 Praise the Lord! How good it is to sing praises to our God; for he is gracious, and a song of praise is fitting.
2 Cor 5:14-15 For the love of Christ urges us on, because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore all have died. And he died for all, so that those who live might live no longer for themselves, but for him who died and was raised for them.
2 Thess 1:3 We must always give thanks to God for you, brothers and sisters, as is right, because your faith is growing abundantly, and the love of every one of you for one another is increasing.

Sanctus

After which follows the thrice holy and triumphant song, as it was called of old [Therefore with Angels and Archangels, and with all the company of heaven we laud and magnifie thy glorious name, evermore praising thee and saying, holy, holy, holy, &c.] Here we do, as it were, invite the heavenly host to help bear a part in our thanks to make them full. O praise the Lord with me, and let us magnifie his name together. And in this hymn we hold communion with the Church triumphant.

Which sweet hymn, in all Communions is appointed to be said; and though it should be said night and day, yet could it never breed a loathing. Conc. Vasen. c. 6. All that is in our Service from these words, Lift up your hearts, to the end of the Communion-service, is, with very little difference to be seen in S. Chrys. Liturg. and in S. Cyrils Catech. mystag. 5.

I. Holy, holy, holy, &c.] This hymn was anciently called Trisagium, because it consisted of three Holies. I find in antiquity two forms of hymns under this name. One thus: “Aγιος ὁ Θεὸς, ἅγιος ἰσχυρὸς, ἅγιος ἀθάνατος, ᾿ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς '᾿- “holy God, holy mighty, holy immortal, have mercy on us.” This is that hymn mentioned in the Trullan Council, as the frame, τῶν παλαιῶν ἁγίων πατέρων, “of the ancient Fathers,” which Balsamon interpreteth to be the Fathers of the Council of Chalcedon; extant it is in the liturgy ascribed to St. Basil, but not in that of St. Chrysostom; and therefore either that liturgy must not be St. Chrysostom’s, (who I conceive may best pretend to it,) or else this hymn was not used in the Constantinopolitan Church, until Proclus’s time, who upon the event of a miracle had advice from heaven to order the singing of it in his church, if there be any faith in those historians who deliver it for truth.

The other form of Trisagium is this retained by our Church, expressly and almost to a syllable agreeing with that in the Gregorian service, in St. Chrysostom’s liturgy, and before them in the Constitutions, The composition is most excellent, wherein the celestial choir are drawn into concert with the Church, joining as a chorus in the words of the people, magnifying His humanity, saying, “ Glory be to Thee, O Lord most high ;” or rather, as in the original, “ Hosanna to the Son of David, blessed is he that cometh in the Name of the Lord, Hosanna in the highest,” for so it is in the Latin translation, set forth 2 Eliz. Osanna in excelsis, Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini, Osanna in excelsis.

Therefore with angels and archangels. THE Minister now looking upon himself and the rest of the congregation as Communicants with the Church triumphant; and all of us apprehending ourselves, by faith, as in the midst of that blessed society; we join with them in singing forth the praises of the most high God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, saying, Therefore with angels, and archangels, and with all the company of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious name, evermore praising thee, and saying, Holy, holy, holy. Lord God of Hosts, heaven and earth are full if thy glory, [Hosanna in the highest, blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord,]* Glory be to thee, O Lord most high.

§.2. Angels thought to be present at the performance of divine mysteries. That the angels were present at the performance of divine mysteries, hath been the opinion of both Heathens and Christians; and that they are especially present at the Lord's Supper, is generally received. For since Jesus by his death hath united heaven and earth, it is fit that, in this commemoration of his passion, we should begin to unite our voices with the heavenly choir, with whom we hope to praise him to all eternity. For which end the Christians of the very first ages took this hymn into their office for the Sacrament, being of divine original, and from the word holy thrice repeated in it, called by the Greeks Τρισάγιον, the Trisagium, or Thrice Holy.

Here shall follow the proper Preface, according to the time, if there be any specially appointed: or else immediately shall follow,

1 Chron 29:10-13 Then David blessed the Lord in the presence of all the assembly; David said: "Blessed are you, O Lord, the God of our ancestor Israel, forever and ever. Yours, O Lord, are the greatness, the power, the glory, the victory, and the majesty; for all that is in the heavens and on the earth is yours; yours is the kingdom, O Lord, and you are exalted as head above all. Riches and honor come from you, and you rule over all. In your hand are power and might; and it is in your hand to make great and to give strength to all. And now, our God, we give thanks to you and praise your glorious name.
Ps 19:1 The heavens are telling the glory of God; and the firmament proclaims his handiwork.
Ps 69:30 I will praise the name of God with a song; I will magnify him with thanksgiving.
Ps 72:18-19 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who alone does wondrous things. Blessed be his glorious name forever; may his glory fill the whole earth. Amen and Amen.
Ps 89:5 Let the heavens praise your wonders, O Lord, your faithfulness in the assembly of the holy ones.
Ps 97:6 The heavens proclaim his righteousness; and all the peoples behold his glory.
Is 6:3 And one called to another and said: "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory."
Luke 2:13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host, praising God and saying,
Luke 2:16 So they went with haste and found Mary and Joseph, and the child lying in the manger.
Acts 4:24 When they heard it, they raised their voices together to God and said, "Sovereign Lord, who made the heaven and the earth, the sea, and everything in them,
Acts 7:55 But filled with the Holy Spirit, he gazed into heaven and saw the glory of God and Jesus standing at the right hand of God.
Rom 15:11 and again, "Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles, and let all the peoples praise him";
Heb 12:22-23 But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering, and to the assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect,
Rev 4:8 And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and inside. Day and night without ceasing they sing, "Holy, holy, holy, the Lord God the Almighty, who was and is and is to come."
Rev 7:9-12 After this I looked, and there was a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, from all tribes and peoples and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, robed in white, with palm branches in their hands. They cried out in a loud voice, saying, "Salvation belongs to our God who is seated on the throne, and to the Lamb!" And all the angels stood around the throne and around the elders and the four living creatures, and they fell on their faces before the throne and worshiped God, singing, "Amen! Blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honor and power and might be to our God forever and ever! Amen."

Proper Prefaces

Then follow for great daies some proper Prefaces, containing the pecullar matter or subject of our thanks that day, which are to be said seven daies after, Rubr. ibidem. except Whitsunday Preface, which is to be said but six daies after; because Trinity Sunday is the seventh day after, which hath a peculiar Preface. By this it appears that the Church intends to prorogue and continue these high Feasts several daies, even eight daies together, if another great Feast comes not within the time, which requires a peculiar Service. But when we say that the Church would have these high Feasts continued so long, it is not so to be understood, as if she required an equal observance of those several daies, for some of those daies she commands by her Canons and Rubricks. Some she seems only to commend to us to be observed; some are of a higher festivity, some of less. The first and the last, namely, the Octave of the first, are usually the chief daies for solemn Assemblies; yet every of those daies should be spent in more than ordinary meditation of the blessings of the time, and thanksgiving for them: according to that which the Lord commanded to the Jews concerning the Feast of Tabernacles, Lev. 23. 36. Upon every one of the daies of that Feast an offering was to be made, but the first and last were the solemn Convocations.

The reason of the Churches proroguing and lengthning, out these high Feasts, for several days, is plain. The subject matter of these Feasts, as namely, Christs Birth, Resurrection, Ascension, the sending of the holy Ghost, is of so high a nature, so nearly concerning our salvation, that one day is too little to meditate of them, and praise God for them as we ought; a bodily deliverance may justly require a day of thanksgiving and joy; but the deliverance of the soul, by the blessings commemorated on those times, deserve a much longer Feast. It were injurious to good Christian souls to have their joy and thankfulness for such mercies confined to a day, therefore holy Church upon the times when these unspeakable blessings were wrought for us, by her most seasonable commands and counsels here invites us, to fill our hearts with joy and thankfulness, and let them overflow eight daies together. See above, of the Continuation of great Solemnities, pag. 128. 174. 180. and of the service of Octaves. p. 178.

But two Quaeries here may be fit to be satisfied. First, why eight dayes are allowed to those high Feasts, rather than another number?

For which the reasons given are divers; one is from the example which Almighty God sets us, commanding his people the Jews, to keep their great Feasts some of them seven daies, and one, namely, the Feast of Tabernacles, eight daies, Lev. 23. If the Jews were to keep their Feasts so long by a daily Burnt-offering (which were but as types of the Christians great Feasts) the Christians ought by no means to come short of them, but offer up to God as long, daily, hearty thanksgivings, presenting our selves souls and bodies, a reasonable, holy and lively Sacrifice unto him. Other reasons, for an Octave to great Feasts, are given, which are mystical. The Octave or eighth day, signifies Eternity, for our whole life is but the repetition or revolution of seven dayes. Then comes the eighth day of Eternity, to which, by Gods mercy we shall be brought, if we continue the seven daies of our life in the due and constant service and worship of God; or else, which is much the same in sense; the eighth day is a returning to the first, it is the first day of the week begun again, signifying, that if we constantly serve God the seven days of our life, we shall return to the first happy estate that we were created in.

The Second Quaere is, how the Prefaces appointed for these eight daies can be properly used upon each of them: for example, how can we say eight days together, Thou didst give thine only Son to be born this day for us? as it is in the Preface.

To which the Answer may be, That the Church does not use the word Day, for a natural day of 24. hours, or an ordinary artificial day, reckoning from Sun to Sun; but in the usual acception of it in holy Scripture, where by the word Day, is signified the whole time designed to one and the same purpose, though it lasts several natural days. Thus all the time that God appoints to the reclaiming of sinners by merciful chastisements or threatnings is called, The day of their visitation, Luke 19. 42, 44. So all the time allotted us for the working out of our salvation, though it be our whole life long, is called a day, Work while it is day, the night comes when no man can work; and most directly to our purpose speaks S. Paul, Heb. 3. 13. Exhort one another daily, while it is called to day, or this day, that is, while you live here in this world. In like manner all that time which is appointed by the Church, for the thankful commemoration of the same grand blessing, for the solemnity of one and the same Feast, is as properly called a day, and all that time it may be said daily, to day, as well as all our life S. Paul saies is called Hodie, this day.

H. Proper prefaces.] In the Church of Rome there were ten proper prefaces, which our reformers, desirous to contract the office into more ease, reduced to five, proper to days of more eminent remark.

Why to be repeated eight days together. ON the greater festivals there are proper prefaces appointed, which are also to be repeated, in case there be a Communion, for seven days after the festivals themselves,* (excepting that for Whit-Sunday, which is to be repeated only six days after, because Trinity-Sunday, which is the seventh, hath a preface peculiar to itself) to the end that the mercies may be the better remembered by often repetition, and also that all the people (who in most places cannot communicate all in one day) may have other opportunities, within those eight days, to join in praising God for such great blessings.

§.2. Christian festivals, why lengthened out for several days. The reason of the Church's lengthening out these high feasts for several days, is plain: the subject-matter of them is of so high a nature, and so nearly concerns our salvation, that one day would be too little to meditate upon them, and praise God for them as we ought. A bodily deliverance may justly require one day of thanksgiving and joy: but the deliverance of the soul by the blessings commemorated on those times, deserves a much longer time of praise and acknowledgment. Since therefore it would be injurious to Christians to have their joy and thankfulness for such mercies confined to one day; the Church, upon the times when these unspeakable blessings were wrought for us, invites us, by her most seasonable commands and counsels, to fill our hearts with joy and thankfulness, and let them overflow eight days together.

§.3. Why fixed to eight days. The reason of their being fixed to eight days, is taken from the practice of the Jews, who by God's appointment observed their greater festivals, some of them for seven, and one, viz. the feast of Tabernacles, for eight days. And therefore the primitive Church, thinking that the observation of Christian festivals (of which the Jewish feasts were only types and shadows) ought not to come short of them, lengthened out their higher feasts to eight days.

Though others give a quite different and mystical reason, viz. that as the octave or eighth day signifies Eternity, (our whole lives being but the repetition or revolution of seven days) so the Church, by commanding us to observe these great feasts for eight days, (upon the last of which especially, great part of the solemnity is repeated which was used upon the first,) seems to hint to us, that if we continue the seven days of this mortal life in a due and constant service and worship of God; we shall, upon the eighth day of eternity, return to the first happy state we were created in.

§.4. The design of the Prefaces. But whatever the rise of this custom was, we are assured that the whole eight days were very solemnly observed: on which they had always some proper preface relating to the peculiar mercy of the feast they celebrated; to the end that all, who received at any of those times, should, besides the general praises offered up for all God's mercies, make a special memorial proper to the festival.

§.5. The subjects of them. In the Roman Church they had ten of them, but our reformers have only retained five of the most ancient; all which (except that for Trinity-Sunday, retained by reason of the great mystery it celebrates) are concerning the principal acts of our Redemption, viz. the Nativity, Resurrection, and Ascension of our Saviour, and of his sending the Holy Ghost to comfort us.

Upon Christmas Day, and seven days after.
Matt 1:20-21 But just when he had resolved to do this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife, for the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will bear a son, and you are to name him Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins."
Luke 1:35 The angel said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called Son of God.
Luke 2:11 to you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is the Messiah, the Lord.
Luke 2:14 "Glory to God in the highest heaven, and on earth peace among those whom he favors!"
Luke 2:40 The child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom; and the favor of God was upon him.
Luke 2:52 And Jesus increased in wisdom and in years, and in divine and human favor.
John 1:14 And the Word became flesh and lived among us, and we have seen his glory, the glory as of a father's only son, full of grace and truth.
John 4:6 Jacob's well was there, and Jesus, tired out by his journey, was sitting by the well. It was about noon.
John 11:35 Jesus began to weep.
Rom 1:3-4 the gospel concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh and was declared to be Son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord,
2 Cor 5:21 For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.
2 Cor 8:9 For you know the generous act of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, so that by his poverty you might become rich.
Gal 4:4 But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law,
1 Tim 1:17 To the King of the ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen.
1 Tim 2:5 For there is one God; there is also one mediator between God and humankind, Christ Jesus, himself human,
Heb 7:26 For it was fitting that we should have such a high priest, holy, blameless, undefiled, separated from sinners, and exalted above the heavens.
1 Pet 2:22 "He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth."
Is 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Look, the young woman is with child and shall bear a son, and shall name him Immanuel.
Upon Easter Day, and seven days after.
Matt 1:20-21 But just when he had resolved to do this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife, for the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will bear a son, and you are to name him Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins."
Luke 1:35 The angel said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called Son of God.
Luke 2:11 to you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is the Messiah, the Lord.
Luke 2:14 "Glory to God in the highest heaven, and on earth peace among those whom he favors!"
Luke 2:40 The child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom; and the favor of God was upon him.
Luke 2:52 And Jesus increased in wisdom and in years, and in divine and human favor.
John 1:14 And the Word became flesh and lived among us, and we have seen his glory, the glory as of a father's only son, full of grace and truth.
John 4:6 Jacob's well was there, and Jesus, tired out by his journey, was sitting by the well. It was about noon.
John 11:35 Jesus began to weep.
Rom 1:3-4 the gospel concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh and was declared to be Son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord,
2 Cor 5:21 For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.
2 Cor 8:9 For you know the generous act of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, so that by his poverty you might become rich.
Gal 4:4 But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law,
1 Tim 1:17 To the King of the ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen.
1 Tim 2:5 For there is one God; there is also one mediator between God and humankind, Christ Jesus, himself human,
Heb 7:26 For it was fitting that we should have such a high priest, holy, blameless, undefiled, separated from sinners, and exalted above the heavens.
1 Pet 2:22 "He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth."
Is 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Look, the young woman is with child and shall bear a son, and shall name him Immanuel.
Upon Ascension Day, and seven days after.
Matt 3:17 And a voice from heaven said, "This is my Son, the Beloved, with whom I am well pleased."
Luke 24:50-51 Then he led them out as far as Bethany, and, lifting up his hands, he blessed them. While he was blessing them, he withdrew from them and was carried up into heaven.
John 14:2-3 In my Father's house there are many dwelling places. If it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, so that where I am, there you may be also.
Acts 1:2-4 until the day when he was taken up to heaven, after giving instructions through the Holy Spirit to the apostles whom he had chosen. After his suffering he presented himself alive to them by many convincing proofs, appearing to them during forty days and speaking about the kingdom of God. While staying with them, he ordered them not to leave Jerusalem, but to wait there for the promise of the Father. "This," he said, "is what you have heard from me;
Acts 1:9 When he had said this, as they were watching, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight.
Rom 1:8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, because your faith is proclaimed throughout the world.
Eph 5:20 giving thanks to God the Father at all times and for everything in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Col 3:4 When Christ who is your life is revealed, then you also will be revealed with him in glory.
2 Tim 2:12 if we endure, we will also reign with him; if we deny him, he will also deny us;
Rev 1:5-6 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and freed us from our sins by his blood, and made us to be a kingdom, priests serving his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.
John 20:17 Jesus said to her, "Do not hold on to me, because I have not yet ascended to the Father. But go to my brothers and say to them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.'"
Eph 4:8-10 Therefore it is said, "When he ascended on high he made captivity itself a captive; he gave gifts to his people." (When it says, "He ascended," what does it mean but that he had also descended into the lower parts of the earth? He who descended is the same one who ascended far above all the heavens, so that he might fill all things.)
Upon Whitsunday, and six days after.
Matt 10:18-19 and you will be dragged before governors and kings because of me, as a testimony to them and the Gentiles. When they hand you over, do not worry about how you are to speak or what you are to say; for what you are to say will be given to you at that time;
John 14:16 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate, to be with you forever.
John 14:26 But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything, and remind you of all that I have said to you.
John 15:26 "When the Advocate comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who comes from the Father, he will testify on my behalf.
John 16:13 When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own, but will speak whatever he hears, and he will declare to you the things that are to come.
Acts 2:1-4 When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. And suddenly from heaven there came a sound like the rush of a violent wind, and it filled the entire house where they were sitting. Divided tongues, as of fire, appeared among them, and a tongue rested on each of them. All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them ability.
Eph 5:9 for the fruit of the light is found in all that is good and right and true.
Acts 2:7-8 Amazed and astonished, they asked, "Are not all these who are speaking Galileans? And how is it that we hear, each of us, in our own native language?
Acts 4:5-6 The next day their rulers, elders, and scribes assembled in Jerusalem, with Annas the high priest, Caiaphas, John, and Alexander, and all who were of the high-priestly family.
Acts 4:13 Now when they saw the boldness of Peter and John and realized that they were uneducated and ordinary men, they were amazed and recognized them as companions of Jesus.
Rom 10:18 But I ask, have they not heard? Indeed they have; for "Their voice has gone out to all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world."
Rom 15:16 to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles in the priestly service of the gospel of God, so that the offering of the Gentiles may be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit.
Rom 15:19 by the power of signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God, so that from Jerusalem and as far around as Illyricum I have fully proclaimed the good news of Christ.
Col 1:23 provided that you continue securely established and steadfast in the faith, without shifting from the hope promised by the gospel that you heard, which has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven. I, Paul, became a servant of this gospel.
Luke 1:68 "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, for he has looked favorably on his people and redeemed them.
Luke 1:78-79 By the tender mercy of our God, the dawn from on high will break upon us, to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace."
John 17:3 And this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.
John 17:20-21 "I ask not only on behalf of these, but also on behalf of those who will believe in me through their word, that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me.
Rom 14:17 For the kingdom of God is not food and drink but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit.
2 Cor 4:6 For it is the God who said, "Let light shine out of darkness," who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
Eph 5:8 For once you were darkness, but now in the Lord you are light. Live as children of light--
1 Pet 1:10 Concerning this salvation, the prophets who prophesied of the grace that was to be yours made careful search and inquiry,
1 Pet 1:12 It was revealed to them that they were serving not themselves but you, in regard to the things that have now been announced to you through those who brought you good news by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven--things into which angels long to look!
1 Pet 2:25 For you were going astray like sheep, but now you have returned to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.
Phil 3:8 More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ
1 John 5:20 And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding so that we may know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life.
Upon the Feast of Trinity only.
Luke 1:68 "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, for he has looked favorably on his people and redeemed them.
Luke 1:78-79 By the tender mercy of our God, the dawn from on high will break upon us, to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace."
John 17:3 And this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.
John 17:20-21 "I ask not only on behalf of these, but also on behalf of those who will believe in me through their word, that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me.
Rom 14:17 For the kingdom of God is not food and drink but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit.
2 Cor 4:6 For it is the God who said, "Let light shine out of darkness," who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
Eph 5:8 For once you were darkness, but now in the Lord you are light. Live as children of light--
1 Pet 1:10 Concerning this salvation, the prophets who prophesied of the grace that was to be yours made careful search and inquiry,
1 Pet 1:12 It was revealed to them that they were serving not themselves but you, in regard to the things that have now been announced to you through those who brought you good news by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven--things into which angels long to look!
1 Pet 2:25 For you were going astray like sheep, but now you have returned to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.
Phil 3:8 More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ
1 John 5:20 And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding so that we may know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life.

The Prayer of Humble Access

The propriety of it in this place. THE nearer we approach to these holy mysteries, the greater reverence we ought to express; for since it is out of God's mere grace and goodness, that we have the honour to approach his table; it is at least our duty to acknowledge it to be a free and undeserved favour, agreeing rather to the mercy of the giver, than to the deserts of the receivers. And therefore, lest our exultations should savour of too much confidence, we now allay them with this act of humility, which the Priest offers up in the name of all them that receive the Communion; therein excusing his own and the people's un worthiness, in words taken from the most ancient Liturgies.

§.2. The order of the Communion-office in the Scotch Liturgy. In the Scotch Common Prayer this Address is ordered to be said just before the Minister receives: and in the same place it stands in the first Liturgy of king Edward. Though the whole Communion-office in king Edward*s first book is so very different, as to the order of it, from what it is now, that there can be no shewing how it stood then, but by a particular detail, which I shall therefore give in the margin.* The Scotch Liturgy is something different from this,† though either of them I take to be in a more primitive method than our own.

Then shall the Priest, kneeling down at the Lord's Table, say in the name of all them that shall receive the Communion this Prayer following.

Gen 18:27 Abraham answered, "Let me take it upon myself to speak to the Lord, I who am but dust and ashes.
Ps 130:3-4 If you, O Lord, should mark iniquities, Lord, who could stand? But there is forgiveness with you, so that you may be revered.
Is 64:6 We have all become like one who is unclean, and all our righteous deeds are like a filthy cloth. We all fade like a leaf, and our iniquities, like the wind, take us away.
Dan 9:18 Incline your ear, O my God, and hear. Open your eyes and look at our desolation and the city that bears your name. We do not present our supplication before you on the ground of our righteousness, but on the ground of your great mercies.
Luke 18:13 But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even look up to heaven, but was beating his breast and saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!'
Ex 34:7 keeping steadfast love for the thousandth generation, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, yet by no means clearing the guilty, but visiting the iniquity of the parents upon the children and the children's children, to the third and the fourth generation."
Ps 143:2 Do not enter into judgment with your servant, for no one living is righteous before you.
Ps 5:7 But I, through the abundance of your steadfast love, will enter your house, I will bow down toward your holy temple in awe of you.
Ps 86:5 For you, O Lord, are good and forgiving, abounding in steadfast love to all who call on you.
John 6:37 Everything that the Father gives me will come to me, and anyone who comes to me I will never drive away;
Heb 4:14-16 Since, then, we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession. For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who in every respect has been tested as we are, yet without sin. Let us therefore approach the throne of grace with boldness, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.
Neh 9:19 you in your great mercies did not forsake them in the wilderness; the pillar of cloud that led them in the way did not leave them by day, nor the pillar of fire by night that gave them light on the way by which they should go.
Mic 7:18 Who is a God like you, pardoning iniquity and passing over the transgression of the remnant of your possession? He does not retain his anger forever, because he delights in showing clemency.
Gen 32:10 I am not worthy of the least of all the steadfast love and all the faithfulness that you have shown to your servant, for with only my staff I crossed this Jordan; and now I have become two companies.
Matt 15:26-27 He answered, "It is not fair to take the children's food and throw it to the dogs." She said, "Yes, Lord, yet even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters' table."
Luke 7:6-7 And Jesus went with them, but when he was not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to say to him, "Lord, do not trouble yourself, for I am not worthy to have you come under my roof; therefore I did not presume to come to you. But only speak the word, and let my servant be healed.
Eph 3:8 Although I am the very least of all the saints, this grace was given to me to bring to the Gentiles the news of the boundless riches of Christ,
1 Tim 1:15 The saying is sure and worthy of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners--of whom I am the foremost.
Deut 26:6 When the Egyptians treated us harshly and afflicted us, by imposing hard labor on us,
Ps 100:5 For the Lord is good; his steadfast love endures forever, and his faithfulness to all generations.
Ps 136:1 O give thanks to the Lord, for he is good, for his steadfast love endures forever.
Rom 10:12 For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; the same Lord is Lord of all and is generous to all who call on him.
Heb 13:8 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.
John 6:34 They said to him, "Sir, give us this bread always."
John 6:53-58 So Jesus said to them, "Very truly, I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood have eternal life, and I will raise them up on the last day; for my flesh is true food and my blood is true drink. Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood abide in me, and I in them. Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so whoever eats me will live because of me. This is the bread that came down from heaven, not like that which your ancestors ate, and they died. But the one who eats this bread will live forever."
1 Cor 6:11 And this is what some of you used to be. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.
Eph 3:17 and that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith, as you are being rooted and grounded in love.
Heb 9:13-14 For if the blood of goats and bulls, with the sprinkling of the ashes of a heifer, sanctifies those who have been defiled so that their flesh is purified, how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our conscience from dead works to worship the living God!
Heb 12:28 Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, let us give thanks, by which we offer to God an acceptable worship with reverence and awe;
Rev 7:14 I said to him, "Sir, you are the one that knows." Then he said to me, "These are they who have come out of the great ordeal; they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
John 17:23 I in them and you in me, that they may become completely one, so that the world may know that you have sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me.
1 John 4:15-16 God abides in those who confess that Jesus is the Son of God, and they abide in God. So we have known and believe the love that God has for us. God is love, and those who abide in love abide in God, and God abides in them.
Rev 1:5-6 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and freed us from our sins by his blood, and made us to be a kingdom, priests serving his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.

The Words of Institution & Consecration

Part. 3. Next is the CONSECRATION. So you shall find in Chrysost. and Cyril last cited. Which Consecration consists chiefly in rehearsing the words of our Saviours institution, This is my body, and this is my blood, when the Bread and Wine is present upon the Communioncable. Can. Anglie. 21. S. Chrys. Ser. 2. in 2. ad Tim. The holy Sacrament of the Lords Supper, which the Priest now makes, is the same that Christ gave to his Apostles. This is nothing less than that. For this is not sanctified by men, but by him that sanctified that: for as the words which God our Saviour spake are the same, which the Priest now uses, so is the Sacrament the same. Again, Ser. de Iuda, lat. Ed. tom. 3. Christ is present at the Sacrament now, that first instituted it. He consecrates this also: It is not man that makes the body and blood of Christ by consecrating the holy Elements, but Christ that was crucified for us. The words are pronounced by the mouth of the Priest, but the Elements are consecrated by the power and grace of God, THIS IS, saith he, MY BODY: By this word the bread and wine are consecrated.]

Before these words [THIS IS MY BODY] the bread and wine are common food fit only to nourish the body; but since our Lord hath said, Do this, as oft as you do it in remembrance of me, This is my body, this is my blood: as often as by these words and in this faith they are consecrated, the holy bread and blessed cup are profitable to the salvation of the whole man: Cyprian de coena Dom. The same saies S. Ambr. l. 4. de Sacram. c. 4. & 5. S. Aug. ser. 28. de verb. Dei. And others.

The antiquity of it. THE ancient Greeks and Romans would not taste of their ordinary meat and drink till they had hallowed it by giving the first parts of it to their gods: the Jews would not eat of their sacrifice till Samuel came to bless it: and the primitive Christians always began their common meals with a solemn prayer for a blessing: a custom so universal, that it is certainly a part of natural religion: how much more then ought we to expect the prayers of the Priest over this mysterious food of our souls, before we eat of it ! especially since our Saviour himself did not deliver this bread and wine until he had consecrated them by blessing them, and giving thanks. So that this prayer is the most ancient and essential part of the whole Communion-office; and there are some who believe that the Apostles themselves, after a suitable introduction, used the latter part of it, from those words, who in the same night, &c., and it is certain that no Liturgy in the world hath altered that particular.

§.2. A prayer for the descent of the Holy Ghost always used by the primitive Church. But besides this, there was always inserted in the primitive forms, a particular petition for the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Sacramental Elements, which was also continued in the first Liturgy of king Edward VI, in very express and open terms. Hear us, O merciful Father, we beseech thee, and with thy Holy Spirit and Word vouchsafe to bl+ess and sanc+tify these thy gifts and creatures of Bread and Wine, that they may be unto us the Body and Blood of thy most dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ, who in the same night, &c. This, upon the scruples of Bucer, (whom I am sorry I have so often occasion to name,) was left out at the review in the fifth of king Edward; and the following sentence, which he was pleased to allow of, inserted in its stead; viz. Hear us, merciful Father, we most humbly beseech thee, and grant that we receiving these thy creatures of Bread and Wine, according to thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ’s holy Institution, in remembrance of his Death and Passion, may be partakers of his most blessed Body and Blood, who in the same night, &c. In these words, it is true, the sense of the former is still implied, and consequently by these the Elements are now consecrated, and so become the Body and Blood of our Saviour Christ.

To which they attributed the Consecration of the Elements. In the rubric indeed, after the form of Administration, the Church seems to suppose that the Consecration is made by the words of Institution: for there it says, that if the consecrated Bread and Wine he all spent before all have communicated, the Priest is to consecrate more according to the form before prescribed; beginning at [Our Saviour Christ in the same night, &c.] for the blessing of the Bread: and at [Likewise after supper, &c.] for the blessing of the Cup. This rubric was added in the last review: but to what end, unless to save the Minister some time, does not appear. But what is very remarkable is, that it was taken from the Scotch Liturgy, which expressly calls the words of Institution the words of Consecration;* though the compilers of it had restored the sentence that had been thrown out of king Edward’s second Common Prayer, and united it with the clause in our present Liturgy,† imagining, one would think, that the Elements were not consecrated without them. For though all Churches in the world have, through all ages, used the words of Institution at the time of Consecration; yet none, I believe, except the Church of Rome, ever before attributed the Consecration to the bare pronouncing of those words only: that was always attributed, by the most ancient Fathers, to the prayer of the Church. The Lutherans and Calvinists indeed both agree with the Papists, that the Consecration is made by the bare repeating the words of Institution; the reason perhaps of which is because the words of Institution are the only words recorded by the Evangelists and St. Paul, as spoken by our Saviour when he administered to his disciples. But then it should be considered, that it is plain enough that our Saviour used other words upon the same occasion, though the very words are not recorded: for the Evangelists tell us, that he gave thanks and blessed the Bread and Wine: and this sure must have been done in other words than those which he spoke at the delivery of them to his disciples: for blessing and thanksgiving must be performed by some words that are addressed to God, and not by any words directed to men: and therefore the words which our Saviour spake to his disciples could not be the whole Consecration of the Elements, but rather a declaration of the effect which was produced by his consecrating or blessing them. And therefore I humbly presume, that if the Minister should at the Consecration of fresh Elements, after the others are spent, repeat again the whole form of Consecration, or at least from those words. Hear us, O merciful Father, &c., he would answer the end of the rubric, which seems only to require the latter part of the form from those words, who in the same night, &c. be always used at such Consecration.

Breaking the bread a ceremony always used by the ancient Church in consecrating in Eucharist. And this is certainly a very essential part of the service. For during the repetition of these words, the Priest performs to God the representative sacrifice of the death and passion of his Son. By taking the bread into his hands, and breaking it, he makes a memorial to him of our Saviour’s body, broken upon the cross; and by exhibiting the wine, he reminds him of his blood there shed for the sins of the world; and by laying his hands upon each of them at the same time that he repeats those words, Take, eat, this is my body, &c., and Drink ye all of this, &c., he signifies and acknowledges that this commemoration of Christ’s sacrifice so made to God, is a means instituted by Christ himself to convey to the communicants the benefits of his death and passion, viz. the pardon of our sins, and God’s grace and favour for the time to come. For this reason we find, that it was always the practice of the ancients, in consecrating the Eucharist, to break the bread, (after our Saviour’s example) to represent his passion and crucifixion. The Roman Church indeed, instead of breaking the bread for the communicants to partake of it, only breaks a single wafer into three parts, (of which no one partakes) for the sake of retaining a shadow at least of the ancient custom. They acknowledge, it is true, that this is an alteration from the primitive practice: but then they urge that they had good reasons for making it, viz. lest in breaking the bread some danger might happen of scattering or losing some of the crumbs or particles; as if Christ himself could not have foreseen what dangers might happen, or have given as prudent orders as the pope, concerning his own institution.

Signing with the Cross, another ceremony that was always used at the same time. Very judiciously, therefore, did our good reformers (though they ordered these words before rehearsed to be said, turning still to the altar, without any elevation or shewing the sacrament to the people, yet) restore these other ceremonies to avoid superstition: and yet this very restoration of them is charged as superstitious by Bucer; who therefore objects to them, and prevails for the leaving them all out, as well as the above-mentioned petition for the descent of the Holy Ghost, together with the crossings that were then also used during the pronunciation of the said petition. The taking of the Bread and the Cup into the hands, has indeed since been restored, viz. first to the Scotch Liturgy, and then to our own, even at the request of the Presbyterians, at the last review. But the signing of them with the cross has ever since been discontinued: though I do not know that there is an ancient Liturgy in being, but what shews that this sign was always made use of in some part or other of the office of Communion. Such a number of crossings indeed as the Roman Missal enjoins, renders the service theatrical; and are not to be met with in any other Liturgy: but one or two we always find; so much having been thought proper, on this solemn occasion, to testify that we are not ashamed of the Cross of Christ, and that the solemn service we are then about is performed in honour of a crucified Saviour. And therefore as the Church of England has thought fit to retain this ceremony in the ministration of one of her Sacraments, I see not why she should lay it aside in the ministration of the other. For that may very well be applied to it in the ministration of the Eucharist, which the Church herself has declared of the Cross in Baptism, viz. That it was held in the primitive Church as well by the Greeks as the Latins, with one consent, and great applause: at what time, if any had opposed themselves against it, they would certainly have been censured as enemies of the name of the Cross, and consequently of Christ’s merits, the sign whereof they could no better endure.

§.3. The prayer of Oblation mangled and displaced. But besides this, our Liturgy at that time suffered a more material alteration: the prayer of Oblation, which by the first book of king Edward was ordered to be used after the prayer of Consecration, (and which has since been restored to the Scotch Common Prayer)* being half laid aside, and the rest of it thrown into an improper place; as being enjoined to be said by our present rubric, in that part of the office which is to be used after the people have communicated; whereas it was always the practice of the primitive Christians to use it during the act of Consecration. For the holy Eucharist was, from the very first institution, esteemed and received as a proper sacrifice, and solemnly offered to God upon the altar, before it was received and partaken of by the communicants. In conformity whereunto, it was bishop Overall’s practice to use the first prayer in the Post-Communion office between the Consecration and the Administering, even when it was otherwise ordered by the public Liturgy.

§.5. The Minister to stand at this prayer, and in the Post-Communion office. Dr. Nichols, in his note upon this prayer, has delivered his opinion, that it ought to be said by the Minister upon his knees; and the reason he gives for it is, because it is a prayer. But that reason would hold for kneeling at several other prayers both in this and in other offices, which yet the rubric directs shall be used standing. As to this prayer indeed, the rubric does not mention any posture that the Minister shall be in at the saying it: for as to those words, standing before the table, I am of opinion, that they only relate to the posture of the Minister whilst he is ordering the elements; though in the Old Common Prayer Book it is very plain that they referred to the posture in which the Minister was to say the prayer; the rubric then being no more than this. Then the Minister standing up, shall say as followeth. The rubric in the Scotch Liturgy is something larger, but, as I shall shew in the next paragraph, directly orders the Priest to stand. But as the rubric is now enlarged, the construction shews that the word standing must refer to another thing. However, since the rubric, before the additions to it, was so very express for the Minister’s standing at the Consecration; I think it is very probable, that if they who made those additions had intended any alteration of the posture, they would certainly have expressed it. For Ministers that had been always used to stand when they consecrated, could never imagine that the new rubric directed them to kneel, when there was not one word of kneeling, but an express direction for standing, at the ordering of the elements, without any following prescription for kneeling at this prayer, even in this new rubric. And I take it for granted, that whenever the Church does not direct the Minister to kneel, it supposes him to stand. Though Dr. Nichols will not allow of this; “because,” he says, “there is not one rubric which obliges the Minister to kneel in all the Post-Communion service; and yet he does not know any one that has contended for the posture of standing in the performance of that part of the service.” What the doctor has known, I cannot tell: but I can affirm the direct contrary, that I never knew one that contended for the posture of kneeling in the performance of that part of the service. But if any have done so, I am apt to think that they act contrary to the intention of the Church. For that she supposes the Minister to stand during that part of the service, I think is plain from her not ordering him to stand up whilst he gives the blessing, which she certainly would have done, if she had supposed him to have been kneeling before. And indeed in most parts of the whole Communion-office the Priest is directed to stand. In the beginning of the office he is ordered to say the Lord’s Prayer, with the Collect following, standing; and so he is to continue whilst he repeats the Commandments: then follows one of the two Collects for the king, the Priest standing as before. Whilst he says the prayer for the whole state of Christ’s Church, there is no posture mentioned: but since both the sentences before it, and the exhortation (at the time of Communion) after it, are without doubt to be said standing, and. yet no mention made that there shall be any change of posture during all that time; it seems very evident that the Church designed that prayer to be said standing. At the general confession indeed it is very fit that the Minister should kneel, and therefore he is there directed to do so. And though any one knows in reason that he should stand at the absolution, yet that too is particularly mentioned in the rubric. From thence again to the address, before the prayer of Consecration, that being all an act of praise, he is to stand: but there again he is directed to kneel: but then at the end of it he is ordered to stand up, and, after the ordering of the bread and wine, to say the prayer of consecration, without any direction to kneel. Nor indeed would that be a proper posture for him whilst he is performing an act of authority, as the consecrating the elements must be allowed to be. Nor is he from hence to the end of the office to kneel any more, except just during the time of his own receiving. So that through the whole office he is ordered to kneel but three times, viz. at the general confession, the prayer of address, and at his receiving the elements: which being three places where there least wants a rubric to direct him to kneel, (since, if there was no such rubric, a Minister would of his own accord kneel down at those times) and yet there being an express direction at each of those places for him to kneel; it is very evident, that where the rubric gives no such direction, the Minister is always to stand.

§.6. Whether the Priest be to say this prayer standing before the altar. If it be asked whether the Priest is to say this prayer standing before the table, or at the north-end of it; I answer, at the north-end of it: for, according to the rules of grammar, the participle standing must refer to the verb ordered, and not to the verb say. So that whilst the Priest is ordering the bread and wine, he is to stand before the table: but when he says the prayer, he is to stand so as that he may with the more readiness and decency break the bread before the people, which must be on the north-side. For if he stood before the table, his body would hinder the people from seeing: so that he must not stand there: and consequently he must stand on the north-side; there being, in our present rubric, no other place mentioned for performing any part of this office. In the Romish Church indeed they always stand before the altar during the time of consecration; in order to prevent the people from being eye-witnesses of their operation in working their pretended miracle: and in the Greek Church they shut the chancel door, or at least draw a veil or curtain before it, I suppose, upon the same account. But our Church, that pretends no such miracle, enjoins, we see, the direct contrary to this, by ordering the Priest so to order the bread and wine that he may with the mere readiness and decency break the breads and take the cup into his hands, before the people. And with this view, it is probable, the Scotch Liturgy ordered, that during the time of consecration the presbyter should stand at such a part of the holy table, where he may with the more ease and decency use both his hands.

When the Priest, standing before the Table, hath so ordered the Bread and Wine, that he may with the more readiness and decency break the Bread before the people, and take the Cup into his hands, he shall say the Prayer of Consecration, as followeth.

Ps 119:156 Great is your mercy, O Lord; give me life according to your justice.
John 3:16-17 "For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life. "Indeed, God did not send the Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him.
Acts 3:18 In this way God fulfilled what he had foretold through all the prophets, that his Messiah would suffer.
Rom 5:8 But God proves his love for us in that while we still were sinners Christ died for us.
Rom 8:32 He who did not withhold his own Son, but gave him up for all of us, will he not with him also give us everything else?
Gal 3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us--for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree"--
Eph 1:7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace
Col 1:20 and through him God was pleased to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, by making peace through the blood of his cross.
Jam 5:11 Indeed we call blessed those who showed endurance. You have heard of the endurance of Job, and you have seen the purpose of the Lord, how the Lord is compassionate and merciful.
Is 53:10 Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him with pain. When you make his life an offering for sin, he shall see his offspring, and shall prolong his days; through him the will of the Lord shall prosper.
John 19:30 When Jesus had received the wine, he said, "It is finished." Then he bowed his head and gave up his spirit.
Acts 4:12 There is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among mortals by which we must be saved."
2 Cor 5:18 All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation;
Phil 2:8 he humbled himself and became obedient to the point of death-- even death on a cross.
Heb 7:27 Unlike the other high priests, he has no need to offer sacrifices day after day, first for his own sins, and then for those of the people; this he did once for all when he offered himself.
Heb 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But as it is, he has appeared once for all at the end of the age to remove sin by the sacrifice of himself.
Heb 9:28 so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin, but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him.
Heb 10:10-14 And it is by God's will that we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. And every priest stands day after day at his service, offering again and again the same sacrifices that can never take away sins. But when Christ had offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, "he sat down at the right hand of God," and since then has been waiting "until his enemies would be made a footstool for his feet." For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are sanctified.
Heb 10:26 For if we willfully persist in sin after having received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins,
1 John 2:1-2 My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.
Heb 2:9 but we do see Jesus, who for a little while was made lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone.

A various reading in this prayer. In the beginning of this prayer, instead of those words, ONE oblation of himself once offered, which are now printed in most Common Prayer Books; I have seen some that read OWN oblation of himself once offered: and so, among others, does Dr. Nichols give it us, in his edition of it, which he says he corrected from a sealed book; though in several sealed books which I have collated myself, I have always found it one, as it is generally in the common hooks. However, the words, as they are, are not a tautology, (as some object) but very copious and elegant, and alluding to that portion of Scripture in Hebrews 10 where the one oblation of Christ is opposed to the many kinds of sacrifices under the law, and the once offered to the repetition of those sacrifices.

Luke 22:19-20 Then he took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me." And he did the same with the cup after supper, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.
1 Cor 10:16-17 The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a sharing in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a sharing in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread.
1 Cor 11:23-26 For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, "This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." In the same way he took the cup also, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me." For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes.
1 Cor 11:28 Examine yourselves, and only then eat of the bread and drink of the cup.

K. Saying, Take eat, this is My body.] The recital of these words pass in the common vogue for a consecration ; were I Romishly inclined, I should rather impute unto them the power of transubstantiation, for that a bare narrative can be qualified to consecrate is certainly new divinity, unknown to Scripture, and antiquity interpreting it. Therefore I must adhere in judgment to those learned men who derive consecration from the word of God and prayer, the very way by which our Saviour Himself sanctified those elements in His first institution, Matt. xxvi, 26, εὐλογήσας, “ calling upon God for His blessing,” and εὐχαριστήσας, “ giving thanks,” in which action it must be supposed that Christ had more than a general design of saying grace, as we phrase it, for those elements as creatures ordained for common nutriment, viz. an intention of invocating God’s blessing upon them, in reference to those ends for which He meant by His institution to separate and depute them.

And though the primitive fathers, in the act of consecration, did usually join the narrative of Christ’s institution with the words of blessing and thanksgiving, thereby as it were shewing their commission ; yet were they far from imagining that the elements were sanctified any other way than by prayer, if they must be thought (as sure none will question it) to mean as they said: Justin Martyr is express, τὴν δι᾿ εὐχῆς λόγου τοῦ παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ εὐχαριστηθεῖσαν τροφὴν ἐξ ἧς αἷμα καὶ σάρκες κατὰ μεταβολὴν τρέφονται ἡμῶν, ἐκείνου τοῦ σαρκοποιηθέντος ᾿Ιησοῦ καὶ σάρκα καὶ αἷμα ἐδιδάχθημεν εἶναι, i. 6. “ those viands by which our flesh and blood are nourished, being blessed by the prayer and thanksgiving of the priest, we are taught, became thereby the body and blood of Christ, who was incarnate.'' Cyprian, panis ille supersubstantialis et calix benedictione solemni consecratus, i.e. “that supersubstantial bread and wine, consecrated by solemn benediction.” Nyssen, ἁγιάζεται διὰ λόγου θεοῦ καὶ ἐντεύξεως, i. 6. “ the Eucharist is sanctified by the word of God and prayer.” Cyril, ἐπικλήσεως γινομένης ὁ μὲν ἄρτος γίνεται σῶμα Χριστοῦ, i.e. “itivocation being made, the bread becomes the body of Christ.” Jerome, quid patitur mensarum minister, ut supra eos se tumidus efferat, ad quorum preces Christi corpus sanguisque conficitur, i. e. “ what aileth this table-servant and deacon, that he carrieth himself so loftily above those with whose prayers the body and blood of Christ is effected in the Eucharist.” His convert, St. Austin, Benedicitur et sanctificatur illud quod est in Domini mensa oratione, i. 6. “the symbols lying on the holy table, are blessed and sanctified by prayer.’'

Nor do I find in all antiquity any one genuine piece of a different sense, only St. Ambrose in his de Sacramentis (if it be his) seemeth to vary, antequam consecretur, panis est ; ubi autem verba Christi accesserint, corpus est Christi; “before consecration it is mere bread ; but when once Christ’s words of institution are recited, it becomes the body of Christ.” Which yet is not directly opposite to what I have delivered before, especially taking Ambrose entire, for he begins his chapter thus: Vis scire quia verbis celestibus consecratur? Accipe que sunt verba. Dicit sacerdos, fac nobis hanc oblationem adscriptam rationabilem, acceptabilem, quod est figura corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Jesu Christi. Qui pridie quam pateretur, &c., i.e. “But will you know that the elements are consecrated with heavenly words? Hear the words themselves. The priest saith, Make this sacrifice, which is the figure of the body and blood of Christ, imputable, reasonable, acceptable for us. Who the night before He suffered,” &c., reciting Christ’s action at the institution from the Evangelists, where the narrative of the institution being continued with the prayer of the priest, the consecration may seem to be completed by those words, though in truth the prayer it was that operated the main, and without it the words could have effected nothing; and this is the reason why both in the now canon of the Mass, and the ancient liturgies, there is always affixed a prayer of benediction, that εὐλογία mentioned before, whose forms I shall here exhibit in reference to my former promise.

In the Romish canon thus, ut hec oblatio nobis corpus et sanguis fiat dilectissimi filii tut Domini nostri Jesu Christi, “that this oblation may become to us the body and blood of Thy most beloved Son our Lord Jesus Christ.” In the liturgy of St. Basil*, God is invocated “ that He would send His Holy Spirit,” ἐπὶ τὰ προκείμενα δῶρα ταῦj Ta Kal εὐλογῆσαι αὐτὰ Kal ἁγιάσαι, “upon the gifts there present, that He would bless and sanctify them.” That of St. Chrysostom more fullt; εὐλόγησον δέσποτα τὸν ἅγιον ἄρτον ποίησον τὸν μὲν ἄρτον τοῦτον τίμιον σῶμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ σου: “bless, O Lord, this holy bread, make it the precious body of Thy Christ.” Elder than these the Clementine Constitutions. Having premised the words of institution, (a mode observed by all Greek liturgies, herein differing from the Latin,) he adds, ἀξιοῦμέν ce, ὅπως εὐμενῶς ἐπιβλέψῃς ἐπὶ τὰ προκείμενα δῶρα ταῦτα ἐνώπιόν cov, σὺ ὁ ἀνενδεὴς θεός καὶ καταπέμψης τὸ ἅγιόν σου πνεῦμα ἐπὶ τὴν θυσίαν ταύτην τὸν μαρτύρα τῶν παθημάτων τοῦ κυρίου ᾿Ιησοῦ, ὅπως ἀποφήνῃ τὸν ἄρτον τούτον σῶμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ σου, καὶ τὸ ποτήριον τοῦτο αἷμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ σου, i.e., “we beseech Thee that Thou wouldest graciously behold these oblations presented before Thee, Thou God that wantest nothing, and send down Thy Holy Spirit upon this sacrifice, being the commemoration of the passions of our Lord Jesus, to exhibit this bread as the body, and this cup as the blood of Thy Christ.” Now it were, I say, vain to prefix with the Latins, or to affix with the Greeks, such an invocation, if the bare affirmative words of our Saviour’s institution were consecration all-sufficient.

By the marginal ascription of the 1 B. of Edward VI. we may observe from whence the custom is derived for the minister to take the elements into his hands upon his pronouncing of the words of institution. I humbly offer it to better judgments, whether that direction being expunged by our second reformers, it would not be a safe and as proper a course to begin that action at these words, “Grant that we receiving these Thy creatures,” &c., and to continue the rite until the words of institution be past. For as I said before, the words of invocation of God’s blessing, jointly with those of Christ’s institution, constitute the consecration. Now if the blessing of the symbols be, as it is, an essential part of consecration, then reason good, that with the words whereby it is accommodated and applied, the ceremony proper to it, that I mean of imposing of hands, should be used also. Nevertheless, I see not how the either precept or use thereof, as Bucer suspected, can at all officiate to the error of transubstantiation, considering that the direction referreth not to the words of institution, which the papists make the great operators in the conversion, but to the words “took bread,” and “took the cup,” as is rightly noted in the Scotch Liturgy, where the same direction is revived.

As to the words of institution, I must here note, against all who pretend our service is taken out of the Mass-book, that the Church of Rome hath halved them, as well as the Communion itself. For whereas our Church, agreeable to the general manner of all other liturgies, indeed agreeable to St. Paul and his associate St. Luke, (who supplied what St. Matthew and St. Mark had omitted,) after these words, “This is My body,” continueth, “which is given for you,” the canon of the Mass chops off the words, guod pro vobis traditur, contenting itself with hoc est corpus meum.

Though all our liturgies stand silent in it, yet may I not omit what here by the way doth offer itself as observable, viz. that at the close of the Eucharistical prayer, the ancient manner was for the people to contribute their Amen; which the annotator, Mr. Thorndike, and some other learned men, conceive to be the mind of St. Paul, 1 Cor. xiv. 16, “ How shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks?” applying ἐπὶ τῇ σῇ εὐχαριστίᾳ to the consecrating prayer, which included thanksgiving fitly and concinne enough, and the practice of the primitive fathers gives the same interpretation, ἄρτος προσφέρεται Kat οἶνος, Kal ὁ προεστὼς εὐχὰς ὁμοίως καὶ εὐχαριστίας bon δύνα- μὲς αὐτῷ ἀναπέμπει, καὶ λαὸς ἐπευφημεῖ, λέγων τὸ ᾿Α μήν, saith Justin Martyr; “bread and wine is brought forth, and the president, with all intention of spirit, poureth forth prayers and thanksgivings, and all the people acclaim Amen.” Here is evidence clear enough to serve my turn, if my translating ὅση δύναμες, “with all intention of spirit’,’ gives check to so many of Smectymnuus as yet survive, who will have it “according to his ability,” and thereby advance extempore prayer, I must tell them their own Beza renders the phrase quanta potest contentione; I must tell them that the words in their native and proper energy can signify nothing else, witness Gregory Nazianzen, who understood them better than they or I. Φέρε, ὅση δύναμις τὴν ἐπινίκιον ἄδομεν ἐκείνην ὠδὴν ἥν πότε ἦσεν ὁ ᾿Ισραὴλ ἐπὶ τοῖς Αἰγυπτίοις τῇ ἐρυθρᾳ καταληφθεῖσιν', &c.; “Come, let us with all intention of spirit chant that triumphant ode which sometime the Israelites sang upon the overthrow of the Egyptians in the Red sea.” Oon δύναμις being limited precisely to ἐκείνην ὠδὴν, utterly shuts out all arbitrary conceptions. To pursue my former purpose, one who was baptized by heretics, became somewhat afflicted in his conscience, suspecting his baptism for illegitimate, thereupon he resorts to Dionysius Alexandrinus, desiring that he might be re-baptized. Dionysius replied no, and assigned this reason for it, why he might not re-baptize, εὐχαριστίας ἐπακούσαντα Kal συνεπιφθεγξάμενον τὸ ᾿Α μὴν, “one who had been present at the mystical thanksgiving, and had with the congregation joined his Amen.” The same fashion is extant in all the Greek liturgies, that of the Clementine Constitutions excepted. For the Latin Church let St. Ambrose speak; ante consecrationem aliud dicitur, post consecrationem sanguis nuncupatur, et tu dicis Amen; “before the consecration,” wherewith thanksgiving was joined, “‘it is called somewhat else, but after consecration it is styled the blood of Christ, and thou sayest Amen.”

L. Having in remembrance His blessed passion.] This blessed Sacrament is commemoratio Dominice passionis, a commemoration of our Saviour’s passion.” So was His express command when He first instituted this holy rite, τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς THY ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν, “do this in remembrance of Me:” which words import somewhat more than a calling of His passion to our mind, a meditating and thinking upon it when we are conversant about that sacred action, as is vulgarly apprehended. Sure I am the primitive Church stretched it farther, and held herself obliged thereby, not only to a mental, but a vocal commemoration ; therefore witness her liturgical formulas, constantly running after one tenor importing as much, μεμνημένοι ὧν δι’ ἡμᾶς ὑπέμεινεν, εὐχαριστοῦμέν σοι Θεὲ παντοκράτορ', καὶ τὴν διάταξιν αὐτοῦ πληροῦμεν ; “making commemoration of what He suffered for us, we give Thee thanks, Almighty God, and so fulfil His appointment.” So the Constitutions, whereby it is manifest not only that such commemoration was made, but that it was made upon the account of divine institution. In all the liturgies ascribed to St. James, St. Basil, St. Chrysostom, &c., the like commemoration passeth current. For the Latins listen to St. Ambrose; sacerdos dicit, Ergo memores gloriosissine ejus passionis, et ab inferis resurrectionis, et in ceelum ascensionis, offerimus tibi, &c.; “the priest says, Therefore commemorating His most glorious passion, resurrection from the dead, and ascension into heaven, we offer up unto thee,” &c. Agreeable to which is the now canon of the Mass; whence it is that the same Ambrose of the words, “do this in remembrance of Me,” gives this paraphrase, mortem meam predicabitis, resurrectionem meam annuncia- bitis, adventum sperabitis, donec iterum adveniam, “ye shall set forth My death, declare My resurrection, and hope for My coming, until I shall come again.” Indeed St. Paul himself seems so to interpret them, saying, “for as often as ye shall eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye shew the Lord’s death till He come,” 1 Cor. xi. 26, implying that annunciation or declaration of Christ’s passion was usually made at the celebrating the Eucharist, which could no otherwise be than by verbal commemoration.

Administration of Communion

After the Consecration, the Priest first receives himself. So is it ordain'd Conc. Tolet. 12. 5. Wherein it is decreed that, The Priest shall receive whensoever he offers up the Sacrifice. For since the Apostle hath said, Are not they which eat of the Sacrifice, partakers of the Altar? 1 Cor. 10. it is certain, that they who sacrifice and eat not, are guilty of the Lords Sacrament.]

After he hath received, he is to deliver it to the people in their hands. So was it in Cyrils time, Cat. mystag. 5. and Let every one be careful to keep it, for whosoever carelesly loses any part of it, had better lose a part of himself, saies he, And Whosoever wilfully throws it away, shall be for ever excluded from the Communion, Conc. Tolet. 11. c. 11.

It is to be given to the people KNEELING. for a sin it is not to adore when we receive this Sacrament, Avg. in Psal. 98. And the old custome was to receive it after the manner of Adoration, Cyril. ibidem.

This Sacrament should be received fasting. 3. Counc. of Carthag. can. 29. And so was the practice of the universal Church, says S. Aug. Epist. 118. which is authority enough,  ( in things of this nature, namely, circumstances of time, &c. )  to satisfie any that do not love contention, 1 Cor. 11. 16.  Yet it will not be amiss in a word to shew the reasonableness of this Catholic usage.  And the first reason may be this, because our minds are clearest, our devotion quickest, and so we fittest to perform this most high service, when we are in our Virgin spittle, as Tertullian expresses it.  A second is this ;  it is for the honour of so high a Sacrament, that the precious body of Christ should first enter in to the Christian’s mouth before any other meat.  S. Aug. Ep. 118.

It is true that our Saviour gave it to his Disciples after Supper ;  but dare any man quarrel the universal Church of Christ, for receiving it fasting?  This also pleased the holy Ghost, that, for the honour of so great a Sacrament, the body of Christ should first enter into the Christian’s mouth, before all other meats.  Neither, because our Saviour gave it to his Disciples after Supper, will it necessarily follow that we should receive it so, mingling the Sacrament with our other meats :  a thing which the Apostle seems to reprehend, 1 Cor. 11.  There was a special reason for our Saviour’s doing so, his Supper was to succeed immediately to the Passeover ;  and therefore as soon as that was over, he instituted his ;  and that he might the more deeply imprint the excellency of this mystery into the minds and hearts of his Disciples, he would give it them the last thing he did, before he went from them to his Passion, knowing that dying men’s words move much :  but he no where appointed what hour and time it should afterward be received ;  but left that to be ordered by them that were after his departure, to settle the Churches, namely, the Apostles, and accordingly we find S. Paul 1 Cor. 11 rectifying some abuses, and prescribing some rules for the better ordering of some Rites and Ceremonies about the Sacrament, and promising when he should come, to settle and order for the rest, verse 34. from whom S. Aug. seems to think that the Catholic Church received this custom of receiving the Sacrament fasting, Ep. 118. 

When the Priest hath said at the delivery of the Sacrament, the body of our Lord Jesus Christ which was given for thee, preserve thy body and soul into everlasting life. The Communicant is to answer, AMEN. Cyril, Myst. 5. By this Amen professing his faith of the presence of Christs Body and Blood in that Sacrament.

The people were of old called out of the Body of the Church into the Chancel, even up to the Rails of the Holy Table, there to receive it of the Priest, Niceph. l. 18. c. 45. So Clement Const. l. 2. c. 57. these be his words in English, Afterwards let the Sacrifice be made, all the people standing and praying secretly; and after the Oblation let every Order apart receive the Body and precious Bloud of the Lord, coming up in their Order with fear and reverence as to the Body of a King. Where you see they were to come up to the Sacrament, and to, or near the Railes of the Holy Table, saies S. Chrys. Liturgy. For after the Priest and Deacons have received, the Deacon goes to the door of the Rails, πρὸς τὴν θύραν τοῦ ἁγίου βήματος, and lifting up the holy Cup, shews it to the people, saying, In the faith and fear of God προσήλθετε, come hither, or as our Liturgy saies, draw near, the people Answer, Amen, Amen, Amen, Blessed be he that comes in the Name of the Lord, and so come and receive in both kinds.

Every Parishioner shall communicate at the least three times in the year, whereof Easter to be one. Rubr. last after the Communion.

In the Primitive Church, while Christians continued in their strength of Faith and Devotion, they did communicate every day. This custome continued in Africa till S. Cyprians time, Orat. Dom. We daily receive the Eucharist, for to be our food of salvation. And after him till S. Augustines time Ep. 23. ad Bonifac. Insomuch as these words in our Lords Prayer, Give us this day our daily bread, they interpreted of the Eucharist, as being daily to be celebrated. But afterward when charity grew cold and devotion faint, the custome grew faint withal; and within a small time began to be left by little and little; and some upon one pretence, and some upon another, would communicate but once a week. In the East-Church they grew to a worse custome betimes, which in after Ages came into the Latin Churches too. They fell from every day to Sundaies and Holy daies only, and from thence to once a year, and no oftner. S. Ambr. is cited for the proof of this, De Sacram. l. 4. c. 4. But this wicked custome of receiving the Eucharist but once a year, was but of some Greeks in the East, saies S. Ambrose there; which cannot properly be understood of any but the Diocess (as it was anciently called) or Patriarchate of Antioch. For though the Eastern Empire, whereof Constantinople was the Metropolis, contained many Provinces, yet the Eastern Church, or Greeks in the East, were properly those of Antioch, Theodor. Hist. l. 5. c. 9. And possibly some of these might be so supine, as hath been observed; but of the Greeks in general, no such careless custome can be affirmed: for S. Chrysost. tells us that in his time, in every meeting or congregation of the Church, the healthful mysteries of the Eucharist are celebrated, Hom. 26. in Matth. In regard of this neglect, after-Councels did, as the Church of England, make Canons, that if men could be got to receive it no oftner, yet they should be forc'd to receive it, at least three times in the year; Christmas, Easter and Whitsontide. Nor was he to be reckoned amongst good Catholick Christians, that did not receive at those feasts, Conc. Agat. c. 18. [Eliber. c. 81. as they are cited by Gratian. de Conscr. dis. 2.]

Three times a year at the least they were to receive, whereof Easter to be one; and good reason: For when Christ our Passeover was Sacrificed for us, then, of all times, let us keep a Feast with this holy banquet, 1 Cor. 5. 7. These Canons were made for the Laity, but for those of the Clergy that lived in Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, (where there were enough of themselves, to make a sufficient company to receive the Sacrament) they were bound to receive much oftner, every day, Edw. 6. Liturg. every Sunday at the least, Rubr. 4. after the Communion. Thus we see holy Church her care to bring all her Children; Clergy and Laity, to the heavenly banquet of the body and blood of Christ; she invites all to a frequent and due receiving of this holy Sacrament in most passionate and kind manner, in that most excellent exhortation, next after the prayer for the Catholick Church militant here on earth. An exhortation, fit to be read weekly by the Priest, and seriously considered daily by all the people. In which holy Church one while exhorts us by the mercies and bowels of Christ, to come to this holy feast; another while terrifies us by the indignation of God against those that despise his so great love, and refuse to come, she sends her Ministers, as the man in the Gospel S. Luke 14. to tell them all things are ready, and to bid them in the Name of God, to call them in Christ's behalf, to exhort them as they love their own salvation, to come to this holy Supper; and those, that, notwithstanding all this bidding, shall go about to make excuses, because they had bought a Farm, or would try their yoke of Oxen, or because they were married, holy Church by her Canons and Laws endeavours to compel to come in at least three times in the year. And it were to be wished that all those that despise the Churches passionate exhortations, and contemn her wholsome Canons and commands in this particular, would seriously at last, think of that dreadful sentence of our Lord, upon those that still refuse so great mercy, I say unto you that none of those men which were bidden, shall taste of my Supper. S. Luke 14. 24. None of those that are thus bidden by Christ and his Church to his holy Supper, the holy Communion, and shall refuse to come, shall ever taste of his great Supper hereafter, or eat and drink with him at his Table in his Kingdom S. Luke c. 22. 29.

If any of the Bread and Wine remain, the Curate shall have it to his own use. [Rubr. 5. after the Communion Service.] That is, if it were not consecrated: for if it be consecrated, it is all to be spent with fear and reverence by the Communicants, in the Church Gratian de Consecr. dist. 2. c. 23. Tribus Concil. Constant. Resp. ad Qu. 5. Monachon. apud Balsam. Theophil. Alexand. cap. 7.

M. To the people in their hands.] So was the celebration observed by Christ Himself, and so the primitive custom; the scrupulous person, mentioned before in Eusebius, is said yeipas εἰς ὑποδοχὴν τῆς ἁγίας τροφῆς προτείνειν, “to stretch out his hands for the receiving of the sacred food.” So St Cyprian, speaking of persons lapsed, who intruded to the Communion before they had performed those solemnities of penance which the Church required, saith, plus modo in Dominum manibus et ore delinguunt quam cum Dominum negaverunt, “They did more heinously offend God with their hands reached out to take, and their mouths open to devour, those precious symbols, than they did with their tongues when they denied Him.” To the same purpose this father elsewhere very often, so also Clemens Alexandrinus, Augustine — who not? In tract of time some indiscreet persons, pretending greater reverence to the mysteries, as if they were defiled with their hands, were at the cost to provide certain saucers, or little plates of gold, (why not as well golden mouths and stomachs?) to receive it, until they were forbidden by the sixth council in Trullo. Another abuse the Church of Rome brought in, where the priest puts it into the people’s mouths, lest a crumb should fall beside, which, favouring transubstantiation, is by our Church discontinued.

N. Kneeling.] The ancients made it their study to adorn the blessed Eucharist with all the appellations of honour they could devise, some called it τελετῶν τελετὴν, i. 6. “ the perfection of perfections ;” some φρικτὰ μυστήριαϑ, “ the dreadful mysteries ;” some τῶν μεγάλων μυστηρίων ἀντίτυπον , “the exemplar of high mysteries.” The table on which it was laid was called τράπεζα ἱερὰ, “the holy table ;” τράπεξα μυστικὴ, “the mystical table ;” τράπεζα ἢ φρικώδης, “ the terrible and dreadful table.” Much cost to slender purpose; if after all it be now discovered they were in the wrong, and that this Sacrament hath nothing of that veneration, nothing of that dreadfulness which they imputed to it, and that it is so tame and despicable an ordinance as will admit of any negligent posture, and that kneeling is too good for it.

Miserable infatuation! Good God! how well mayest Thou say to those misled souls, as Augustus to him who entertained him meanly, “I did not think you and I had been so familiar.” Blessed Jesus! wert Thou so gracious to us wretches, as to leave and bequeath us this mystery of our eternal redemption, and great charter of all Thy benefits, and shall we dare to receive it in any other than the lowest and humblest posture? What is, if this be not, μὴ διακρίνειν τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Κυρίου, “not to discern the Lord’s body?” and what the consequence of that indistinction is, let all them consider who would avoid it.

But it may be said, that kneeling was not the gesture of the primitive Church. Confessed, generally it was not ; because their fashion was, upon Communion days, to pray standing; nevertheless the communicant was enjoined to receive those mysteries κύπτων τρόπῳ προσκυνήσεως Kal σεβάσματος, “ bowing himself after the manner of veneration and adoration.” How can Augustine’s words be otherways truly interpreted, nemo carnem illam manducat, nist prius adoraverit, “let none presume to eat that flesh until he hath done his obeisance.” Nor was this ecumenical and universal practice, for Sozoment tells a story of a woman, which to please her husband, coming to the Communion, took the bread when the priest gave it her, and kneeling down, as if it had been to secret prayer, conveyed it away, her maid (then by) privily stealing a piece of common bread into her hands, which she ate instead of the other ; whence it appeareth that kneeling was not then interdicted. A gesture used by the Protestants of Bohemia, upon whose custom, mentioned in their Confession, the French and Dutch Churches passed this judgment, in hoc ritu suam cuique Ecclesia libertatem salvam relinquendam arbitramur, “as to this ceremony, we hold it fit that every Church be left to her own liberty.” A gesture which by Beza’s own confession, olim potuit cum fructu usurpari, “might in times past have been used with edification.” In time past, why not now as well? yea, much rather, when, as the fear of reverting to popish idolatry is altogether vain, so the danger of apostatizing from Christ is very great, and no way sooner occasioned than by a sitting posture, it being observed by the Polish Church, that the men who lapsed there into the Arian heresy were all such as addicted themselves to that posture at the Communion.

The holy elements to be delivered by the Minister to each communicant. THE holy symbols being thus consecrated, the communicants must not rudely take every one his own part; because God, who is the master of the feast, hath provided stewards to divide to every one their portion. Some persons indeed have disliked the Minister's delivering the holy elements to each communicant; pretending that it is contrary to the practice of our Saviour, who bid the Apostles take the cup and divide it among themselves. But one would think that any one that reads the context would perceive that this passage does not relate to the eucharist, but to the paschal supper; since it appears so evidently from the nineteenth and twentieth verses of the same chapter, that the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was not instituted till after that cup was drank. But as to the manner of his delivering the Sacrament, the Scriptures are wholly silent; and consequently we have no other means to judge what it was, but by the practice of the first Christians, who doubtless, as far as was convenient and requisite, imitated our Saviour in this as Well as they did in other things: and therefore since it was the general practice among them for the Minister to deliver the elements to each communicant, we have as much authority and reason as can be desired to continue that practice still.

§.2. First to the clergy. And then to the people The Minister therefore that celebrateth is first to receive the communion in both kinds himself; then to proceed to deliver the same to the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, in like manner, (i.e. in both kinds) if any be present, (that they may help the chief Minister, as the old Common Prayer has it, or him that celebrateth, as it is in the Scotch Liturgy) and after that to the people also in order. And this is consonant to the practice of the primitive Church, in which it was always the custom for the clergy to communicate within the rails of the altar, and before the Sacrament was delivered to the people.

Into their hands. The rubric further directs, that the Communion must be delivered both to the clergy and laity into their hands; which was the most primitive and ancient way of receiving. In St. Cyril's time they received it into the hollow of their right hand, holding their left hand under their right in the form of a cross. And in some few ages afterwards, some indiscreet persons pretending greater reverence to the elements, as if they were defiled with their hands, put themselves to the charges of providing little saucers or plates of gold to receive the bread, until they were forbidden by the sixth general Council. Another abuse the Church of Rome brought in, where the Priest puts it into the people's mouths, lest a crumb should tall aside; which custom was also retained in the first book of king Edward VI, though a different reason was there alleged; the rubric ordering that although it he read in ancient writers that the people many years past, received at the Priests hands, the Sacrament of the Body of Christ in their own hands, and no commandment of Christ to the contrary; yet forasmuch as they many times conveyed the same secretly away, kept it with them, and diversely abused it to superstition and wickedness: lest any such thing hereafter should be attempted, and that an uniformity might be used throughout the whole realm, it was thought convenient the people should commonly receive the Sacrament of Christ's Body in their mouths, at the Priest's hand. But however Bucer censuring it, as savouring too much of an unlawful honour done to the elements, it was discontinued at the next review, when the old primitive way of delivering it into the people's hands was ordered in the room of it.

§.4. The Apostles probably received in a posture of adoration. The communicants are enjoined, whilst they receive this blessed Sacrament, to be all meekly kneeling. What posture the Apostles received it m, is uncertain; but we may probably conjecture that they received it in a posture of adoration. For it is plain that our Saviour blessed and gave thanks both for the bread and wine; and prayers and thanksgivings, we all know, were always offered up to God in a posture of adoration: and therefore we may very safely conclude that our blessed Saviour, who was always remarkable for outward reverence in devotion, gave thanks for the bread and wine in an adoring posture.

Now it is very well known that it was a rule with the Jews to eat of the passover to satiety: and therefore, since they had already satisfied hunger, they cannot be supposed to have eaten or drank so much of the holy eucharist as that they needed repose while they did it: and since, as we have already hinted, they rose from their seats to bless the bread, it cannot be imagined, that, without any reason, they would resolve to sit down again during the moment of eating it; and then, though they rose immediately a second time at the blessing which was performed before the delivery of the cup, that they immediately sat down again to taste the wine, as if they could neither eat nor drink the smallest quantity without sitting.

This indeed does not amount to a demonstration, but is yet a very probable conjecture; and shews how groundlessly they argue, who, from the Apostles eating the passover sitting or leaning upon the left side, (which was the table-gesture among those nations,) conclude, that they ate the eucharist in the same posture, because it was celebrated at the same time.

The example of the Apostles does not bind us. But besides, we may observe that the passover itself was, at the first institution of it, commanded to be eaten standing and in haste, to express the haste they were in to be delivered out of their slavery and bondage: but afterwards, when they were settled in the Land of Promise, they ate it in a quite contrary posture, viz. sitting, or lying down to it, as to a feast, to signify they were then at rest, and in possession of the land. And with this custom (though we do not find any where that it was ever commanded, or so much as warranted by God) did our blessed Saviour comply, and therefore doubtless thought that the alteration of the circumstances was a justifiable reason for changing the ceremonies. But was it ever so certain that a table-gesture was used at the institution of the Eucharist, yet it is very reasonable, since the circumstances of our blessed Saviour are now different from what they were at the institution, that our outward demeanour should also vary. The posture which might then be suitable in the Apostles is not now suitable in us: while he was corporally present with them, and they conversed with him as man, without any awful dread upon them, which was due to him as the Lord of heaven and earth, no wonder if they did use a table-posture: but then their familiarity ought to be no precedent for us, who worship him in his glory, and converse with him in the Sacrament, as he is spiritually present; and who therefore would be very irreverent to approach him in any other posture than that of adoration.

When kneeling first began. As to the punctual time when the posture of kneeling first began, it is hard to determine; but we are assured that it hath obtained in the Western Church above twelve hundred years; and though anciently they stood in the East, yet it was with fear and trembling, with silence and downcast eyes, bowing themselves in the posture of worship and adoration.

How universal a practice. But it is now the custom of the Greek, Roman, Lutheran, and most Churches in the world, to receive kneeling: nor do any scruple it, but they who study pretences to palliate the most unjustifiable separation, or designed neglect of this most sacred ordinance.

The pope receives the Sacrament sitting. And it is worth observing, that they who at other times cry out so much against the Church of England for retaining several ceremonies, which, though indifferent in themselves, they say become unlawful by being abused by superstition and popery, can, in this more solemn and material ceremony, agree even with the pope himself, (who receives sitting,) rather than not differ from the best and purest Church in the world.

Sitting, by whom introduced. Nor may I pass by unobserved that the posture of sitting was first brought into the Church by the Arians; who stubbornly denying the divinity of our Saviour, thought it no robbery to be equal with him, and to sit down with him at his table; for which reason it was justly banished by the reformed Church in Poland, by a general synod, A.D. 1583. And it is the pope's opinion of his being St. Peter's successor, and Christ's vicegerent, which prompts him to use such familiarity with his Lord.

§.6. Communion in one kind examined. Where there are two or more Ministers present, it is the custom for the chief Minister, or for him that consecrates, to administer only the body, and for another to follow and administer the cup. Agreeable to an old rubric in king Edward's first Liturgy, which orders, that if there he a Deacon or other Priest, then shall he follow with the chalice: and as the Priest ministereth the Sacrament of the Body, so shall he (for more expectation) minister the Sacrament of the Blood, in form before written. For our Church does not (with the Roman Church) rob the people of half the Sacrament, but administers to the laity as well as the clergy under both kinds. The Romanists indeed pretend that Christ administered under both kinds only to the Apostles, whom he had made priests just before, and gave no command that it should be so received by the laity. But we would ask whether the Apostles were not all that were then present? If they were, in what capacity did they receive it? how did they receive the bread before the Hoc facite, (Do this) as priests, or as laymen? It is ridiculous to suppose those words changed their capacity: though if we should allow they did, yet it would only relate to consecrating, and not to receiving. But if Christ only gave it to the Apostles as priests, it must necessarily follow, that the people are not at all concerned in one kind or other; but that each kind was intended only for priests. For if the people are concerned, how came they to be so? Where is there any command, but what refers to the first institution? So that it had been much more plausible, according to this answer, to exclude the people wholly, than to admit them to one kind, and to debar them of the other.

Not so, say they, because Christ himself administered the Sacrament to some of his disciples under one kind only. But to make out this we require, first, that it be proved that Christ did then administer the Sacrament; or, secondly, if he did, that the cup was not implied; since breaking of bread, when taken for an ordinary meal in Scripture, does not exclude drinking at it.

When we appeal to the practice of the primitive ages, they leave us: and the most impartial of them will allow that the custom of communicating under one kind only, as is now used in the Church of Rome, was unknown to the world for a thousand years after Christ. In some cases (it is true) they dipped the bread in the wine, as in the case of baptized infants, (to whom they administered the Eucharist in those primitive times,) and of very weak, dying persons, who could not otherwise have swallowed the bread; and also that by this means they might keep the Sacrament at home against all emergent occasions. And this probably might in time make the way easier for introducing the Sacrament under the kind of bread only.

§.7. Of the Corporal or Pall. When all have communicated, the Minister directed to return to the Lord's Table, and reverently place upon it what remaineth of the consecrated elements, covering the same with a fair linen cloth: which by the ancient writers and the Scotch Liturgy (in which this rubric first appeared) is called the Corporal, from its being spread over the Body or consecrated Bread, and sometimes the Pall, I suppose for the same reason. The institution of it is ascribed to Eusebius, bishop of Rome, who lived about the year 300. And that it was of common use in the Church in the fifth century, is evident from the testimony of Isidore Peleusiota, who also observes that the design of using it was to represent the body of our Saviour being wrapped in fine linen by Joseph of Arimathea.

Then shall the Minister first receive the Communion in both kinds himself, and then proceed to deliver the same to the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, in like manner, (if any be present,) and after that to the people also in order, into their hands, all meekly kneeling. And, when he delivereth the Bread to any one, he shall say,

John 6:33 For the bread of God is that which comes down from heaven and gives life to the world."
John 6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. Whoever eats of this bread will live forever; and the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh."
John 6:54 Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood have eternal life, and I will raise them up on the last day;
Gal 2:20 and it is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.
Col 1:12 giving thanks to the Father, who has enabled you to share in the inheritance of the saints in the light.
Heb 10:5 Consequently, when Christ came into the world, he said, "Sacrifices and offerings you have not desired, but a body you have prepared for me;

Ο. The body of our Lord, &c.] If you take a view of the elder forms, as they stand lateral to the Common Prayer, you may perceive this constituted by the coupling and uniting of the other two, which were before unhappily divorced. For the first form in the first book, excluding the words commemorative of Christ’s death and passion, which those divine mysteries were ordered to represent; as it is the precise formula of the Mass-book, so might it be suspected as over-serviceable to the doctrine of transubstantiation, to which the Romanists applied it. Again, in the next book, the commemoration being let in, and the body and blood of Christ shut out, that real presence, which all sound Protestants seem to allow, might probably be implied to be denied. Excellently well done therefore was it of Queen Elizabeth’s Reformers, to link them both together; for between the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist, and the sacramental commemoration of His passion, there is so inseparable a league, as subsist they cannot, unless they consist. A sacramental verity of Christ’s body and blood there cannot be, without the commemoration of His death and passion, because Christ never promised His mysterious (yet real) presence, but in reference to such commemoration. Nor can there be a true commemoration without the body and blood exhibited and participated ; because Christ gave not those visible elements, but His body and blood to make that spiritual representation.

P. Here the party receiving shall say, Amen.] This order is a piece of reformation, wherein the Church of Scotland stands single and alone. I call it a piece of reformation, because it is the reviving of a very ancient custom. The same is the direction in the Constitutions ascribed to the Apostles. O ἐπίσκοπος διδότω THY προσφορὰν, λέγων, Σῶμα Χριστοῦ καὶ ὁ δεχόμενος λεγέτω, ᾿Δ μὴν. ὋὉ δὲ διάκονος κατεχέτω τὸ ποτήριον, καὶ ἐπιδιδοὺς λεγέτω, Aiwa Χριστοῦ, ποτήριον ζωῆς καὶ ὁ πίνων λεγέτω, ᾿Αμὴνδ. “Let the bishop give the oblation of bread, saying, The body of Christ, and let him that receiveth it say, Amen. Then the deacon having the cup, and delivering it, let him say, The blood of Christ, the cup of salvation; and let him that drinketh say, Amen.” By St. Augustine it should seem to have been of general usage, saying, universa Ecclesia accepto sanguine Christi dicit, Amen, “ the universal Church at the receiving of the blood of Christ, answereth, Amen.” Thus you see upon what terms of conformity the Scotch service, in this particular, stands with the ancient practice.

Though I have neither rule nor text, in any one of the liturgies I discourse upon, engaging me to it; yet is it no extravagant vagary here, to take into consideration the general fashion used in our Church, in employing the congregation in singing, during the time of communicating ; whether that time can be better transacted and laid out, than in psalms suitable to the subject of those blessed mysteries, not falling under dispute, must pass in the negative; this being so, the only concernment to which I am obliged is, to shew that the custom floweth from the prescript of primitive tradition, whereof the ancient liturgies are evidence enough, that, especially, exhibited in the Constitutions above mentioned. Ψαλμὸς δὲ λεγέσθω τριακοστὸς τρίτος ἐν τῷ μεταλαμβάνειν πάντας τοὺς λουποὺς“, “let the thirty-third Psalm be said whilst the rest communicate.” For the African practice, speaks St. Augustine; mos ceperat apud Carthaginem ut hymni ad altare dicerentur de Psalmorum libro, sive ante oblationem, sive cum distribueretur populo quod fuisset oblatum. Hune morem Hilarius laicus, maledica reprehensione, ubicunque poterat, lacerabat, asserens fieri non oportere: “a custom was begun at Carthage, that hymns out of David’s Psalms, both before the oblation, and at the distribution of it, should be sung. This fashion one Hilary, a layman, wheresoever he could, inveighed against, affirming it ought not to be done.”

§.5. The form of words. As for the words of Administration; the first part of them, viz. The Body, or The Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, was the only form used in St. Ambrose's time at the delivery of the Bread and Wine, to which the receivers answered, Amen, both to express their desire that it might be Christ's body and blood unto them, and their firm belief that it was so. The next words, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life, were added by St. Gregory: and these with the former were all that were to be used at the delivery of the elements, during the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI. But these words, I suppose, being thought at that time to savour too much of the real presence in the Sacrament, which was a doctrine that then was thought to imply too much of transubstantiation to be believed; they were therefore left out of the second book, and the following words prescribed in the room of them. Take and eat this, &c., or Drink this, &c., as in the latter part of our present forms. But these on the other side reducing the Sacrament to a bare eating and drinking in remembrance of the death and passion of our Lord; they were in a little time as much disliked as the former. And therefore upon queen Elizabeth's accession to the throne, (whose design and endeavour was to unite the nation as much as she could in one doctrine and faith,) both these forms were enjoined to be used (as we have them still) to please both parties. Though in the Scotch Liturgy the last clause was again thrown out, and the former only (which was prescribed by the first book) retained, with a direction to the receiver to say Amen: which is undoubtedly the most agreeable to the primitive practice, and to the true notion of the Eucharist.

And the Minister that delivereth the Cup to any one shall say,

Ps 116:12-13 What shall I return to the Lord for all his bounty to me? I will lift up the cup of salvation and call on the name of the Lord,
John 6:54-56 Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood have eternal life, and I will raise them up on the last day; for my flesh is true food and my blood is true drink. Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood abide in me, and I in them.
1 Thess 5:23 May the God of peace himself sanctify you entirely; and may your spirit and soul and body be kept sound and blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Ps 25:20 O guard my life, and deliver me; do not let me be put to shame, for I take refuge in you.

§.5. The form of words. As for the words of Administration; the first part of them, viz. The Body, or The Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, was the only form used in St. Ambrose's time at the delivery of the Bread and Wine, to which the receivers answered, Amen, both to express their desire that it might be Christ's body and blood unto them, and their firm belief that it was so. The next words, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life, were added by St. Gregory: and these with the former were all that were to be used at the delivery of the elements, during the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI. But these words, I suppose, being thought at that time to savour too much of the real presence in the Sacrament, which was a doctrine that then was thought to imply too much of transubstantiation to be believed; they were therefore left out of the second book, and the following words prescribed in the room of them. Take and eat this, &c., or Drink this, &c., as in the latter part of our present forms. But these on the other side reducing the Sacrament to a bare eating and drinking in remembrance of the death and passion of our Lord; they were in a little time as much disliked as the former. And therefore upon queen Elizabeth's accession to the throne, (whose design and endeavour was to unite the nation as much as she could in one doctrine and faith,) both these forms were enjoined to be used (as we have them still) to please both parties. Though in the Scotch Liturgy the last clause was again thrown out, and the former only (which was prescribed by the first book) retained, with a direction to the receiver to say Amen: which is undoubtedly the most agreeable to the primitive practice, and to the true notion of the Eucharist.

If the consecrated Bread or Wine be all spent before all have communicated, the Priest is to consecrate more cording to the Form before prescribed: Beginning at [Our Saviour Christ in the same night, &c.] for the blessing of the Bread ; and at [Likewise after Supper, &c.] for the blessing of the Cup.

When all have communicated, the Minister shall return to the Lord's Table, and reverently place upon it what remaineth of the consecrated Elements, covering the same with a fair linen cloth.

The Lord's Prayer

Part 4. After all have received, we say the LORDS PRAYER according to ancient Custome, Ambr. l. 5. de Sacram. c. 4. The people are to repeat every Petition after the Priest. Rubr. If the Church did ever devise a thing fit and convenient, what more than this; That when together we have all received those heavenly Mysteries, wherein Christ imparts himself to us, and gives visible testification of our blessed Communion with him, we should in hatred of all Heresies, Factions, and Schisms declaredly approve our selves united as Brethren in one, by offering up with all our hearts and tongues that most effectual prayer, Our Father, &c. In which we profess our selves Sons of the same Father, and in which we pray for Gods pardon no otherwise than as we forgive them that trespass, &c. For which cause Communicants have ever used it, and we at that time do shew we use, yea every syllable of it, as Communicants, saying it together with one consent and voice.

Of the concluding devotions. IT is rudeness in manners to depart from a friend's house so soon as the table is removed, and an act of irreligion to rise from our common meals without prayer and thanksgiving: how much more absurd and indecent then would it be for us to depart abruptly from the Lord's Table! Our Saviour himself concluded his last Supper with a hymn, (supposed to be the Paschal Hallelujah) in imitation of which all Churches have finished this feast with solemn forms of prayer and thanksgiving.

§.5. The form of words. As for the words of Administration; the first part of them, viz. The Body, or The Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, was the only form used in St. Ambrose's time at the delivery of the Bread and Wine, to which the receivers answered, Amen, both to express their desire that it might be Christ's body and blood unto them, and their firm belief that it was so. The next words, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life, were added by St. Gregory: and these with the former were all that were to be used at the delivery of the elements, during the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI. But these words, I suppose, being thought at that time to savour too much of the real presence in the Sacrament, which was a doctrine that then was thought to imply too much of transubstantiation to be believed; they were therefore left out of the second book, and the following words prescribed in the room of them. Take and eat this, &c., or Drink this, &c., as in the latter part of our present forms. But these on the other side reducing the Sacrament to a bare eating and drinking in remembrance of the death and passion of our Lord; they were in a little time as much disliked as the former. And therefore upon queen Elizabeth's accession to the throne, (whose design and endeavour was to unite the nation as much as she could in one doctrine and faith,) both these forms were enjoined to be used (as we have them still) to please both parties. Though in the Scotch Liturgy the last clause was again thrown out, and the former only (which was prescribed by the first book) retained, with a direction to the receiver to say Amen: which is undoubtedly the most agreeable to the primitive practice, and to the true notion of the Eucharist.

§.2. The Lord's Prayer, why used first after receiving. The Lord's Prayer is placed first, and cannot indeed be any where used more properly: for having now received Christ in our hearts, it is fit the first words we speak should be his: as if not only we, but Christ lived and spake in us. We know that to as many as receive Christ, he gives power to become the sons of God, so that we may now all with one heart and one voice address ourselves cheerfully to God, and very properly call him, Our Father, &c.

§.3. The Doxology, why added. The Doxology is here annexed, because all these devotions are designed for an act of praise, for the benefits received in the holy Sacrament.

Then shall the Priest say the Lord's Prayer, the people repeating after him every Petition.

Matt 6:9-13 "Pray then in this way: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And do not bring us to the time of trial, but rescue us from the evil one.

Post-Communion Thanksgiving

First Prayer

This done, the Priest offers up the Sacrifice of the holy Eucharist, or the Sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving for the whole Church, as in all old Liturgies it is appointed, and together with that is offered up that most acceptable Sacrifice of our selves, souls and bodies devoted to Gods service. Of which see Rom. 12. and S. Aug. de Civit. Dei, l. 10. c. 6.

The design of it. I HAVE already observed, that in the first Common Prayer of king Edward VI. and in that drawn up for the Church of Scotland, this first prayer in the Post-Communion was, with a proper introduction, ordered to be used immediately after the prayer of Consecration: not but that what remains of it is very proper to be used after communicating. For St. Paul beseeches us, by the mercies of God, to present our bodies a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, as our reasonable service. And the Fathers esteemed it one great part of this office to dedicate ourselves to God. For since Christ hath put us in mind of his infinite love in giving himself for us, and in this Sacrament hath given himself to us; and since we have chosen him for our Lord, and solemnly vowed to be his servants; it is very just and reasonable, that we should also give up ourselves wholly to him in such a manner as this form directs us.

After shall be said as followeth.

Ps 50:13 Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?
Ps 50:23 Those who bring thanksgiving as their sacrifice honor me; to those who go the right way I will show the salvation of God."
Ps 100:4 Enter his gates with thanksgiving, and his courts with praise. Give thanks to him, bless his name.
Ps 116:17 I will offer to you a thanksgiving sacrifice and call on the name of the Lord.
Ps 119:108 Accept my offerings of praise, O Lord, and teach me your ordinances.
Heb 13:15 Through him, then, let us continually offer a sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of lips that confess his name.
1 Pet 2:5 like living stones, let yourselves be built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.
Ps 92:1-2 It is good to give thanks to the Lord, to sing praises to your name, O Most High; to declare your steadfast love in the morning, and your faithfulness by night,
Luke 17:5 The apostles said to the Lord, "Increase our faith!"
Acts 13:38-39 Let it be known to you therefore, my brothers, that through this man forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you; by this Jesus everyone who believes is set free from all those sins from which you could not be freed by the law of Moses.
Rom 3:24-25 they are now justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God put forward as a sacrifice of atonement by his blood, effective through faith. He did this to show his righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over the sins previously committed;
Rom 8:32 He who did not withhold his own Son, but gave him up for all of us, will he not with him also give us everything else?
1 Cor 1:30 He is the source of your life in Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification and redemption,
1 Cor 15:3 For I handed on to you as of first importance what I in turn had received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures,
2 Cor 5:15 And he died for all, so that those who live might live no longer for themselves, but for him who died and was raised for them.
Gal 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a child, and if a child then also an heir, through God.
Eph 2:13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ.
Eph 5:25 Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her,
Eph 6:18 Pray in the Spirit at all times in every prayer and supplication. To that end keep alert and always persevere in supplication for all the saints.
Col 1:21-22 And you who were once estranged and hostile in mind, doing evil deeds, he has now reconciled in his fleshly body through death, so as to present you holy and blameless and irreproachable before him--
Heb 9:22 Indeed, under the law almost everything is purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins.
Rom 5:1 Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
Phil 3 Finally, my brothers and sisters, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things to you is not troublesome to me, and for you it is a safeguard. Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of those who mutilate the flesh! For it is we who are the circumcision, who worship in the Spirit of God and boast in Christ Jesus and have no confidence in the flesh-- even though I, too, have reason for confidence in the flesh. If anyone else has reason to be confident in the flesh, I have more: circumcised on the eighth day, a member of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew born of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee; as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness under the law, blameless. Yet whatever gains I had, these I have come to regard as loss because of Christ. More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but one that comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God based on faith. I want to know Christ and the power of his resurrection and the sharing of his sufferings by becoming like him in his death, if somehow I may attain the resurrection from the dead. Not that I have already obtained this or have already reached the goal; but I press on to make it my own, because Christ Jesus has made me his own. Beloved, I do not consider that I have made it my own; but this one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead, I press on toward the goal for the prize of the heavenly call of God in Christ Jesus. Let those of us then who are mature be of the same mind; and if you think differently about anything, this too God will reveal to you. Only let us hold fast to what we have attained. Brothers and sisters, join in imitating me, and observe those who live according to the example you have in us. For many live as enemies of the cross of Christ; I have often told you of them, and now I tell you even with tears. Their end is destruction; their god is the belly; and their glory is in their shame; their minds are set on earthly things. But our citizenship is in heaven, and it is from there that we are expecting a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ. He will transform the body of our humiliation that it may be conformed to the body of his glory, by the power that also enables him to make all things subject to himself.
Prov 23:26 My child, give me your heart, and let your eyes observe my ways.
Rom 6:19 I am speaking in human terms because of your natural limitations. For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and to greater and greater iniquity, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness for sanctification.
Rom 12:1 I appeal to you therefore, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship.
1 Cor 6:20 For you were bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body.
Eph 5:25-27 Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, in order to make her holy by cleansing her with the washing of water by the word, so as to present the church to himself in splendor, without a spot or wrinkle or anything of the kind--yes, so that she may be holy and without blemish.
Phil 1:20 It is my eager expectation and hope that I will not be put to shame in any way, but that by my speaking with all boldness, Christ will be exalted now as always in my body, whether by life or by death.
1 Pet 2:9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, in order that you may proclaim the mighty acts of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.
Ps 116:16-19 O Lord, I am your servant; I am your servant, the child of your serving girl. You have loosed my bonds. I will offer to you a thanksgiving sacrifice and call on the name of the Lord. I will pay my vows to the Lord in the presence of all his people, in the courts of the house of the Lord, in your midst, O Jerusalem. Praise the Lord!
John 4:34 Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to complete his work.
Phil 3:8 More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ
1 Pet 2:5 like living stones, let yourselves be built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.

Q. And here we offer and present, &c.] This high and eminent place looketh big upon all those false clamours that our service is extracted from the Mass, challenging the authors thereof to exhibit where it is to be found in the canon of that Mass. No, to the utter shame of the Romish party, our Church upbraideth them, that whereas they contend so much for the propriety of the sacrifice of their Mass, the whole canon of that Mass hath not one syllable of this most proper sacrifice, this ἀμεριστὸς θυσία, “indivisible sacrifice,” of both bodies and souls, a sacrifice enjoined by Apostolical precept, Rom. xii. 1; and which did, in the primitive times, constitute an illustrious part of the Eucharistical office.

Prov 23:26 My child, give me your heart, and let your eyes observe my ways.
Rom 6:19 I am speaking in human terms because of your natural limitations. For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and to greater and greater iniquity, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness for sanctification.
Rom 12:1 I appeal to you therefore, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship.
1 Cor 6:20 For you were bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body.
Eph 5:25-27 Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, in order to make her holy by cleansing her with the washing of water by the word, so as to present the church to himself in splendor, without a spot or wrinkle or anything of the kind--yes, so that she may be holy and without blemish.
Phil 1:20 It is my eager expectation and hope that I will not be put to shame in any way, but that by my speaking with all boldness, Christ will be exalted now as always in my body, whether by life or by death.
1 Pet 2:9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, in order that you may proclaim the mighty acts of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.
Ps 116:16-19 O Lord, I am your servant; I am your servant, the child of your serving girl. You have loosed my bonds. I will offer to you a thanksgiving sacrifice and call on the name of the Lord. I will pay my vows to the Lord in the presence of all his people, in the courts of the house of the Lord, in your midst, O Jerusalem. Praise the Lord!
John 4:34 Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to complete his work.
Phil 3:8 More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ
1 Pet 2:5 like living stones, let yourselves be built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.
Prov 23:26 My child, give me your heart, and let your eyes observe my ways.
Rom 6:19 I am speaking in human terms because of your natural limitations. For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and to greater and greater iniquity, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness for sanctification.
Rom 12:1 I appeal to you therefore, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship.
1 Cor 6:20 For you were bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body.
Eph 5:25-27 Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, in order to make her holy by cleansing her with the washing of water by the word, so as to present the church to himself in splendor, without a spot or wrinkle or anything of the kind--yes, so that she may be holy and without blemish.
Phil 1:20 It is my eager expectation and hope that I will not be put to shame in any way, but that by my speaking with all boldness, Christ will be exalted now as always in my body, whether by life or by death.
1 Pet 2:9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, in order that you may proclaim the mighty acts of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.
Ps 116:16-19 O Lord, I am your servant; I am your servant, the child of your serving girl. You have loosed my bonds. I will offer to you a thanksgiving sacrifice and call on the name of the Lord. I will pay my vows to the Lord in the presence of all his people, in the courts of the house of the Lord, in your midst, O Jerusalem. Praise the Lord!
John 4:34 Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to complete his work.
Phil 3:8 More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ
1 Pet 2:5 like living stones, let yourselves be built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.
2 Chron 30:18-19 For a multitude of the people, many of them from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet they ate the passover otherwise than as prescribed. But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, "The good Lord pardon all who set their hearts to seek God, the Lord the God of their ancestors, even though not in accordance with the sanctuary's rules of cleanness."
Ps 19:14 Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable to you, O Lord, my rock and my redeemer.
Ps 116:12 What shall I return to the Lord for all his bounty to me?
Ps 130:3 If you, O Lord, should mark iniquities, Lord, who could stand?
Ps 143:2 Do not enter into judgment with your servant, for no one living is righteous before you.
Is 43:25-26 I, I am He who blots out your transgressions for my own sake, and I will not remember your sins. Accuse me, let us go to trial; set forth your case, so that you may be proved right.
Is 56:6-7 And the foreigners who join themselves to the Lord, to minister to him, to love the name of the Lord, and to be his servants, all who keep the sabbath, and do not profane it, and hold fast my covenant-- these I will bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer; their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples.
Dan 9:19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, listen and act and do not delay! For your own sake, O my God, because your city and your people bear your name!"
Luke 17:10 So you also, when you have done all that you were ordered to do, say, 'We are worthless slaves; we have done only what we ought to have done!'"
Luke 22:19 Then he took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me."
Rom 3:23 since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God;
2 Cor 5:14-15 For the love of Christ urges us on, because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore all have died. And he died for all, so that those who live might live no longer for themselves, but for him who died and was raised for them.
2 Chron 30:18-19 For a multitude of the people, many of them from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet they ate the passover otherwise than as prescribed. But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, "The good Lord pardon all who set their hearts to seek God, the Lord the God of their ancestors, even though not in accordance with the sanctuary's rules of cleanness."
Ps 19:14 Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable to you, O Lord, my rock and my redeemer.
Ps 116:12 What shall I return to the Lord for all his bounty to me?
Ps 130:3 If you, O Lord, should mark iniquities, Lord, who could stand?
Ps 143:2 Do not enter into judgment with your servant, for no one living is righteous before you.
Is 43:25-26 I, I am He who blots out your transgressions for my own sake, and I will not remember your sins. Accuse me, let us go to trial; set forth your case, so that you may be proved right.
Is 56:6-7 And the foreigners who join themselves to the Lord, to minister to him, to love the name of the Lord, and to be his servants, all who keep the sabbath, and do not profane it, and hold fast my covenant-- these I will bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer; their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples.
Dan 9:19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, listen and act and do not delay! For your own sake, O my God, because your city and your people bear your name!"
Luke 17:10 So you also, when you have done all that you were ordered to do, say, 'We are worthless slaves; we have done only what we ought to have done!'"
Luke 22:19 Then he took a loaf of bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me."
Rom 3:23 since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God;
2 Cor 5:14-15 For the love of Christ urges us on, because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore all have died. And he died for all, so that those who live might live no longer for themselves, but for him who died and was raised for them.

Second Prayer

The design of it.WHEN we communicate often, it may be very grateful, and sometimes very helpful to our devotions, to vary the form: for which cause the Church hath supplied us with another prayer; which, being more full of praises and acknowledgments, will be most suitable when our minds have a joyful sense of the benefits received in this Sacrament: as the former, consisting chiefly of vows and resolutions, is most proper to be used when we would express our love and duty.

Or this.

Ps 9:1 I will give thanks to the Lord with my whole heart; I will tell of all your wonderful deeds.
Ps 48:14 that this is God, our God forever and ever. He will be our guide forever.
Ps 66:7 who rules by his might forever, whose eyes keep watch on the nations-- let the rebellious not exalt themselves.Selah
Is 43:13 I am God, and also henceforth I am He; there is no one who can deliver from my hand; I work and who can hinder it?
John 6:51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. Whoever eats of this bread will live forever; and the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh."
John 6:54-55 Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood have eternal life, and I will raise them up on the last day; for my flesh is true food and my blood is true drink.
2 Cor 9:15 Thanks be to God for his indescribable gift!
Eph 5:20 giving thanks to God the Father at all times and for everything in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
1 Pet 1:19 but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without defect or blemish.
1 Pet 2:7 To you then who believe, he is precious; but for those who do not believe, "The stone that the builders rejected has become the very head of the corner,"
Ps 25:14 The friendship of the Lord is for those who fear him, and he makes his covenant known to them.
John 10:11 "I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.
John 10:13 The hired hand runs away because a hired hand does not care for the sheep.
John 14:23 Jesus answered him, "Those who love me will keep my word, and my Father will love them, and we will come to them and make our home with them.
John 15:13-14 No one has greater love than this, to lay down one's life for one's friends. You are my friends if you do what I command you.
Rom 8:32 He who did not withhold his own Son, but gave him up for all of us, will he not with him also give us everything else?
1 Cor 11:26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes.
Rom 5:8-10 But God proves his love for us in that while we still were sinners Christ died for us. Much more surely then, now that we have been justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath of God. For if while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more surely, having been reconciled, will we be saved by his life.
John 6:32-33 Then Jesus said to them, "Very truly, I tell you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven, but it is my Father who gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is that which comes down from heaven and gives life to the world."
John 6:56 Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood abide in me, and I in them.
Rom 12:4-5 For as in one body we have many members, and not all the members have the same function, so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually we are members one of another.
1 Cor 10:16-17 The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a sharing in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a sharing in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread.
1 Cor 12:27 Now you are the body of Christ and individually members of it.
Gal 3:28 There is no longer Jew or Greek, there is no longer slave or free, there is no longer male and female; for all of you are one in Christ Jesus.
Eph 5:30 because we are members of his body.
Eph 5:32 This is a great mystery, and I am applying it to Christ and the church.
Col 1:2 To the saints and faithful brothers and sisters in Christ in Colossae: Grace to you and peace from God our Father.
Rom 4:25 who was handed over to death for our trespasses and was raised for our justification.
Rom 5:8 But God proves his love for us in that while we still were sinners Christ died for us.
Rom 8:17 and if children, then heirs, heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ--if, in fact, we suffer with him so that we may also be glorified with him.
Rom 8:32 He who did not withhold his own Son, but gave him up for all of us, will he not with him also give us everything else?
Col 1:12-14 giving thanks to the Father, who has enabled you to share in the inheritance of the saints in the light. He has rescued us from the power of darkness and transferred us into the kingdom of his beloved Son, in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.
2 Thess 2:16-17 Now may our Lord Jesus Christ himself and God our Father, who loved us and through grace gave us eternal comfort and good hope, comfort your hearts and strengthen them in every good work and word.
Tit 3:7 so that, having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs according to the hope of eternal life.
Heb 9:12 he entered once for all into the Holy Place, not with the blood of goats and calves, but with his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption.
1 Pet 1:3-4 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! By his great mercy he has given us a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and into an inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, kept in heaven for you,
John 1:29 The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him and declared, "Here is the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
Eph 5:2 and live in love, as Christ loved us and gave himself up for us, a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God.
1 Pet 2:24 He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross, so that, free from sins, we might live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed.
Rev 13:8 and all the inhabitants of the earth will worship it, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb that was slaughtered.
Ps 60:11 O grant us help against the foe, for human help is worthless.
Ps 119:35 Lead me in the path of your commandments, for I delight in it.
Matt 28:20 and teaching them to obey everything that I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age."
John 15:9-10 As the Father has loved me, so I have loved you; abide in my love. If you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love, just as I have kept my Father's commandments and abide in his love.
John 15:16 You did not choose me but I chose you. And I appointed you to go and bear fruit, fruit that will last, so that the Father will give you whatever you ask him in my name.
Acts 2:24 But God raised him up, having freed him from death, because it was impossible for him to be held in its power.
2 Cor 12:9 but he said to me, "My grace is sufficient for you, for power is made perfect in weakness." So, I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me.
Eph 1:4 just as he chose us in Christ before the foundation of the world to be holy and blameless before him in love.
Eph 2:10 For we are what he has made us, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand to be our way of life.
Eph 6:24 Grace be with all who have an undying love for our Lord Jesus Christ.
Tit 2:14 He it is who gave himself for us that he might redeem us from all iniquity and purify for himself a people of his own who are zealous for good deeds.
Jam 4:6 But he gives all the more grace; therefore it says, "God opposes the proud, but gives grace to the humble."
1 Pet 1:2 who have been chosen and destined by God the Father and sanctified by the Spirit to be obedient to Jesus Christ and to be sprinkled with his blood: May grace and peace be yours in abundance.
1 John 1:3 we declare to you what we have seen and heard so that you also may have fellowship with us; and truly our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ.
1 John 1:7 but if we walk in the light as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin.
1 John 2:6 whoever says, "I abide in him," ought to walk just as he walked.
1 John 2:24 Let what you heard from the beginning abide in you. If what you heard from the beginning abides in you, then you will abide in the Son and in the Father.
Rom 8:9 But you are not in the flesh; you are in the Spirit, since the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him.
Eph 4:15 But speaking the truth in love, we must grow up in every way into him who is the head, into Christ,
Phil 1:10-11 to help you to determine what is best, so that in the day of Christ you may be pure and blameless, having produced the harvest of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ for the glory and praise of God.

Gloria in excelsis Deo

Then we say or sing the Angelical Hymn, GLORY BE TO GOD ON HIGH, &c. wherein the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy does admirably imitate the Heavenly, singing this at the Sacrament of his Body which the Angels did at the Birth of his Body.

And good reason there is to sing this for Christs being made One with us in the Sacrament, as for his being made One of us at his Birth. And if ever we be fit to sing this Angels song, it is then, when we draw nearest to the estate of Angels, namely, at the receiving of the Sacrament. After the receiving of the holy Sacrament, we sing an Hymn in imitation of our Saviour; who after his Supper sung an Hymn, to teach us to do the like. Chrys. Hom. 83. S. Matth. And when can a Psalm or Hymn of thanksgiving be more seasonable and necessary, than after we have received this heavenly nourishment? Is it possible to hear these words, This is my Body, take and eat it; Drink ye all of this, This is my Blood: and not be filled, as with a kind of fearful admiration, so with a sea of joy and comfort for the Heaven which they see in themselves? Can any man receive this Cup of Salvation, and not praise and bless God with his utmost strength of soul and body? The Ancients did express their joy at this time in the highest manner that they could. Some were so ravished with joy, that they immediately offered themselves to martyrdom, impatient of being longer absent from their so gracious Lord, unable to keep themselves from expressing their love to Christ, by dying for him; the highest expression of love. All men then counted it a sin, to sully the day of their receiving the Eucharist with any sorrow or fasting, these days they called daies of mirth, daies of remission, daies of Immunity, solemn days, Festival daies.

This Angelical Hymn was made of old by Ecclesiastical Doctors, and who refuses it, let him be excommunicated, Conc. Tolet. 4. c. 4.

R. Glory be to God on high.] Antiquity called this the angelical hymn ; and, in truth, being angelical, it must be a hymn; ai ἄνω δυνάμεις ὑμνοῦσιν, οὐ ψάλλουσιν, saith Chrysostom, ‘angels and the celestial choir send forth hymns, they sing not psalms.” And so Clemens Alexandrinus, ὕμνοι ἔστων Tov Θεοῦ ai ὠδαὶ, “let hymns be only the praises of God:” the reason is, οὗ ψαλμοὶ πάντα ἔχουσιν, οἱ δὲ ὕμνοι πάλιν οὐδὲν ἀνθρώπινον: “psalms contain all things both divine and moral, hymns only the praises of God.” Called it is the angelical hymn, because the first part thereof is the nativity-carol, mentioned Luke ii. 13, sung by the Angels; the rest was composed by ecclesiastical doctors; some think St. Hilary; and the fourth council of Toledo seemeth to imply as much: but the Constitutions of Clemens persuade me it was of earlier entrance, it being there completely the same with ours in all materials, but disposed in two several prayers, and is that ἐωθινὸς ὕμνος, that morning hymn, as I “suppose, to which Epiphanius, a great follower of Clemens, relateth in a place formerly cited.

Part it was of the Missa-Catechumenorum, in the Mass-book, but worthily translated into the Communion service by our discreet Reformers, it being formerly mislaid; this being its proper udi, or place, for two reasons: first, because it is a hymn. To sing a hymn after the distribution of the elements is conformity to the mode of Christ; ὁρᾷς ὅτι ἡ ἐσχάτη μετὰ τὴν θυσίαν εὐχὴ κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνον γίνεται τὸν τύπον ; i. 6. “thou seest that the last prayer after the Eucharist is celebrated, is made in imitation of our Saviour’s practice.” Again, it is a compound piece, made up partly of doxology, partly of prayer; and of prayer addressed to Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God: now it is improper to apply ourselves to Christ, before the action of participation is past: the reason is, because the blessed Eucharist is a sacrifice, wherein our Saviour Christ is considered as an immaculate lamb, offered upon the Altar to God the Father for the remission of our sins. And this I take to be the meaning of the third council of Carthage decreeing, ut nemo in precibus, vel Patrem pro Filio, vel Filium pro Patre nominet, et cum Altari assistitur, semper ad Patrem dirigatur oratio: “that no man name the Father for the Son, nor the Son for the Father, in public prayers, and when any officiate at the Altar,” viz. before distribution of the elements, “that the prayer be always directed to the Father.” For which I can assign no other reason, but because Christ is then the great sacrifice, and the Father is the person to be appeased.

Glory be to God on high, &c. To conclude this office with an hymn, is so direct an imitation of our Saviour's practice, that it hath ever been observed in all Churches and ages. And though the forms may differ, yet this is as ancient as any now extant. The former part of it is of an heavenly original, being sung by angels at our Saviour's nativity; and was from thence transcribed into the oriental Liturgies, especially St. James's, where it is thrice repeated. The latter part of it is ascribed to Telesphorus about the year of Christ 139; and the whole hymn, with very little difference, is to be found in the Apostolical Constitutions, and was established to be used in the Church-service by the fourth Council of Toledo about a thousand years ago. In the present Roman Missal it stands in the beginning of this office, as it does also in the first Common Prayer of king Edward VI, where it immediately follows the Collect for Purity; though it is now, I think, placed much more properly at the close of the Communion, when every devout communicant being full of gratitude, and longing for an opportunity to pour out his soul in the praises of God, cannot have a more solemn and compact form of words to do it in than this. In the Greek Church it makes a constant part of the morning devotions, as well upon ordinary days, as upon Sundays and holy-days; only With this difference, that upon ordinary days it is only ready whereas upon more solemn times it is appointed to be sung.

Then shall be said or sung,

Is 57:19 Peace, peace, to the far and the near, says the Lord; and I will heal them.
Matt 21:9 The crowds that went ahead of him and that followed were shouting, "Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest heaven!"
Matt 26:30 When they had sung the hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
Luke 2:14 "Glory to God in the highest heaven, and on earth peace among those whom he favors!"
John 14:27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled, and do not let them be afraid.
2 Cor 5:19 that is, in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting the message of reconciliation to us.
1 John 4:9-10 God's love was revealed among us in this way: God sent his only Son into the world so that we might live through him. In this is love, not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the atoning sacrifice for our sins.
Rev 4:9-11 And whenever the living creatures give glory and honor and thanks to the one who is seated on the throne, who lives forever and ever, the twenty-four elders fall before the one who is seated on the throne and worship the one who lives forever and ever; they cast their crowns before the throne, singing, "You are worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and by your will they existed and were created."
1 Chron 29:13 And now, our God, we give thanks to you and praise your glorious name.
Neh 9:5 Then the Levites, Jeshua, Kadmiel, Bani, Hashabneiah, Sherebiah, Hodiah, Shebaniah, and Pethahiah, said, "Stand up and bless the Lord your God from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed be your glorious name, which is exalted above all blessing and praise."
Ps 29:2 Ascribe to the Lord the glory of his name; worship the Lord in holy splendor.
Ps 72:18-19 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who alone does wondrous things. Blessed be his glorious name forever; may his glory fill the whole earth. Amen and Amen.
Ps 86:9-10 All the nations you have made shall come and bow down before you, O Lord, and shall glorify your name. For you are great and do wondrous things; you alone are God.
Ps 145:10 All your works shall give thanks to you, O Lord, and all your faithful shall bless you.
Ps 145:21 My mouth will speak the praise of the Lord, and all flesh will bless his holy name forever and ever.
Rev 5:13 Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, singing, "To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!"
Rev 7:11-12 And all the angels stood around the throne and around the elders and the four living creatures, and they fell on their faces before the throne and worshiped God, singing, "Amen! Blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honor and power and might be to our God forever and ever! Amen."
Ps 95:6 O come, let us worship and bow down, let us kneel before the Lord, our Maker!
Gen 17:1 When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said to him, "I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless.
Ex 6:3 I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as God Almighty, but by my name 'The Lord' I did not make myself known to them.
Ps 41:13 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Amen and Amen.
Ps 75:1 We give thanks to you, O God; we give thanks; your name is near. People tell of your wondrous deeds.
Ps 86:9 All the nations you have made shall come and bow down before you, O Lord, and shall glorify your name.
Ps 104:31 May the glory of the Lord endure forever; may the Lord rejoice in his works--
Jer 10:10 But the Lord is the true God; he is the living God and the everlasting King. At his wrath the earth quakes, and the nations cannot endure his indignation.
Ezek 3:12 Then the spirit lifted me up, and as the glory of the Lord rose from its place, I heard behind me the sound of loud rumbling;
Dan 4:37 Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise and extol and honor the King of heaven, for all his works are truth, and his ways are justice; and he is able to bring low those who walk in pride.
Matt 5:16 In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father in heaven.
John 15:8 My Father is glorified by this, that you bear much fruit and become my disciples.
Rev 11:17 singing, "We give you thanks, Lord God Almighty, who are and who were, for you have taken your great power and begun to reign.
Ps 4:1 Answer me when I call, O God of my right! You gave me room when I was in distress. Be gracious to me, and hear my prayer.
Ps 143:1 Hear my prayer, O Lord; give ear to my supplications in your faithfulness; answer me in your righteousness.
Matt 3:17 And a voice from heaven said, "This is my Son, the Beloved, with whom I am well pleased."
Mark 16:19 So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God.
Luke 17:13 they called out, saying, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us!"
John 1:14 And the Word became flesh and lived among us, and we have seen his glory, the glory as of a father's only son, full of grace and truth.
John 1:29 The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him and declared, "Here is the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
John 13:13 You call me Teacher and Lord--and you are right, for that is what I am.
John 14:14 If in my name you ask me for anything, I will do it.
Acts 7:59 While they were stoning Stephen, he prayed, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit."
Acts 13:38 Let it be known to you therefore, my brothers, that through this man forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you;
1 Cor 1:1-2 Paul, called to be an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and our brother Sosthenes, To the church of God that is in Corinth, to those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, together with all those who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both their Lord and ours:
1 John 5:14 And this is the boldness we have in him, that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us.
1 Tim 1:15 The saying is sure and worthy of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners--of whom I am the foremost.
1 John 1:7 but if we walk in the light as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin.
1 Sam 2:2 "There is no Holy One like the Lord, no one besides you; there is no Rock like our God.
Ps 92:8 but you, O Lord, are on high forever.
Ps 99:9 Extol the Lord our God, and worship at his holy mountain; for the Lord our God is holy.
John 17:5 So now, Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory that I had in your presence before the world existed.
John 17:11 And now I am no longer in the world, but they are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, protect them in your name that you have given me, so that they may be one, as we are one.
John 17:21 that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me.
Rom 9:5 to them belong the patriarchs, and from them, according to the flesh, comes the Messiah, who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen.
1 Cor 8:6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.
Eph 2:18 for through him both of us have access in one Spirit to the Father.
1 Tim 6:15 which he will bring about at the right time--he who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords.
Rev 15:3-4 And they sing the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb: "Great and amazing are your deeds, Lord God the Almighty! Just and true are your ways, King of the nations! Lord, who will not fear and glorify your name? For you alone are holy. All nations will come and worship before you, for your judgments have been revealed."

Blessing & Dismissal

The Hymn being ended we depart with a BLESSING, Goar. in Euch. pag. 154. tells us, That of old, when the Communion Service was ended, and the Deacon had dismist the people, they would not for all that depart till they had the Blessing; by this Stay, saying in effect the same to the Priest, that Jacob did to the Angel. We will not let thee go unless thou blessest us. The Priest therefore departing from them, as our Saviour from his Disciples, with a Blessing; but first he comes down from the Altar, by this descending shewing his condescension to the people in affection as well as in Body; and standing behind the Pulpit (Retro Ambonem, whence the Blessing was called εὐχὴ ἐπὶ θάμβωνος ) in the midst of the people, in this also imitating our Saviour, S. John 20. 9. who there gave the Blessing or peace of God standing in the midst, by the place shewing how equally he stood affected to all, how he would have his Blessings spread upon all.

S. The peace of God.] This benediction is a peculiar of the bishop’s office, if present, because “the less is blessed of the greater,” Heb. vii. 7; ὁ ἱερεὺς ποιεῖ ἀπόλυσιν, “ the principal priest dismisseth the people with his blessing.” After this pronounced, the deacon usually said, πορεύεσθε ἐν εἰρήνῃ, “Go in peace:” when the people received it they bowed down their heads; κλινόντων αὐτῶν τὰς κεφαλὰς, εὐλογείτω αὐτοὺς ὁ ἐπίσκοπος, “let the bishop give the benediction, the people bowing down their heads.” ‘This gesture imports a kind of adoration. LEcclus. 1. 21, the Jews are said to “bow down themselves to worship the Lord:” so in the primitive Church the Energumeni were commanded to bow their heads, and τῷ σχήματι τοῦ σώματος ποιεῖσθαι τάς ἱκετηρίας, “in that fashion to perform their bodily reverence.”

The peace of God, &c. THE people were always dismissed from this ordinance by a solemn blessing pronounced by the Bishop if present, or, in his absence, by the Priest: and none were allowed to depart till this was given by the one or the other.

The form here used is taken chiefly from the words of Scripture: the first part of it from Philippians 4:7, and the latter part being no other than a Christian paraphrase upon Numbers 6:24, &c.

Then the Priest (or Bishop if he be present) shall let them depart with this Blessing.

2 Chron 30:27 Then the priests and the Levites stood up and blessed the people, and their voice was heard; their prayer came to his holy dwelling in heaven.
Is 26:3 Those of steadfast mind you keep in peace-- in peace because they trust in you.
Luke 10:5-6 Whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace to this house!' And if anyone is there who shares in peace, your peace will rest on that person; but if not, it will return to you.
John 14:27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled, and do not let them be afraid.
John 17:3 And this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.
John 17:11 And now I am no longer in the world, but they are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, protect them in your name that you have given me, so that they may be one, as we are one.
John 17:21-22 that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me. The glory that you have given me I have given them, so that they may be one, as we are one,
Eph 1:2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Eph 4:3-6 making every effort to maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to the one hope of your calling, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all and through all and in all.
Phil 1:9 And this is my prayer, that your love may overflow more and more with knowledge and full insight
Phil 4:6-7 Do not worry about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.
Col 3:15 And let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, to which indeed you were called in the one body. And be thankful.
2 Thess 3:5 May the Lord direct your hearts to the love of God and to the steadfastness of Christ.
Heb 13:20 Now may the God of peace, who brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the eternal covenant,
2 Pet 1:2 May grace and peace be yours in abundance in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord.
2 Pet 3:18 But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.
Rom 5:1 Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
Rom 5:5 and hope does not disappoint us, because God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us.
2 Chron 30:27 Then the priests and the Levites stood up and blessed the people, and their voice was heard; their prayer came to his holy dwelling in heaven.
Is 26:3 Those of steadfast mind you keep in peace-- in peace because they trust in you.
Luke 10:5-6 Whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace to this house!' And if anyone is there who shares in peace, your peace will rest on that person; but if not, it will return to you.
John 14:27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled, and do not let them be afraid.
John 17:3 And this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.
John 17:11 And now I am no longer in the world, but they are in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, protect them in your name that you have given me, so that they may be one, as we are one.
John 17:21-22 that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me. The glory that you have given me I have given them, so that they may be one, as we are one,
Eph 1:2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Eph 4:3-6 making every effort to maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to the one hope of your calling, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all and through all and in all.
Phil 1:9 And this is my prayer, that your love may overflow more and more with knowledge and full insight
Phil 4:6-7 Do not worry about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.
Col 3:15 And let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, to which indeed you were called in the one body. And be thankful.
2 Thess 3:5 May the Lord direct your hearts to the love of God and to the steadfastness of Christ.
Heb 13:20 Now may the God of peace, who brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the eternal covenant,
2 Pet 1:2 May grace and peace be yours in abundance in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord.
2 Pet 3:18 But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.
Rom 5:1 Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
Rom 5:5 and hope does not disappoint us, because God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us.


Collects to be said after the Offertory,
when there is no Communion, every such day one or more;

Of the additional prayers. LEST there should be any thing left unasked in this excellent office, the Church hath added six Collects more to be used at the Minister's discretion: concerning which it will be sufficient to observe, that they are plain and comprehensive, and almost every sentence of them taken out of the Bible, and are as proper to be joined to any other office as this. For which reason the rubric allows them to be said as often as occasion shall serve, after the Collects either of Morning or Evening Prayer, Communion or Litany, by the discretion of the Minister.

The rubric before these Collects, how to be reconciled with the first rubric after them. When they are added to the Communion-office on Sundays and holy-days that have no Communion, they are ordered to be said after the offertory: from whence some have imagined that the Prayer for the Church militant is part of the offertory; because in the first rubric, at the end of the whole office, that prayer, on such days, is always to be used, and then one or more of these Collects are to follow. But that the offertory only signifies the sentences that are read whilst the alms and other devotions of the people are collecting, I have already had occasion to mention. To reconcile this difference, therefore, the reader must observe, that by the first book of king Edward VI. the prayer for Christ's Church was never to be read but when there was a Communion. So that then if there was no Communion, these Collects were properly ordered to be said after the offertory. But the Communion-office being afterwards thrown into a different form, the prayer for the Church militant was added to that part of the service, which was ordered to be read on Sundays and other holy-days that had no Communion, without altering the rubric of which I am now speaking. And this is that which makes the rubrics a little inconsistent. However the difference is not much. For the Collects are still to be said after the offertory, though not immediately after, as formerly, the prayer for the Church militant coming in between.

and the same may be said also, as often as occasion shall serve, after the Collects either of Morning or Evening Prayer, Communion, or Litany, by the discretion of the Minister.

Prov 16:1 The plans of the mind belong to mortals, but the answer of the tongue is from the Lord.
Jer 31:9 With weeping they shall come, and with consolations I will lead them back, I will let them walk by brooks of water, in a straight path in which they shall not stumble; for I have become a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn.
Zech 12:10 And I will pour out a spirit of compassion and supplication on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that, when they look on the one whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.
Luke 11:1 He was praying in a certain place, and after he had finished, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples."
Rom 8:26 Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but that very Spirit intercedes with sighs too deep for words.
Ps 119:173 Let your hand be ready to help me, for I have chosen your precepts.
Ps 119:175 Let me live that I may praise you, and let your ordinances help me.
Ps 16:11 You show me the path of life. In your presence there is fullness of joy; in your right hand are pleasures forevermore.
Ps 32:8 I will instruct you and teach you the way you should go; I will counsel you with my eye upon you.
Ps 37:23 Our steps are made firm by the Lord, when he delights in our way;
Ps 73:24 You guide me with your counsel, and afterward you will receive me with honor.
Ps 139:23-24 Search me, O God, and know my heart; test me and know my thoughts. See if there is any wicked way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.
Lam 5:21 Restore us to yourself, O Lord, that we may be restored; renew our days as of old--
Gal 6:8 If you sow to your own flesh, you will reap corruption from the flesh; but if you sow to the Spirit, you will reap eternal life from the Spirit.
1 Thess 5:9 For God has destined us not for wrath but for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ,
Heb 5:9 and having been made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him,
1 Sam 2:9 "He will guard the feet of his faithful ones, but the wicked shall be cut off in darkness; for not by might does one prevail.
Ps 27:9 Do not hide your face from me. Do not turn your servant away in anger, you who have been my help. Do not cast me off, do not forsake me, O God of my salvation!
Ps 119:133 Keep my steps steady according to your promise, and never let iniquity have dominion over me.
Prov 30:8 Remove far from me falsehood and lying; give me neither poverty nor riches; feed me with the food that I need,
Job 5:7 but human beings are born to trouble just as sparks fly upward.
Ps 5:11 But let all who take refuge in you rejoice; let them ever sing for joy. Spread your protection over them, so that those who love your name may exult in you.
Ps 46:1 God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.
Ps 62:2 He alone is my rock and my salvation, my fortress; I shall never be shaken.
Ps 90:3-6 You turn us back to dust, and say, "Turn back, you mortals." For a thousand years in your sight are like yesterday when it is past, or like a watch in the night. You sweep them away; they are like a dream, like grass that is renewed in the morning; in the morning it flourishes and is renewed; in the evening it fades and withers.
Ps 108:12 O grant us help against the foe, for human help is worthless.
Ps 146:5-6 Happy are those whose help is the God of Jacob, whose hope is in the Lord their God, who made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them; who keeps faith forever;
Prov 14:26 In the fear of the Lord one has strong confidence, and one's children will have a refuge.
Ecc 1:4-8 A generation goes, and a generation comes, but the earth remains forever. The sun rises and the sun goes down, and hurries to the place where it rises. The wind blows to the south, and goes around to the north; round and round goes the wind, and on its circuits the wind returns. All streams run to the sea, but the sea is not full; to the place where the streams flow, there they continue to flow. All things are wearisome; more than one can express; the eye is not satisfied with seeing, or the ear filled with hearing.
Ps 9:11 Sing praises to the Lord, who dwells in Zion. Declare his deeds among the peoples.
Ps 10:14 But you do see! Indeed you note trouble and grief, that you may take it into your hands; the helpless commit themselves to you; you have been the helper of the orphan.
Is 38:20 The Lord will save me, and we will sing to stringed instruments all the days of our lives, at the house of the Lord.
Heb 9:27 And just as it is appointed for mortals to die once, and after that the judgment,
Heb 13:6 So we can say with confidence, "The Lord is my helper; I will not be afraid. What can anyone do to me?"
Jam 4:14 Yet you do not even know what tomorrow will bring. What is your life? For you are a mist that appears for a little while and then vanishes.
1 John 2:17 And the world and its desire are passing away, but those who do the will of God live forever.

Ps 28:9 O save your people, and bless your heritage; be their shepherd, and carry them forever.
Ps 119:5 O that my ways may be steadfast in keeping your statutes!
Ps 119:10 With my whole heart I seek you; do not let me stray from your commandments.
Ps 119:35-40 Lead me in the path of your commandments, for I delight in it. Turn my heart to your decrees, and not to selfish gain. Turn my eyes from looking at vanities; give me life in your ways. Confirm to your servant your promise, which is for those who fear you. Turn away the disgrace that I dread, for your ordinances are good. See, I have longed for your precepts; in your righteousness give me life.
Prov 3:6 In all your ways acknowledge him, and he will make straight your paths.
Jer 10:23 I know, O Lord, that the way of human beings is not in their control, that mortals as they walk cannot direct their steps.
Mic 7:14 Shepherd your people with your staff, the flock that belongs to you, which lives alone in a forest in the midst of a garden land; let them feed in Bashan and Gilead as in the days of old.
Hab 1:12 Are you not from of old, O Lord my God, my Holy One? You shall not die. O Lord, you have marked them for judgment; and you, O Rock, have established them for punishment.
John 17:17 Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.
2 Cor 6:18 and I will be your father, and you shall be my sons and daughters, says the Lord Almighty."
1 Thess 5:23 May the God of peace himself sanctify you entirely; and may your spirit and soul and body be kept sound and blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Thess 3:5 May the Lord direct your hearts to the love of God and to the steadfastness of Christ.
Heb 10:16 "This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, says the Lord: I will put my laws in their hearts, and I will write them on their minds,"
Luke 1:6 Both of them were righteous before God, living blamelessly according to all the commandments and regulations of the Lord.
1 Cor 15:58 Therefore, my beloved, be steadfast, immovable, always excelling in the work of the Lord, because you know that in the Lord your labor is not in vain.
Ps 16:1 Protect me, O God, for in you I take refuge.
Ps 17:8 Guard me as the apple of the eye; hide me in the shadow of your wings,
Ps 27:5 For he will hide me in his shelter in the day of trouble; he will conceal me under the cover of his tent; he will set me high on a rock.
Ps 64:1 Hear my voice, O God, in my complaint; preserve my life from the dread enemy.
Ps 86:2 Preserve my life, for I am devoted to you; save your servant who trusts in you. You are my God;
Ps 89:13 You have a mighty arm; strong is your hand, high your right hand.
Ps 89:18 For our shield belongs to the Lord, our king to the Holy One of Israel.
John 10:28-29 I give them eternal life, and they will never perish. No one will snatch them out of my hand. What my Father has given me is greater than all else, and no one can snatch it out of the Father's hand.
Rom 8:35 Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Will hardship, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?
Rom 8:38-39 For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor rulers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, nor height, nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
2 Tim 4:18 The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and save me for his heavenly kingdom. To him be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
Rom 8:23 and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly while we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
1 Cor 15:57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Cor 2:14 But thanks be to God, who in Christ always leads us in triumphal procession, and through us spreads in every place the fragrance that comes from knowing him.
Gal 2:20 and it is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.

Ps 16:1 Protect me, O God, for in you I take refuge.
Ps 17:8 Guard me as the apple of the eye; hide me in the shadow of your wings,
Ps 27:5 For he will hide me in his shelter in the day of trouble; he will conceal me under the cover of his tent; he will set me high on a rock.
Ps 64:1 Hear my voice, O God, in my complaint; preserve my life from the dread enemy.
Ps 86:2 Preserve my life, for I am devoted to you; save your servant who trusts in you. You are my God;
Ps 89:13 You have a mighty arm; strong is your hand, high your right hand.
Ps 89:18 For our shield belongs to the Lord, our king to the Holy One of Israel.
John 10:28-29 I give them eternal life, and they will never perish. No one will snatch them out of my hand. What my Father has given me is greater than all else, and no one can snatch it out of the Father's hand.
Rom 8:35 Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Will hardship, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?
Rom 8:38-39 For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor rulers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, nor height, nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
2 Tim 4:18 The Lord will rescue me from every evil attack and save me for his heavenly kingdom. To him be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
Rom 8:23 and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly while we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
1 Cor 15:57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Cor 2:14 But thanks be to God, who in Christ always leads us in triumphal procession, and through us spreads in every place the fragrance that comes from knowing him.
Gal 2:20 and it is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.

Ex 33:14-16 He said, "My presence will go with you, and I will give you rest." And he said to him, "If your presence will not go, do not carry us up from here. For how shall it be known that I have found favor in your sight, I and your people, unless you go with us? In this way, we shall be distinct, I and your people, from every people on the face of the earth."
Job 8:5 If you will seek God and make supplication to the Almighty,
Job 8:7 Though your beginning was small, your latter days will be very great.
Ps 21:3 For you meet him with rich blessings; you set a crown of fine gold on his head.
Ps 27:9 Do not hide your face from me. Do not turn your servant away in anger, you who have been my help. Do not cast me off, do not forsake me, O God of my salvation!
Ps 36:10 O continue your steadfast love to those who know you, and your salvation to the upright of heart!
Ps 37:5 Commit your way to the Lord; trust in him, and he will act.
Ps 37:23 Our steps are made firm by the Lord, when he delights in our way;
Ps 59:10 My God in his steadfast love will meet me; my God will let me look in triumph on my enemies.
Ps 77:20 You led your people like a flock by the hand of Moses and Aaron.
Ps 79:8 Do not remember against us the iniquities of our ancestors; let your compassion come speedily to meet us, for we are brought very low.
Ps 90:17 Let the favor of the Lord our God be upon us, and prosper for us the work of our hands-- O prosper the work of our hands!
Ps 138:8 The Lord will fulfill his purpose for me; your steadfast love, O Lord, endures forever. Do not forsake the work of your hands.
Prov 3:6 In all your ways acknowledge him, and he will make straight your paths.
Prov 16:3 Commit your work to the Lord, and your plans will be established.
Prov 20:24 All our steps are ordered by the Lord; how then can we understand our own ways?
Song 1:4 Draw me after you, let us make haste. The king has brought me into his chambers. We will exult and rejoice in you; we will extol your love more than wine; rightly do they love you.
Is 26:12 O Lord, you will ordain peace for us, for indeed, all that we have done, you have done for us.
Is 52:12 For you shall not go out in haste, and you shall not go in flight; for the Lord will go before you, and the God of Israel will be your rear guard.
Jer 10:23 I know, O Lord, that the way of human beings is not in their control, that mortals as they walk cannot direct their steps.
John 10:4 When he has brought out all his own, he goes ahead of them, and the sheep follow him because they know his voice.
John 15:8-9 My Father is glorified by this, that you bear much fruit and become my disciples. As the Father has loved me, so I have loved you; abide in my love.
Rom 6:22 But now that you have been freed from sin and enslaved to God, the advantage you get is sanctification. The end is eternal life.
Rom 11:36 For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be the glory forever. Amen.
1 Cor 10:31 So, whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do everything for the glory of God.
Phil 1:6 I am confident of this, that the one who began a good work among you will bring it to completion by the day of Jesus Christ.
Col 4:2 Devote yourselves to prayer, keeping alert in it with thanksgiving.
Heb 3:14 For we have become partners of Christ, if only we hold our first confidence firm to the end.
Heb 12:3 Consider him who endured such hostility against himself from sinners, so that you may not grow weary or lose heart.
1 Pet 1:9 for you are receiving the outcome of your faith, the salvation of your souls.
1 Pet 4:11 Whoever speaks must do so as one speaking the very words of God; whoever serves must do so with the strength that God supplies, so that God may be glorified in all things through Jesus Christ. To him belong the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen.
John 1:4 in him was life, and the life was the light of all people.
John 3:36 Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever disobeys the Son will not see life, but must endure God's wrath.
Rom 5:15-21 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if the many died through the one man's trespass, much more surely have the grace of God and the free gift in the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abounded for the many. And the free gift is not like the effect of the one man's sin. For the judgment following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free gift following many trespasses brings justification. If, because of the one man's trespass, death exercised dominion through that one, much more surely will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness exercise dominion in life through the one man, Jesus Christ. Therefore just as one man's trespass led to condemnation for all, so one man's act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all. For just as by the one man's disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man's obedience the many will be made righteous. But law came in, with the result that the trespass multiplied; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, just as sin exercised dominion in death, so grace might also exercise dominion through justification leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
1 Thess 5:10 who died for us, so that whether we are awake or asleep we may live with him.

Ps 36:9 For with you is the fountain of life; in your light we see light.
Prov 2:6 For the Lord gives wisdom; from his mouth come knowledge and understanding;
Prov 8:14 I have good advice and sound wisdom; I have insight, I have strength.
Jer 2:13 for my people have committed two evils: they have forsaken me, the fountain of living water, and dug out cisterns for themselves, cracked cisterns that can hold no water.
Dan 2:20-21 Daniel said: "Blessed be the name of God from age to age, for wisdom and power are his. He changes times and seasons, deposes kings and sets up kings; he gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who have understanding.
Col 2:3 in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.
Jam 1:5 If any of you is lacking in wisdom, ask God, who gives to all generously and ungrudgingly, and it will be given you.
Ps 38:9 O Lord, all my longing is known to you; my sighing is not hidden from you.
Ps 139:1-2 O Lord, you have searched me and known me. You know when I sit down and when I rise up; you discern my thoughts from far away.
Is 65:24 Before they call I will answer, while they are yet speaking I will hear.
Matt 6:8 Do not be like them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him.
Matt 6:31-32 Therefore do not worry, saying, 'What will we eat?' or 'What will we drink?' or 'What will we wear?' For it is the Gentiles who strive for all these things; and indeed your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things.
Rom 8:26 Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but that very Spirit intercedes with sighs too deep for words.
Ps 86:15-16 But you, O Lord, are a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness. Turn to me and be gracious to me; give your strength to your servant; save the child of your serving girl.
Ps 103:13-14 As a father has compassion for his children, so the Lord has compassion for those who fear him. For he knows how we were made; he remembers that we are dust.
Ps 119:81-82 My soul languishes for your salvation; I hope in your word. My eyes fail with watching for your promise; I ask, "When will you comfort me?"
Ps 25:17-18 Relieve the troubles of my heart, and bring me out of my distress. Consider my affliction and my trouble, and forgive all my sins.
Heb 5:1-2 Every high priest chosen from among mortals is put in charge of things pertaining to God on their behalf, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins. He is able to deal gently with the ignorant and wayward, since he himself is subject to weakness;
Ps 86:15-16 But you, O Lord, are a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness. Turn to me and be gracious to me; give your strength to your servant; save the child of your serving girl.
Ps 103:13-14 As a father has compassion for his children, so the Lord has compassion for those who fear him. For he knows how we were made; he remembers that we are dust.
Ps 119:81-82 My soul languishes for your salvation; I hope in your word. My eyes fail with watching for your promise; I ask, "When will you comfort me?"
Ps 25:17-18 Relieve the troubles of my heart, and bring me out of my distress. Consider my affliction and my trouble, and forgive all my sins.
Heb 5:1-2 Every high priest chosen from among mortals is put in charge of things pertaining to God on their behalf, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins. He is able to deal gently with the ignorant and wayward, since he himself is subject to weakness;

Matt 7:7 "Ask, and it will be given you; search, and you will find; knock, and the door will be opened for you.
John 6:27 Do not work for the food that perishes, but for the food that endures for eternal life, which the Son of Man will give you. For it is on him that God the Father has set his seal."
John 16:23 On that day you will ask nothing of me. Very truly, I tell you, if you ask anything of the Father in my name, he will give it to you.
John 16:26-27 On that day you will ask in my name. I do not say to you that I will ask the Father on your behalf; for the Father himself loves you, because you have loved me and have believed that I came from God.
Eph 2:18 for through him both of us have access in one Spirit to the Father.
Heb 10:19-22 Therefore, my friends, since we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain (that is, through his flesh), and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us approach with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.
Jam 4:8 Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, you double-minded.
Zech 13:9 And I will put this third into the fire, refine them as one refines silver, and test them as gold is tested. They will call on my name, and I will answer them. I will say, "They are my people"; and they will say, "The Lord is our God."
John 6:45 It is written in the prophets, 'And they shall all be taught by God.' Everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to me.
1 Kings 8:59 Let these words of mine, with which I pleaded before the Lord, be near to the Lord our God day and night, and may he maintain the cause of his servant and the cause of his people Israel, as each day requires;
Ps 17:6 I call upon you, for you will answer me, O God; incline your ear to me, hear my words.
Ps 34:15 The eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears are open to their cry.
Ps 34:17 When the righteous cry for help, the Lord hears, and rescues them from all their troubles.
Ps 88:1-2 O Lord, God of my salvation, when, at night, I cry out in your presence, let my prayer come before you; incline your ear to my cry.
Ps 116:1-2 I love the Lord, because he has heard my voice and my supplications. Because he inclined his ear to me, therefore I will call on him as long as I live.
Dan 9:19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, listen and act and do not delay! For your own sake, O my God, because your city and your people bear your name!"
John 9:31 We know that God does not listen to sinners, but he does listen to one who worships him and obeys his will.
2 Kings 19:16 Incline your ear, O Lord, and hear; open your eyes, O Lord, and see; hear the words of Sennacherib, which he has sent to mock the living God.
Neh 1:11 O Lord, let your ear be attentive to the prayer of your servant, and to the prayer of your servants who delight in revering your name. Give success to your servant today, and grant him mercy in the sight of this man!" At the time, I was cupbearer to the king.
Ps 23:1-5 The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want. He makes me lie down in green pastures; he leads me beside still waters; he restores my soul. He leads me in right paths for his name's sake. Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I fear no evil; for you are with me; your rod and your staff-- they comfort me. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; you anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows.
Ps 50:15 Call on me in the day of trouble; I will deliver you, and you shall glorify me."
Ps 72:18-19 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who alone does wondrous things. Blessed be his glorious name forever; may his glory fill the whole earth. Amen and Amen.
Ps 102:1 Hear my prayer, O Lord; let my cry come to you.
Ps 107:6 Then they cried to the Lord in their trouble, and he delivered them from their distress;
Ps 115:17-18 The dead do not praise the Lord, nor do any that go down into silence. But we will bless the Lord from this time on and forevermore. Praise the Lord!
Ps 146:9 The Lord watches over the strangers; he upholds the orphan and the widow, but the way of the wicked he brings to ruin.
Prov 10:24 What the wicked dread will come upon them, but the desire of the righteous will be granted.
Is 44:23 Sing, O heavens, for the Lord has done it; shout, O depths of the earth; break forth into singing, O mountains, O forest, and every tree in it! For the Lord has redeemed Jacob, and will be glorified in Israel.
Matt 21:22 Whatever you ask for in prayer with faith, you will receive."
Eph 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places,
Jam 1:5-6 If any of you is lacking in wisdom, ask God, who gives to all generously and ungrudgingly, and it will be given you. But ask in faith, never doubting, for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea, driven and tossed by the wind;
Jam 5:15-16 The prayer of faith will save the sick, and the Lord will raise them up; and anyone who has committed sins will be forgiven. Therefore confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another, so that you may be healed. The prayer of the righteous is powerful and effective.
1 John 3:21-22 Beloved, if our hearts do not condemn us, we have boldness before God; and we receive from him whatever we ask, because we obey his commandments and do what pleases him.


Post-Communion Rubrics

T. Upon the holy-days, if there be no Communion.] Anciently, upon holy-days, Communions were constant, and consequently oblations, wherefore Proclus saith, ἑορτή ἐστι πενήτων Oepos, “a festival is the poor man’s harvest,” because he had then his dividend of offerings. But afterward, as devotion relaxed, they were content with Sundays, appointing, nevertheless, that which they called Missam Catechumenorum, the service of the catechumens, to be used upon such days as there was no Communion; and this went under the appellation of Missa sicca, dry mass. To speak in particular of our Church, this rubric is a very pious and prudent provision: what pity were it the congregation should, for default of a Communion, be deprived of that excellent exhomologesis, confession of sins implied in that κύριε ἐλέησον, “ Lord have mercy upon us,” and invocation of God’s gracious assistance, which the decalogue service constrains us to? What is there in those collects succeeding, what in the Constantinopolitan Creed, what in the prayer for the whole state of Christ’s Church, which createth in them an inseparable relation to the Eucharist, or which may not exceedingly officiate to the edification of the assembly at all times, would leisure permit? Nay, how absurd would it seem to celebrate those holy-days, and merely for the defect above said to turn out of doors so large portions of holy Scripture as the epistles and gospels, these last, with their collects, giving us the only account why these days are observed. Under the notion of holy-days in this place, such Sundays are also to be comprehended, on which there is no Communion, in country villages, where congregations are thin: for Sundays are put into the catalogue of holy-days, in the act of parliament, and order of our Church.

But it is ordered here only what shall be said for the second service, without determining the place where, and this hath been a very intricate, and almost interminable question. The visitation articles of some bishops enjoined it to be read at the holy table, placed at the east end of the chancel, and the late archbishop inferreth direction for it from the rubric before the Communion, appointing that the “ priest standing at the north side of the holy table, shall say the Lord’s prayer with that which followeth.” But this order hath reference to the Communion time, the rubric is expressly so; and in Communion time, I have evidently demonstrated before, the table was to be placed in the middle of the church or chancel, and consequently I conceive this rubric referreth not to this service out of Communion time ; where then is it to be read? I agree, at the holy table set altarwise, at the east end; and in this, I persuade myself the bishops were right, though they perhaps mistook the reason; so it was, I am certain, in the first Reformation, the rubric parallel to ours ordering all these things to be said at the Altar. But it may be said, the second Reformation expunging this rule, as to this particular, we may presume it meant to reform the practice also. I answer, our Reformers are best understood by their own orders ; now this rule constitutes this service either as a label annexed to morning prayer, or parcel of the Communion service: take which you will, by the order of the Church it must be said at the holy table set altarwise, at the east end; for there regularly ought both the morning and the Communion office to be read out of Communion time. As for the morning prayer, both it and evening prayer shall be used in the accustomed ancient course of the Church is by and by called an innovation. Secondly, with this the rubrics of the Common Prayer-book agree; so that not only the Communion, but the prayers which accompany the Communion (which are commonly called the second service) are to be read at the Communion-table. Therefore, if this be an innovation, it is made by the rubric. The accustomed place was then, without dispute, the choir; for all along Queen Mary’s days, nay, from her death, being the 27th of November, to the Feast of St. John Baptist, when this common prayer was to commence by the statute, Matins and Mass, yea, all divine offices were performed after the popish manner, and that was undoubtedly in the choir, at the high Altar, and consequently to that place must the word accustomed have relation in this rubric. True it is, there is an exception against this rule, in case the ordinary shall otherwise determine: so that till the ordinary shall state it otherwise, the rule holds firm, and consequently, morning prayer with all its appendants (not otherwise settled by express order) is to be said at the Altar. Now if it be considered as part of the Communion service, the words of the rubric are express; “the priest standing at the north side of the table shall say,” &c. So he is to stand and officiate at the north side of the table, and this, out of Communion time, must be situated at the east end, and consequently the service to be read there.

W. And if any of the bread or wine remain, &c.] In the primitive Church, the bread and wine was taken from a large table (which was the receptacle of all the offerings), so much in quantity as the priest officiating judged sufficient for the communicants. These elements, thus separated from their fellows, were consecrated apart for the service to which they were destined; but because so great a portion was usually blessed, as did afford some overplus, it was therefore judged necessary some order should be taken for a decent disposal of those analects and remains: this was done at first by sending some parcels to absent friends, as pledges and tokens of love and agreement in the unity of the same faith, whereof Eusebius’ maketh mention in Irenaeus’s epistle to Pope Victor. But this custom being abused, was interdicted by the council of Laodicea; περὶ τοῦ μὴ τὰ ἅγια εἰς λόγον εὐλογίας κατὰ τὴν ἑορτὴν τοῦ Πάσχα εἰς ἑτέρας παροικείας μεταπέμπειν: “that the consecrated bread be no more sent abroad to other parishes at Easter, under the notion, and in resemblance of the blessed loaves.” After this the remains began to be divided amongst the clergy ; τὰς περισσευούσας ἐν τοῖς μυστικοῖς εὐλογίας κατὰ γνώμην τοῦ ἐπισκόπου ἤ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων οἱ διακόνοι διανεμέτωσαν τῷ κλήρῳ, saith Clemens: “what is left of the consecrated elements, let the deacons divide among the clergy :”’ and sometimes the other communicants were allowed their share; τὰ προσφερόμενα εἰς λόγον θυσίας, μετὰ TA ἀναλισκόμενα εἰς τὴν τῶν μυστηρίων χρείαν, οἱ κλήρικοι διανεμέσθωσαν, καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτοῖς πιστοὶ ἀδελφοὶ :“let the clergy, and with them the faithful brethren, divide amongst themselves the oblations of the Eucharist, when every one hath participated.” As for the order of our Church, it is very circumspect, for, by saying the curate shall have it to his own use, care thereby is taken to prevent the superstitious reservation of this Sacrament, as the papists formerly practised.

X. At the least three times in the year.] So did the council of Agatha decree, prescribing these very days. Qui in natal Domini, Paschate et Pentecoste non communicaverint, catholici non credantur, nec inter catholicos habeantur: “they which do not communicate at the nativity of our Lord, Easter, and Pentecost, let them not be accounted amongst the members of the Catholic Church.” So also the Belgic Church; commodum erit die Paschates, Pentecostes et nativitatis salvifice, Dominicam cenam celebrari: “it is very convenient that the Lord’s supper be celebrated on Easter, Whitsuntide, and on the birthday of our Saviour.” The word parishioner must here be understood according to several qualifications and capacities. First, it intendeth the laity, and therefore this rubric is no dispensation to the clergy belonging to cathedrals, who are still obliged to receive every Sunday, “unless they shew cause to the contrary.” Secondly, it meaneth such as can say their catechism, and have been confirmed, as is in the rubric at the end of Confirmation. Lastly, it importeth infants also, which in the second qualification it excluded, for it is said, “every parishioner shall also receive the Sacraments,” &c., meaning when infants, baptism, and when of riper years, the Eucharist; else we make more than two Sacraments, contrary to our Church catechism.

Daily Communions in the primitive Church. IN the primitive Church, while Christians continued in their strength of faith and devotion, those who were qualified generally communicated once every day; which custom continued till after St. Augustine's time: but afterward, when charity grew cold, and devotion faint, this custom was broke off; and they fell from every day to Sundays and holy-days only, and thence at Antioch to once a year and no more.

Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide, why prescribed times of communicating. In regard of this neglect, canons were made by several Councils to oblige men to receive three times a year at least, viz. at Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide, (probably in conformity to the ancient Jews, who were commanded by God himself to appear before the Lord at the three great feasts that correspond to these; viz. in the feast of unleavened Breads and in the feast of Weeks, and in the feast of Tabernacles) and those that neglected to communicate at those seasons were censured and anathematized.

The care of the Church about frequent Communion. At the Reformation our Church took all the care she could to reconcile her members to frequent Communion. And therefore in the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI it was ordered that upon Wednesdays and Fridays, though there were none to communicate with the Priest, yet (after the Litany ended) the Priest should put upon him a plain alb or surplice, with a cope, and say all things at the altar, (appointed to be said at the celebration of the Lord's Supper) until after the offertory, — And the same order was to be used all other days, whensoever the people were accustomably assembled to pray in the Church, and none were disposed to communicate with the Priest. From whence it appears they took it for granted, that there would always be a sufficient number of communicants upon every Sunday and holy-day at the least; so that they could not so much as suppose there would be no Communion upon any of those days. But it seems they feared that upon other days there might sometimes be none to communicate with the Priest, and so no Communion: and therefore they ordered, that if it should so happen for a whole week together, yet nevertheless upon Wednesdays and Fridays in every week so much should be used of the Communion-service as is before limited.

Rubric 1. Part of the Communion-office to be read on every Sunday and holy-day, though there be no Communion. But afterwards, as piety grew colder and colder, the Sacrament began to be more and more neglected, and by degrees quite laid aside on the ordinary week-days. Ana then the Church did not think it convenient to appoint any of this service upon any other days than Sundays and holy-days. But upon those days she still requires that (although there he no Communion, yet) all shall be said that is appointed at the Communion, until the end of the general prayer, [for the whole state of Christ's Church militant here on earth] together with one or more of the Collects at the end of the Communion-office, concluding with the blessing.

The reasons of it. One reason of which order seems to be, that the Church may still shew her readiness to administer the Sacrament upon these days; and so that it is not hers nor the Minister's, but the people's fault, if it be not administered. For the Minister, in obedience to the Church's order, goes up to the Lord's table, and there begins the service appointed for the Communion; and goes on as far as he can, till he come to the actual celebration of it: and if he stop there, it is only because there are none, or not a sufficient number of persons, to communicate with him. For if there were, he is there ready to consecrate and administer it to them. And therefore if there be no Communion on any Sunday or holy-day in the year, the people only are to be blamed. The Church hath done her part in ordering it, and the Minister his in observing that order; and if the people would do theirs too, the holy Communion would be constantly celebrated in every parish church in England, on every Sunday and holyday throughout the year. But though this may hold in some places, yet I cannot say it will in all; especially in populous towns and cities; where my charity obliges me to believe, that if the Ministers would but make the experiment, they would find that they should never want a sufficient number of communicants, whenever they themselves should be ready to administer the Sacrament. And even in other places it were to be wished, that the Elements were placed ready upon the table on all Sundays and holy-days: for then the people could not help being put in mind of what the Church looks upon as their duty at those times; and I persuade myself, that the Minister would generally find a number sufficient ready to communicate with him.

But another reason why so much of this service is ordered to be read, though there be no Communion, is because there are severed particular things in that part of it, which ought to be read as well to those who do not communicate, as to those who do. As, first, the Decalogue, or Ten Commandments, of Almighty God, the supreme Lawgiver of the world, which it is requisite the people should often hear and be put in mind of, especially upon those days which are immediately dedicated to his service. Secondly, the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels, proper to all Sundays and holy-days, without which those festivals could not be distinguished either from one another, or even from ordinary days, nor consequently celebrated so as to answer the end of their institution. Thirdly, the Nicene Creed, wherein the divinity of our blessed Saviour is asserted and declared, and therefore very proper to be used on those days which are kept in memory of him and of his holy Apostles, by whom that doctrine, together with our whole religion grounded upon it, was planted and propagated in the world. Fourthly, the offertory, or select sentences of Scripture, one or more of which are to be read, to stir up the congregation to offer unto God something of what he hath given them, as an acknowledgment that they receive from him all they have; which, howsoever it be now neglected, the people ought to be put in mind of at least every Lord's day. Fifthly, the prayer for the whole state of Christ's Church militant here on earth, in which we should all join as fellow members of the same body, especially upon the great festivals of the year, which are generally celebrated by the whole Church we pray for. Most of these things made up the Missa Catechumenorum of the ancient Church, i.e. that part of the service at which the catechumens, who were not admitted to the reception of the Eucharist, were allowed to be present. And in our own congregations, when there is a Communion, those who do not communicate never depart till the end of the Nicene Creed, for the abovesaid reasons: which shews, that there is nothing in that part of the service but what may very properly be used upon any Sunday and holy-day when there is no Communion. Nor is this a practice of our own Church alone, but such as is warranted both by Greeks and Latins. Socrates tells us, that in Alexandria, upon Wednesdays and Fridays, the Scriptures were read and expounded by their teachers, and all things were done in the Communion, but only consecrating the mysteries. And as for the Latin Church, Durandus gives direction how the Communion-service might be read without any Communion.

§.2. This part of the Office is to be said at the altar, though there be no Communion. I have supposed in one of the former paragraphs, that this part of the Communion-office (though there be no Communion) is yet always read at the Communion-table or altar. I know indeed it is very frequently performed in the desk. But I think the very reason why the Church appoints so much of this office upon the Sundays and other holy-days, though there be no Communion, is also a reason why it should be said at the altar. For the Minister's reading the office till he can go no further for want of communicants, I have observed, was designed in order to draw communicants to the table. And therefore is it not fit that the Minister himself should be ready at the place, whither he himself is inviting others? For this reason, in the first book of king Edward, the rubric above cited ordered expressly that it should be said at the altar. Bucer indeed thought this tended too much towards creating in people's minds superstitious notions of the Mass; and in the second book of king Edward, which was modelled according to his directions, those words were left out. Though it is not improbable that as the word altar was thrown out every where else in this office, so it might be left out of this rubric upon dislike of the name; without any intention to alter the place where this part of the service on such days should be said. And indeed I cannot understand how this alteration could give any authority for the using any part of this office at any other place than the Lord's table; so long as there was another rubric at the beginning of it, which still ordered that the Priest should stand at the north side of the table, and there say the Lord's Prayer with what follows, without any allowance or permission to say it any where else when there was no Communion. It is certain that our bishops still apprehended, that it was to be said there; since several of them, in their visitations, enjoined the Ministers to read it at the holy table; and there, Mr. Hooker tells us, it was in his time commonly read. And that the Episcopal Commissioners appointed to review the Liturgy at the Restoration of king Charles II supposed and intended it should continue to be performed there, appears from the Account of the Proceedings of the Commissioners of both persuasions. The Puritans had desired, " That the Ministers should not be required to rehearse any part of the Liturgy at the Communion table, save only those parts which properly belong to the Lord's Supper; and that at such times only when the said holy Supper is administered." How this was received by the Episcopal Ministers, may be gathered from the Puritans' reply. "You grant not," say they, "that the Communion-service be read in the desk when there is no Communion: but in the late form, (i.e. I suppose some occasional form that was then published,) instead thereof it is enjoined to be done at the table, (though there be no rubric in the Common Prayer Book requiring it.") Now from hence I think it is plain, that they, who were commissioned to review the Liturgy, designed that this office should be always read at the altar, though they did not add any new rubric to order it, because, I suppose, they thought the general rubric above mentioned sufficient.

§.3. The care of our Church about frequent Communion. Rubric 8. But to return to the care of our Church in relation to frequency of Communions: how zealous she is still to bring her members to communicate oftener than she can obtain, is apparent from her enjoining, that in Cathedral and Collegiate Churches and Colleges, where there are many Priests and Deacons, they shall all receive the Communion with the Priest every Sunday at least, except they have a reasonable cause to the contrary; and from her further requiring every Parishioner in general to communicate at the least three times in the year, of which Easter to be one;* because at that time Christ our Passover was sacrificed for us, and by his death (which we commemorate in this Sacrament) obtained for us everlasting life.

§.4. Rubric 2, 3. Solitary Masses not allowed of. Every one may communicate as much oftener as he pleases: the Church only puts in this precaution, that there shall be no celebration of the Lord's Supper, except there be a convenient number to communicate with the Priest, according to his discretion. And if there be not above twenty persons in the Parish of discretion to receive the Communion, yet there shall be no Communion, except four (or three at the least) communicate with the Priest. And this is to prevent the solitary masses which had been introduced by the Church of Rome, where the Priest says mass, and receives the Sacrament himself, though there be none to communicate with him: which our Church disallows, not permitting the Priest to consecrate the elements, unless he has three at least to communicate with him, because our Saviour seems to require three to make up a congregation.

§.5. Rubric 5. The Bread, whether to be leavened or unleavened. The fifth rubric is designed to take away all those scruples which over-conscientious people used to make about the Bread and Wine. As to the Bread, some made it essential to the Sacrament to have leavened, others unleavened; each side, in that, as well as in other matters of as small moment, superstitiously making an indifferent thing a matter of conscience. Our Saviour doubtless used such bread as was ready at hand: and therefore this Sacrament being instituted immediately after the celebration of the passover, at which they were neither to eat leavened bread, nor so much as to have any in their houses, upon pain of being cut off from Israel, does perfectly demonstrate that he used that which was unleavened. But this perhaps was only upon the account of the passover, when no other but unleavened bread could be used by the Jews. After his resurrection he probably celebrated (if he celebrated at all) in leavened bread, and such as was in common use at all other times, except the time of the passover. And that the primitive Church always used common bread, appears, in that the elements for the holy Eucharist were always taken out of the people's oblations of Bread and Wine, which doubtless were such as they themselves used upon other occasions. But when these oblations began to be left off about the eleventh or twelfth century, the Clergy were forced to provide the elements themselves; and they, under pretence of decency and respect, brought it from leavened to unleavened, and from a loaf of common bread, that might be broken, to a nice wafer, formed in the figure of a denarius, or penny, to represent, as some imagine, the thirty pence for which our Saviour was sold. And then also the people, instead of offering a loaf, as formerly, were ordered to offer a penny; which was either to be given to the poor, or to be expended upon something belonging to the sacrifice of the altar. However, this abuse was complained of by some discerning and judicious men, as soon as it began. But when once introduced, it was so generally approved, that it was not easy to lay it aside. For even after the Reformation, king Edward's first book enjoins these unleavened wafers to be used, though with a little alteration indeed in relation to their size. The whole rubric, as it stood then, runs thus: For avoiding all matters and occasions of dissension, it is meet that the Bread prepared for the Communion be made, through all this realm, after one sort and fashion; that is to say, unleavened and round, as it was afore, but without all manner of print, and something more large and thicker than it was, so that it may be aptly divided in diverse pieces: and every one shall be divided in two pieces at the least, or more, by the discretion of the Minister, and so distributed. And men must not think less to be received in part than in the whole, but in each of them the whole body of our Saviour Jesus Christ.

The bread, I suppose, was ordered to be round, in imitation of the wafers that had been used both in the Greek and Roman Church ever since the eleventh century: upon which was stamped the figure either of a Crucifix or the Holy Lamb. But in the rubric above, it is ordered to be made without all manner of print, and something more large and thicker than it was: the custom before being to make it small, about the size of a penny, to represent, as some imagine, the thirty pence for which our Lord was sold. These superstitions the Reformation had laid aside; but the rubric above mentioned still affording matter for scruple, it was altered at the review in the fifth of king Edward, when, in his second book, this rubric was inserted in the room of it: And to take away the superstition which any person hath, or might have, in the Bread and Wine, it shall suffice that the Bread be such as is usually to be eaten at the table with other meats, but the best and purest wheat-bread that conveniently may be gotten.

Wafer-Bread enjoined by queen Elizabeth. And the same rubric, with some little difference, is still continued in our present Liturgy. Though, by the Injunctions of queen Elizabeth, wafer-bread seems to have been again enjoined: for among some orders, at the end of those Injunctions, this was one: Where also it was in the time of king Edward the Sixth used to have the Sacramental Bread of common fine bread; it is ordered, for the more reverence to be given to these holy mysteries, being the Sacraments of the Body and Blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ, that the said Sacramental Bread be made and formed plain, without any figure thereupon, of the same fineness and fashion, round, though somewhat bigger in compass and thickness, as the usual Bread and Wafer, heretofore named singing-cakes, which served for the use of private Mass. Though Bishop Cosin observes upon our present rubric, that "It is not here commanded that no unleavened or wafer-bread be used; but it is only said, that the other bread may suffice. So that though there was no necessity, yet there was a liberty still reserved of using wafer-bread, which was used in diverse Churches of the kingdom, and Westminster for one, till the seventeenth of king Charles."

And allowed by the Scotch Liturgy. For which reason perhaps, though the Scotch Liturgy continues the rubric that was first insertcd in the fifth year of king Edward; yet a parenthesis is inserted, to shew that the use of wafer-bread is lawful; (though it be lawful to have wafer-bread) it shall suffice, and so on, as in the rubric of our own Liturgy.

§.6. Rubric 6. The remainder of the Elements how to be disposed of. Another thing about which there might be discussion, is, how the Elements that remain should be disposed of afterwards, and therefore it is provided by another rubric, that if any of the Bread and Wine remain unconsecrated, the Curate shall have it to his own use.* For though it hath not been actually consecrated, yet by its being dedicated and offered to God, it ceases to be common, and therefore properly belongs to the Minister as God's steward.

But if any remain of that which was consecrated, it shall not be carried out of the church, but the Priest, and such other of the communicants as he shall then call unto him, shall immediately after the blessing, reverently eat and drink the same.† In the primitive Church, whatever of the consecrated Elements were left after all had communicated, were either reserved by the Priest to be administered to infirm persons in cases of exigency, that they might not die without receiving the blessed Sacrament; or else were sent about to absent friends, as pledges and tokens of love and agreement in the unity of the same faith. But this custom being abused, was afterwards prohibited by the Council of Laodicea, and then the remains began to be divided among the Clergy; and sometimes the other communicants were allowed to partake with them, as is now usual in our Church, where care is taken to prevent the superstitious reservation of them formerly practised by the Papists. However, it would be convenient if the Scotch rubric were observed, by which, to the end there may be little left, he that officiates is required to consecrate with the least.

§.7. Rubric 7. The Bread and Wine, how to be provided. The seventh rubric is a direction how the Bread and Wine shall be provided. How they were provided in the primitive Church I have already shewed. Afterwards it seems it was the custom for every house in the parish to provide in their turns the holy Loaf, (under which name I suppose were comprehended both the Elements of Bread and Wine) and the good Man and good Woman that provided were particularly remembered in the prayers of the Church. But by the first book of king Edward, the care of providing was thrown upon the Pastors and Curates, who were obliged continually to find, at their costs and charges in their cures, sufficient Bread and Wine for the holy Communion, as oft as their parishioners should be disposed for their spiritual comfort to receive the same. But then it was ordered, that, in recompense of such costs and charges, the parishioners of every parish should offer every Sunday, at the time of the offertory, the just value and price of the holy Loaf (with all such money and other things as were wont to be offered with the same) to the use of the Pastors and Curates, and that in such order and course as they were wont to find, and pay the said holy Loaf. And in Chapels annexed, where the people had not been accustomed to pay any holy Bread, there they were either to make some charitable provision for the bearing of the charges of the Communion; or else (for receiving of the same) resort to the parish church. But now, since, from this method of providing, several unforeseen inconveniences might, and most probably did, arise, either from the negligence, or obstinacy, or poverty of the parishioners; it was therefore afterwards ordered, that the Bread and Wine for the Communion should be provided by the Curate and the Churchwardens, at the charges of the parish; and that the parish should be discharged of such sums of money, or other duties which hitherto they have paid for the same, by order of their houses every Sunday. And this is the method the Church still uses; the former part of this rubric being continued in our present Communion-office, though the latter part was left out, as having reference to a custom which had for a long while been forgotten.

§.8. Rubric 8. Ecclesiastical duties what, and when to be paid. The next rubric, as far as it concerns the duty of communicating, has already been taken notice of. But the chief design of it is to settle the payment of Ecclesiastical Duties. For it is hereby ordered, that yearly at Easter every parishioner shall reckon with his Parson, Vicar, or Curate, or his or their deputy or deputies, and pay to them or him all ecclesiastical duties, accustomably due, and then at that time to be paid.* What are the duties here mentioned is a matter of doubt: Bishop Stillingfleet supposes them to be a composition for personal tithes, (i.e. the tenth part of every one's clear gains) due at that time; but the present bishop of Lincoln imagines them to be partly such duties or oblations as were not immediately annexed to any particular office; and partly a composition for the holy Loaf, which the Communicants were to bring and offer, and which is therefore to be answered at Easter, because at that festival every person was, even by the rubric, bound to communicate. They both perhaps may have judged right: for by an act of parliament in the second and third of Edward VI such personal tithes are to be paid yearly at or before the feast of Easter, and also all lawful and accustomary offerings, which had not been paid at the usual offering days, are to be paid for at Easter next following.

§.9. The money given at the offertory, how to be disposed of. The last rubric is concerning the disposal of the money given at the Communion, and was not added till the last review; but to prevent all occasion of disagreement, it was then ordered, that after the divine service ended, the money given at the offertory shall be disposed of to such pious and charitable uses as the Minister and Churchwardens shall think fit; wherein if they disagree it shall be disposed of as the Ordinary shall appoint. The hint was taken from the Scotch Liturgy, in which immediately after the blessing this rubric follows: After the divine service ended, that which was offered shall be divided in the presence of the Presbyter and the Churchwardens, whereof one half shall be to the use of the Presbyter, to provide him books of holy divinity; the other half shall be faithfully kept and employed on some pious or charitable use, for the decent furnishing of that church, or the public relief of their poor, at the discretion of the Presbyter and Churchwardens.

Upon the Sundays and other Holy-days (if there be no Communion) shall be said all that is appointed at the Communion, until the end of the general Prayer [For the whole state of Christ's Church militant here in earth] together with one or more of these Collects last before rehearsed, concluding with the Blessing.

And there shall be no celebration of the Lord's Supper, except there be a convenient number to communicate with the Priest, according to his discretion.

And if there be not above twenty persons in the Parish of discretion to receive the Communion: yet there shall be no Communion, except four (or three at the least) communicate with the Priest.

And in Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, and Colleges, where there are many Priests and Deacons, they shall all receive the Communion with the Priest every Sunday at the least, except they have a reasonable cause to the contrary.

And to take away all occasion of dissension, and superstition, which any person hath or might have concerning the Bread and Wine, it shall suffice that the Bread be such as is usual to be eaten; but the best and purest Wheat Bread that conveniently may be gotten.

And if any of the Bread and Wine remain unconsecrated, the Curate shall have it to his own use: but if any remain of that which was consecrated, it shall not be carried out of the Church, but the Priest, and such other of the Communicants as he shall then call unto him, shall, immediately after the Blessing, reverently eat and drink the same.

The Bread and Wine for the Communion shall be provided by the Curate and the Church-wardens at the charges of the Parish.

And note, that every Parishioner shall communicate at the least three times in the year, of which Easter to be one. And yearly at Easter every Parishioner shall reckon with the Parson, Vicar, or Curate, or his or their Deputy or Deputies; and pay to them or him all Ecclesiastical Duties, accustomably due, then and at that time to be paid.

After the Divine Service ended, the money given at the Offertory shall be disposed of to such pious and charitable uses, as the Minister and Church-wardens shall think fit. Wherein if they disagree, it shall be disposed of as the Ordinary shall appoint.