The Scriptural BCP - The Order for the Burial of the Dead.

The Order for the Burial of the Dead.

For the due performance of these holy publick services, a Priest, ordained for men in things pertaining to God, Heb. 5. 1. is required by the Church, as it ought to be, and as it was of old. S. Chrys. Hom. 4. in Hebr. Ambr. Ser. 90. It was an ancient custom, after Burial to go to the holy COMMUNION, unless the office were performed after noon. For then, if men were not fasting, it was done only with Prayers. Conc. Carth. 3. 29. Can. Funeral Doles were an ancient custom, Chrys. Hom. 32. in Mat.

Christian burial denied to some sorts of persons. THOUGH all persons are, for decency, and some other of the reasons that have been mentioned above, to be put under ground; yet it appears by the rubric, (which was prefixed to this office at the last review,) as well as by the canons of the ancient Church, that some are not capable of Christian burial. Here it is to be noted, that the office ensuing is not to be used for any that die unbaptized or excommunieate, or have laid violent hands upon themselves.

I. As, first, to such as die unbaptized. The prohibiting the Burial-office to be used for any of these, is exactly agreeable to the ancient practice of the Church. For, first, in relation to such as die unbaptized, the first Council of Bracara, which was held A.D. 563, determines, that there should be no oblations or commemorations made for them, neither should the office of singing be used at their funerals. Not that the Church determines any thing concerning the future state of those that depart before they are admitted to baptism: but since they have not been received within the pale of the Church, we cannot properly use an office at their funeral, which all along supposes the person that is buried to have died in her communion.

§. 2. Whether persons baptized by the dissenters are here excluded. Whether this office is to be used over such as have been baptized by the dissenters or sectaries, who have no regular commission for the administering of the sacraments, has been a subject of dispute; people generally determining on one side or the other, according to their different sentiments of the validity or invalidity of such disputed baptisms. But I think that for determining the question before us, there is no occasion to enter into the merits of that cause: for whether the baptisms among the dissenters be valid or not, I do not apprehend that it lies upon us to take notice of any baptisms, except they are to be proved by the registers of the Church. Unless therefore we ourselves betray our own rights, by registering spurious among the genuine baptisms, persons baptized among the dissenters can have no just claim to the use of this office. For the rubric expressly declares, that it is not to be used for any that die unbaptized: but all persons are supposed to die unbaptized, but those whose baptisms the registers own: and therefore the registers not owning dissenting baptisms, those that die with such baptisms must be supposed to die unbaptized. But indeed the best way to put an end to this controversy, is to desire those that have separate places of worship, to have separate places for burial too; or at least to be content to put their dead into the ground, without requiring the prayers of a Minister, whose assistance in every thing hut in this and marriage they neglect and despise.

II. Secondly, to such as die excommunicate. The next persons, to whom the Church here denies the office of burial, are those that die excommunicate: i.e. those who die excommunicated with the greater excommunication, as it is expressed by the sixty-eighth canon. And to such as these Christian burial has ever been denied by the Catholic Church. The intent of which penalty is to bring the excommunicate to seek the absolution and peace of the Church, for the health of his soul, before he leaves the world; and if not, to declare him cut off from the body of Christ, and by this mark of infamy to distinguish him from an obedient and regular Christian.

§. 2. Whether an ipso facto excommunication seclude a man from Christian burial, before sentence is pronounced. The learned Mr. Johnson is of opinion, that persons notoriously guilty of any of those crimes, for which excommunication ipso facto is decreed against them by the canons of our Church, are really excommunicated, though they be not particularly by name published or declared to be so; and that therefore a Minister may refuse to bury them, if they die in this condition, and no one be able to testify of their repentance. To confirm which, he observes from the canonists, that it is a sufficient denunciation, if it come to the knowledge of the person excommunicated: so that the Curate, who has taken care that his parishioners who are guilty of those crimes be made sensible that they are excommunicated by canon, seems to be under no obligation to bury them when they are dead. And yet this learned gentleman observes just before, that the judges have declared that excommunication takes no effect as to the common law, till it be denounced by the Ordinary and Curate of the place where the offender lives. He also refers to Lyndwood, to shew, that if the fact be not notorious or evident beyond exception, then it must be proved, and the sentence passed in the ecclesiastical court, before the criminal be taken for excommunicated in foro Ecclesiæ. Now certainly before he be taken for excommunicated he is not to be denied Christian burial, which is treating him as excommunicated. It is true, Mr. Johnson is here speaking of a case where the fact is not notorious; but then he goes on to prove from the same author, that though the fact be notorious, yet the offender must be publicly declared excommunicated, before it can be criminal for other persons to converse with him. From whence I would infer, that so long as he is allowed the conversation of Christians, he may also be indulged with a Christian burial. But he further observes from the same place in Lyndwood, that when the fact is notorious, the Curate of the parish may denounce the excommunication, without any special order from his superior. If so, then nobody, I suppose, will deny, that, when the Curate has denounced it, he is to be refused the use of this office of burial by the injunction of the canon, and the rubric before us. But the greatest difficulty is in what he asserts in the following paragraph, viz. That the offender is to be deemed excommunicate, before such publication is made; which he founds upon supposition, that if it were otherwise, there would be no difference between Constitutio Sententtiæ latæ, and Constitutio Sententiæ ferendæ. But, with submission to this gentleman, I can conceive a difference between these constitutions, without deeming an offender excommunicate before publication is made. For Constitutio Sententiæ latæ may signify, that the criminal, as soon as ever he is convicted and found guilty of the crime alleged against him, incurs the penalty inflicted by the canon, without any further sentence pronounced, than a declaration that he actually is and has even under the censure of the said canon: whereas Constitutio Sententiæ ferendæ may require not only that the criminal should be convicted, but also that after his conviction the sentence should be pronounced solemnly and in form, notwithstanding the canon may expressly declare what the punishment shall be. And this I take to be the sense in which Lyndwood and other lawyers understand it, whom certainly we must allow to be the best judges in the case. And this will explain what Mr. Johnson observes the canonists say, viz. that Excommunicatio ipso facto is Excommunicatio facta nulla ministerio hominis interveniente; that an ipso facto excommunication is an excommunication that takes effect without the intervention of any man’s ministry. For whenever a canon says, that a criminal is ipso facto excommunicated, the excommunication takes place as soon as he is tried, and found guilty of the crime, without any one’s pronouncing any other sentence upon him, than that, by virtue of his crime, he is, and has been excommunicated by the canon; and that not only from the time that he is proved convict, hut from the very time that he committed the fault: insomuch that all the advantages, penalties, and forfeitures that may be taken and demanded of a person excommunicated, may be taken and demanded of such a person quite hack to the time when he committed the fact, for which he is now declared excommunicate. But still, though a criminal becomes liable to this censure from the very instant he commits the crime; yet he cannot legally be proceeded against, nor treated as excommunicate, before he is actually convicted and declared so to be. It is true the canonists suppose that a man may and ought to shun the company of one, whom he knows to have incurred excommunication; but private conversation is what any one may withhold from whomsoever he pleases, and what therefore a man ought to withhold from such a one as he knows, or believes, he is able to convict of having incurred a greater penalty. But this does not affect the question between Mr. Johnson and me. The question between us is about denying a man the sacraments and public offices of the Church, which the canonists assert every man may claim, till it appears legally that he has forfeited his right to them. And therefore (which is the principal point here concerned) no man can be refused Christian burial, however subject he may have rendered himself to an ipso facto excommunication, unless he has been formally tried and convicted, and actually pronounced and declared excommunicate, and no man is able to testify of his repentance. By this clause in the canon, indeed, one would be apt to imagine, that if any were able to testify of his repentance, the man has a right to Christian burial, though his sentence was not reversed: and to some such testimonies perhaps it might be owing, that since the Reformation, as well as before, commissions have been granted not only to bury persons who died excommunicate, but in some cases to absolve them, in order to Christian burial. But the rubric speaks indefinitely of all that die excommunicate, and so seems to include all whose sentence was not reversed in their lifetime, without supposing any benefit to be obtained by an absolution afterwards.

III. Thirdly, to such as lay violent hands upon themselves. The last persons mentioned in the rubric we are discoursing of, are such as have laid violent hands upon themselves; to whom all Christian Churches, as well as our own, have ever denied the use of this office. And indeed none have been so justly and so universally deprived of that natural right which all men seem to have in a grave, as those who break this great law of nature, the law of self-preservation. Such as these were forbid both by Jews and Heathens to be put under ground, that their naked bodies might lie exposed to public view. And the indignity which (if I mistake not) our own laws enjoin to the bodies of those that murder themselves, viz. that they shall be buried in the high-way, and have a stake drove through them, though it is something more modest, yet is not less severe.

§. 2. Whether a person that kills himself, being non compos mentis, be excluded by this rubric. This indignity indeed is to be only offered to those who lay violent hands on themselves, whilst they are of sound sense and mind: for they who are deprived of reason or understanding cannot contract any guilt, and therefore it would be unreasonable to inflict upon them any penalty. But then it may be questioned, whether even these are not exempted from having this office said over them; since neither the rubric nor our old ecclesiastical laws make any exception in favour of those who may kill themselves in distraction, and since the office is in several parts of it improper for such a case. As to the coroner’s warrant, I take that to be no more than a certificate that the body is not demanded by the law, and that therefore the relations may dispose of it as they please. For I cannot apprehend that the coroner is to determine the sense of a rubric, or to prescribe to the Minister when Christian burial is to be used. The scandalous practice of them and their inquests, notwithstanding the strictness of their oath, in almost constantly returning every one they sit upon to be non compos mentis, (though the very circumstances of their murdering themselves are frequently a proof of the soundness of their senses,) sufficiently shew how much their verdict is to be depended on. It is not very difficult indeed to account for this: we need only to be informed, that if a man be found felo de se, all he was possessed of devolves to the king, to be disposed of by the lord almoner, according to his discretion: and no fee being allowed out of this to the coroner, it is no wonder that the verdict is generally for the heirs, from whom a gratuity is seldom wanting. They plead indeed, that it is hard to give away the subsistence of a family: but these gentlemen should remember, that they are not sworn to be charitable, but to be just; that their business is to inquire, not what is convenient and proper to be done with that which is forfeited, but how the person came by his death; whether by another or himself; if by himself, whether he was felo de se, or non compos mentis. As the coroner indeed summons whom he pleases on the jury, and then delivers to them what charge he pleases, it is easy enough for him to influence their judgments, and to instil a general supposition, that a self-murderer must needs be mad, since no one would kill himself, unless he were out of his senses. But the jury should consider, that if the case were so, it would be to no purpose for the law to appoint so formal an inquiry. For, according to this supposition, such inquiry must be vain and impertinent, since the fact itself would be evidence sufficient. It is true indeed, there may be a moral madness, i.e. a misapplication of the understanding, in all self-murderers: but this sort of madness does not come under the cognizance of a jury; the question with them being, not whether the understanding was misapplied, but whether there was any understanding at all. In short, the best rule for a jury to guide themselves by in such a case, is to judge whether the signs of madness, that are now pretended, would avail to acquit the same person of murdering another man: if not, there is no reason why they should be urged as a plea for acquitting him of murdering himself. But this is a little wide from my subject: however, it may be of use to shew, what little heed is to be given to a coroner’s warrant, and that there is no reason, because a coroner prostitutes his oath, that the clergy should be so complaisant as to prostitute their office.


A peal to be rung before the Burial. BEFORE the burial a short peal is to be rung, to give the relations and neighbours notice of the time, and to call them to pay their last attendance to their deceased friend.

§. 2. The time for funerals. The time generally appointed for this is late in the evening, from whence the bearers had the name of vespillones. And as death is a sleep, and the grave a resting-place, the night is not improper for these solemnities. The primitive Christians indeed, by reason of their persecutions, were obliged to bury their dead in the night; but when afterwards they were delivered from these apprehensions, they voluntarily retained their old custom; only making use of lighted torches, (which we still continue,) as well, I suppose, for convenience, as to express their hope of the departed’s being gone into the regions of light.

§. 3. The manner of the procession. The friends and relations being assembled together, the body is brought forth, and in some places is still, as anciently it was every where, laid upon the shoulders of some of the most intimate friends of the deceased: though there have generally been some particular bearers appointed for this office, who were called by the Greeks Κοπιῶντες, or Κοπιαταὶ, and vespillones by the Latins, for the reasons before named. The body being in a readiness, and moving towards the church, the chief mourners first, and then all the company follow it in order, intimating that all of them must shortly follow their deceased friend in the same path of death.

§. 4. Rosemary, why given at funerals. But to express their hopes that their friend is not lost for ever, each person in the company usually bears in his hand a sprig of rosemary: a custom which seems to have taken its rise from a practice among the heathens, of a quite different import. For they having no thoughts of a future resurrection, but believing that the bodies of those that were dead would for ever lie in the grave, made use of cypress at their funerals, which is a tree that being once cut never revives, but dies away. But Christians, on the other side, having better hopes, and knowing that this very body of their friend, which they are nowgoing solemnly to commit to the grave, shall one day rise again, and be reunited to his soul, instead of cypress, distribute rosemary to the company, which (being always green, and flourishing the more for being cropt, and of which a sprig only being set in the ground will sprout up immediately, and branch into a tree) is more proper to express this confidence and trust; a custom not unlike that practised by the Jews, who, as they went with a corpse to the grave, plucked up every one a handful of grass, to denote that their brother was but so cropt off, and should again spring up in his proper season.

§. 5. The Priest and Clerks to meet the corpse at the entrance of the churchyard. The corpse having been brought in this manner or procession to the entrance of the churchyard, or to the church-stile, (as it was expressed in king Edward’s first book,) the Priest in his surplice, and the Clerks, of whom I have spoken before, are ordered by the rubric there to meet it; so that the attendance of the Minister at the house of the deceased, and his accompanying it all the way from thence, is a mere voluntary respect, which he is at liberty to pay or refuse as he pleases. For, as it was expressed in the Injunctions of king Edward VI, Forasmuch as Priests be public Ministers of the Churchy and upon the holy-days ought to apply themselves to the common administration of the whole parish; they are not bound to go to women lying in child-bed, except in time of dangerous sickness, and not to fetch any corpse before it be brought to the churchyard, And so by our present canons, the corpse must be brought to the church or churchyard, and convenient warning too must be given the Minister beforehand, or else there is no penalty lies upon him for either delaying or refusing to bury it.

§. 6. And to go before it to the church or grave. But the corpse being capable of Christian burial, and having been brought in due form, and after due notice given, to the entrance of the churchyard: there the Minister must meet it, and, as the present rubric further directs, go before it either into the church or towards the grave; i.e. (if I rightly understand the words) if the corpse be to be buried within the church, he shall go directly thither; but if in the churchyard, he may first go to the grave: for now, according to the general custom, every one is at liberty to be buried in which he pleases.

In what places the dead were used to be buried. And indeed all nations whatsoever, Jews, Heathens, and Christians, have ever had solemn places set apart for this use; but in permitting their dead to be buried either in or near their places of worship, the Christians differ from both the former. For the Jews being forbid to touch or come near any dead body, and it being declared that they who did so were defiled, had always their sepulchres without the city: and from them it is probable the Greeks and Romans derived, not only the notion of being polluted by a dead corpse, but the law also of burying without the walls. For this reason the Christians, so long as the law was in force throughout the Roman empire, were obliged, in compliance with it, to bury their dead without the gates of the city: a custom which prevailed here in England till about the middle of the eighth century, when archbishop Cuthbert of Canterbury obtained a dispensation from the pope for making churchyards within the walls. However, that the Christians did not do this out of any belief that the body of a dead Christian defiled the place or persons near it, may be inferred from their consecrating their old places of burial into places of divine worship, and by building their churches, as soon as they had liberty, over some or other of the martyrs’ graves. After churches were built, indeed, they suffered no body to be buried in them; but had distinct places contiguous to them appropriated to this use, which, from the metaphor of sleep, by which death in Scripture is often described, were called κοιμητήρια, i.e. cemeteries, or sleeping-places. The first that we read of, as buried any where else, was Constantine the Great, to whom it was indulged, as a singular honour, to be buried in the church-porch. Nor were any of the Eastern emperors, for several centuries afterwards, admitted to be buried any nearer to the church; for several canons had been made against allowing of this to any person, of what dignity soever: and even in our own Church we find, that in the end of the seventh century, an archbishop of Canterbury had not been buried within the church, hut that the porch was full with six of his predecessors that had been buried there before. By a canon made in king Edgar’s reign, about the middle of the tenth century, “no man was allowed to be buried in the church, unless it were known that he had so pleased God in his lifetime, as to be worthy of such a burying-place;” though above a hundred years afterwards we meet with another canon, made at a council at Winchester, that seems again to prohibit all corpses whatsoever, without any exception, from being buried in churches. But in later times, every one, that could pay for the honour, has been generally allowed it; but since all cannot purchase it, nor the churches contain all, there is a necessity of providing some other conveniences for this use. And this has generally been done, as I observed before, by enclosing some of the ground round the church, for a burying-place, or churchyard; that so, as the faithful are going to the house of prayer, they may be brought to a fit temper and disposition of mind, by a prospect of the graves and monuments of their friends; nothing being more apt to raise our devotion, than serious thoughts upon death and mortality. I need not say now whether the church or churchyard be the most ancient and proper place for burial; nor have I any thing left to say further on this head, than that in whichever the grave is, the Priest is to go before, and to lead the company thither, and to conduct, and introduce, as it were, the corpse of the deceased into its house of rest.

Here is to be noted, that the Office ensuing is not to be used for any that die unbaptized, or excommunicate, or have laid violent hands upon themselves.

The Sentences

THe Priest meeting the Corps at the Church stile, shall go before it to the grave, saying or singing, I am the resurrection and the life. This, in triumph over death, O death where is thy sting? O grave where is thy victory? thou mayest a while hold the corps, but he that is the resurrection and the life, will make the dead man live again. Therefore thanks be to God, who gives this victory through Iesus Christ our Lord.

Much after this sort did the Ancients, Hieron. ep. 30. ad Ocean. de Fabiola. Chrys. Hom. 4. in Hebr. Quid sibi volunt istae lampades tam splendidae? nonne ficut athlet as mortuos comitamur? quid etiam hymni? nonne ut Deum glorificemus, quod jam coronavit discedentem, quod à laboribus liberavis, quod liberatum à timore apud se habeat? "What mean the bright burning torches? do we not follow the dead like Champions? what mean the Hymns? do we not thereby glorifie God, for that he hath crowned our departed brother, that he hath freed him from labours, that he hath him with himself, freed from fear? All these are expressions of joy, whereby we do in a holy valour laugh at death," saith Chrys. there. And this is Christian-like, whereas if we be sad and dejected as men without hope, mortem Christi, qua mors superata est, Calumniamur; [we disgrace the death of Christ, that hath conquered death: and Heathens and Atheists will deride us, saying, how can these contemn death, that cannot patiently behold a dead friend? talk what you will of the Resurrection, when you are out of passion, it is no great matter, nor perswades much; but shew me a man in passion of grief for the loss of his friend, playing the Philosopher, and triumphantly singing to God for his happy deliverance, and I will believe the Resurrection. Of so good use are such triumphant hymns at this time: and of this sort are the three first.

X. The priest meeting the corpse.] The rites of funeral exportation appear in antiquity so various as it is not easy by literal interpretation to determine of them that they are not contradictory. By the fourth council of Carthage it was decreed, ut mortuos ecclesie penitentes efferant et sepeliant, “that the penitents which were under excommunication should carry the bodies of Christians to the burial.” Where Epiphanius lived, others were peculiarly designed for this office, these were called κοπιάται, οἱ Ta σώματα περιστέλλονTes TOV κοιμωμένων, “ whose care was conversant about the disposal of dead bodies.” Whether voluntary charity inclined these copiates to this office, or whether they were hirelings and mercenary, I cannot determine; the labour they underwent maketh me suspect them servile, and of the lowest row. On the contrary, Nazianzen>, speaking of St. Basil’s funeral, saith, προεκομίζετο ὁ ἅγιος χερσίν ἁγίων ὑψούμενος, i.e. “his body was taken up and carried by the saints.” Which saints may very well be esteemed the eminentest of Christians, especially when this St. Gregory’s scholar, St. Jerome, tells us that his famous Paula was éranslata episcoporum manibus, et cervicem feretro subjicientibus, “carried by the bishops supporting the bier with their hands and shoulders. Whereby the office was not it seems so servile, nor of such disparagement as the first authorities would pretend to render it.

To bring these ends nearer together, and yet not to depreciate and undervalue the credit of the witnesses, I conceive the best way is to yield up all for true, and that the bishops and eminent persons did assume this office only at the first egress from the house, and also at the last ingress into the church; and that the great toil and drudgery between both was undergone by penitents, as part of their canonical penance, or by the copiate, who therefore gained the name of labourers, because they contracted a lassitude by bearing the corpse to church. But by these, all, or which you will, the corpse went ὕμνοις ἐξ ὕμνων παραπεμπόμενος, “in state with psalmodies one after another.” Ti of ὕμνοι; οὐχὶ τὸν θεὸν δοξάζομεν, καὶ εὐχαριστοῦμεν ὅτι λοιπὸν ἐστεφάνωσε τὸν ἀπελθόντα ; “ what’s the matter, what means this singing of psalms?” expostulateth St. Chrysostom, and then makes answer, “do we not praise and glorify God, because, at length, He hath given the deceased a crown of glory?” The body being in this solemn pomp brought to the church, was placed in media ecclesia‘, “in the midst of the church ;” over which, before interment, there was usually made, in praise of the dead, a funeral oration, and sometimes more than one. For as I said before of sermons upon other occasions, so at funeral solemnities, orations were performed by many, the first, at the end of his harangue or speech, usually raising up another. So St. Basil in his upon St. Barlaam ; te παιδικοῖς ἐλαττῶ τὸν ἀριστέα ψελλίσμασι;: ταῖς μεγαλοπρεπεστέραις τὸν εἰς αὐτὸν ὕμνον παρωχωρήσωμεν γλώτταις, τὰς μεγαλοφωνοτέρας τῶν διδασκάλων ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ καλέσωμεν σαλπίγγας. ἀνάστητέ μοι νῦν, ὅτο.: “but why do I, by my childish stammering, disparage this triumphant martyr? Let me give way for more eloquent tongues to resound his praise; let me call up the louder trumpets of more famous doctors to set him forth. Arise, then, I say,” &c. And so Nazianzen bespeaketh St. Basil, being present at his father’s funeral, ἐπάφες THY σὴν φωνὴν, “strike up with thine own voice.”

The Sentences. SINCE the following a dear and beloved friend to the grave must naturally raise, in us some melancholy and concern, the Church calls in the aids of religion to raise and cheer our dejected hearts. It was with this design that pious antiquity carried out their dead with hymns of triumph, as conquerors that had gloriously finished their course, and were now going to receive their crown of victory. To this end again were those hallelujahs sung of old, as they went to the grave; a custom still retained in many parts of this nation, where they divert the grief of the friends and mourners by singing psalms from the house to the very entrance of the churchyard. And here the holy man comes forth to meet us, and immediately salutes us with the gospel of peace. And indeed whither should we go for consolations on this occasion, hut to that storehouse of comfort, which is furnished with remedies for every grief?

The Priest and Clerks meeting the Corpse at the entrance of the Church-yard, and going before it, either into the Church, or towards the Grave, shall say, or sing,

John 11:25-26 Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. Those who believe in me, even though they die, will live, and everyone who lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this?"

Y. I am the Resurrection.] Our solemn attending on the hearse of a deceased friend, the embalming of him with a funeral oration, the care to see him decently inhumed, and all other dues of exterior honour we pay to that noble clod, are but those civilities which ethnic philosophy hath dictated to her disciples. God certainly expects more from Christianity, than from infidelity ; He expecteth from Christians conformity to His own precepts, whereof this is one, wa μὴ λυπῆσθε, καθῶς καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ. Not iva μὴ λυπῆσθε, “that ye be not sorrowful at all, at the loss of your friends ;’” not so, the tears our blessed Saviour shed at the death of Lazarus, legitimate and warrant ours; but we must not be sorrowful, καθῶς of λοιποὶ, “as others are,” some Jews, as the Sadducees and all heathens: how that? of μὴ ἔχοντες ἐλπίδα, “that are without hope.” They give all for lost ; if some few dreamed of . I know not what Elysian fields for the soul, yet generally concerning the body they were of opinion with the tragedian, post mortem nihil est; after death, nulla retrorsum, “no hope that ever the body should recover life,” and be re-united with the soul. So that upon such occasions hope is our Christian duty; our duty, I say, not our compliment, not what we may do, or leave undone, but what we must do. Now the proper object of this hope is the resurrection of the body, which followeth in the next verse, “them which sleep in Jesus, will God bring with Him.”

So then here is cause of great comfort as to the state of our departed friend: what though for the present, and an inconsiderable moment, his flesh shall rot and waste to dust, yet shall it rise again, and be restored to a state of glory; and as this meditation is of singular consolation in respect of the dead, so is it no less applied to the living. That spectacle of mortality presented to the eyes of the beholders, is lecture enough to assure them of their like change; and what must they do in the interim? The Apostle bids them hope ; for what? for temporal benefits and accommodations? for things of this life? No. “If in this life 1 Cor.15.13. only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.” Of the resurrection of their flesh unto glory and eternal life? This undoubtedly. So then funeral solemnities ought to excite in us hope, that is, a certain expectation of the general resurrection.

Nor will closet soliloquies, and private contemplation of that day, serve our turns; it is a sociable duty, for so the Apostle makes it, “ Comfort yourselves one another with these words.’ What words? With discourses concerning the resurrection. (The premised context certainly implieth as much) as if he should say, that they who are laid into the earth, and nothing said at their interment, declaring the mystery of the resurrection, let their bodies be never so decently treated, human they may, Christian burial they cannot have. From all this which hath been said, the excellency of our Church her burial office, and the true conformity it beareth to canonical Scripture, will evidently appear. Of the whole service three parts of four are nothing else but pure canonical Scripture, the choicest parcels thereof being collected thence to declare the doctrine of the resurrection, agreeable to the primitive practice: οἱ λειτουργοὶ τὰς ἐν τοῖς θείοις λογίοις ἐμφερομένας ἀψευδεῖς ἐπαγγελίας περὶ τῆς ἱερᾶς ἡμῶν ἀναστάσεως ἀναγνόντες, ἱερῶς ἄδουσι τὰς ὁμολόγους καὶ ταὐτοδυνάμους τῶν ψαλμικῶν λογίων woasi: “the ministers reading those undoubted promises which are exhibited in sacred Scripture concerning our holy resurrection, next devoutly sung such of the sacred psalms as were of the same subject and argument.” For the rest, the praying part; what is it but the application of that doctrine to the benefit of the living, and a desire that they with all the faithful departed, may at that day “ have perfect consummation and bliss both in body and soul?”

He begins with the words which were spoken at first by the blessed JESUS, as he was going towards the grave of a beloved friend, with intent to comfort a pious mourner; words so proper to the occasion, that they have been used in the Burial-office of almost all Churches whatever. Poor Martha’s affection and sorrow for her brother had almost swallowed up her faith in Jesus, and it is not unusual for the same passions still to prevail to the same excessive degree: hut our Lord here comforts both her and us, by reminding us of his omnipotence, and absolute power to raise the dead, and restore them to life, as well in a natural as a spiritual sense. If then we can recover but the exercise of our faith, we shall be much more at ease; as remembering that the soul of our deceased friend, though parted from his body, is still alive, and that even his corpse, which we follow, shall live again as soon as ever Christ shall call it.

Job 19:25-27 For I know that my Redeemer lives, and that at the last he will stand upon the earth; and after my skin has been thus destroyed, then in my flesh I shall see God, whom I shall see on my side, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. My heart faints within me!
As a noble example of the exercise of that with, which the foregoing sentence was designed to raise in us, Job is proposed to us in this that follows. And surely if he, who lived among the Gentiles so long before the revelation of Christianity, could sustain his spirit with the hopes of a resurrection; it will be no small reproach to us, who have fuller and better assurances of it, to be slower in our belief of this article than he. The old translation of these verses in Job, (which was retained in our office till the last review, when from the Scotch Liturgy it was changed for the new one,) as it was more agreeable to the ancient versions and the sense of the Fathers, so was it more applicable to the present occasion. The words, as they stood then, ran as follow: I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that I shall rise out of the earth in the last day, and shall be covered again with my skin, and shall see God in my flesh; yea, and I myself shall behold him, not with other, but with these same eyes. Thus the Fathers read it, and accordingly explained it of a particular resurrection of this very body. And in this sense it is an admirable consolation to all that mourn for the loss of friends, viz. to believe with holy Job, that the same person we are now laying in the earth, there to crumble and moulder into dust, shall in due time, by the power of God, arise from his grave, and live again. We lose indeed the sight of him for a season, but we know that JESUS our Redeemer liveth, who will in due time raise us all from the dust, when both our friend and we shall all behold him, and even know and distinguish each other again with these very eyes.

1 Tim 6:7 for we brought nothing into the world, so that we can take nothing out of it;
Job 1:21 He said, "Naked I came from my mother's womb, and naked shall I return there; the Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord."

The next grace to be exercised at this time is patience, which, upon these occasions, is often violently assaulted by worldly considerations: for when we reflect on our own loss in being deprived of a friend; or descend lower, to reflect upon the comforts of the world which he hath left behind him, our passions are apt to overflow. But here a third sentence comes in to allay both these griefs. We have lost, perhaps, a tender, dear, and useful friend: but what then? we brought no friends with us into the world, nor can we carry them out from hence. They were given us by God, who can raise up others in their stead; and they are taken away by him, to wean our affections from any thing here. We should therefore rather bless the Giver for the time we have enjoyed them, than murmur at his taking them, after he has lent them us so long.

Again, as to our friend, it is true, he is going naked to the grave: but alas! he goes no otherwise than he came: for (saith the Wise Man) as he came forth of his mother’s womb, naked shall he return to go as he came, and shall take nothing of his labour, which he may carry away in his hand. He shall carry nothing away with him (saith the Psalmist) when he dieth, neither shall his pomp follow him. Whatever he had, or possessed here, was only useful to him so long as he stayed: where is the misfortune then, if, upon removing from hence, he leaves that behind him, which will be of no service to him in the place he is going to? Whilst he was engaged on this stage of the world, God furnished him with a habit suitable to the part which he expected him to perform: shall any of us therefore think it strange, that the actor is undressed when his part is done? In a word, let us consider ourselves tinder what character we please, there is still the same reason to join with the holy penmen in these noble reflections; We brought nothing into me world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out; the Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord.

The Psalmody

Psalms always used at Christian funerals. THOUGH joy, at the first glance, may seem unsuitable to a funeral solemnity; yet, upon due reflection, we shall be of another opinion. The wiser sort of heathens bury their dead with expressions of joy, lamenting themselves for staying behind, whilst their friend is gone to be immortalized above. And that hymns and psalms were always used upon the like occasions by the primitive Christians, is abundantly testified by the ancient writers. In the Greek Church the order is much the same as in ours, viz. that when they come into the church the body shall be set down in the lower end thereof , and then they shall begin the ninetieth psalm. This, together with the thirty-ninth, are what our own Church uses on this occasion; both which will appear, upon a little reflection, to be exactly agreeable to this solemnity.

After they are come into the Church, shall be read one or both of these Psalms following.

Psalm 39

The thirty-ninth Psalm is supposed to have been composed by David, upon Joab’s reproaching him for his public grief for Absalom’s death; and is of use in this place, to direct and comfort those that mourn, to check all loud and unseemly complaints, and to turn them into prayers and devout meditations.

Psalm 39 I said, "I will guard my ways that I may not sin with my tongue; I will keep a muzzle on my mouth as long as the wicked are in my presence." I was silent and still; I held my peace to no avail; my distress grew worse, my heart became hot within me. While I mused, the fire burned; then I spoke with my tongue: "Lord, let me know my end, and what is the measure of my days; let me know how fleeting my life is. You have made my days a few handbreadths, and my lifetime is as nothing in your sight. Surely everyone stands as a mere breath.Selah Surely everyone goes about like a shadow. Surely for nothing they are in turmoil; they heap up, and do not know who will gather. "And now, O Lord, what do I wait for? My hope is in you. Deliver me from all my transgressions. Do not make me the scorn of the fool. I am silent; I do not open my mouth, for it is you who have done it. Remove your stroke from me; I am worn down by the blows of your hand. "You chastise mortals in punishment for sin, consuming like a moth what is dear to them; surely everyone is a mere breath.Selah "Hear my prayer, O Lord, and give ear to my cry; do not hold your peace at my tears. For I am your passing guest, an alien, like all my forebears. Turn your gaze away from me, that I may smile again, before I depart and am no more."
Is 6:3 And one called to another and said: "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory."
Matt 6:9 "Pray then in this way: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name.
Matt 28:19 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
Luke 2:14 "Glory to God in the highest heaven, and on earth peace among those whom he favors!"
Rom 16:27 to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever! Amen.
1 Cor 6:19-20 Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, which you have from God, and that you are not your own? For you were bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body.
2 Peter 3:18 But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.
Rev 15:4 Lord, who will not fear and glorify your name? For you alone are holy. All nations will come and worship before you, for your judgments have been revealed."
Ps 50:23 Those who bring thanksgiving as their sacrifice honor me; to those who go the right way I will show the salvation of God."
John 13:32 If God has been glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself and will glorify him at once.
John 17:1 After Jesus had spoken these words, he looked up to heaven and said, "Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son so that the Son may glorify you,
Rom 15:6 so that together you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Rev 5:13 Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, singing, "To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!"
Job 38:7 when the morning stars sang together and all the heavenly beings shouted for joy?
Ps 104:31 May the glory of the Lord endure forever; may the Lord rejoice in his works--
Ps 106:48 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. And let all the people say, "Amen." Praise the Lord!
Ps 145:4 One generation shall laud your works to another, and shall declare your mighty acts.
Is 66:23 From new moon to new moon, and from sabbath to sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before me, says the Lord.
Eph 3:21 to him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations, forever and ever. Amen.
Matt 16:18 And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it.
Rev 4:8 And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and inside. Day and night without ceasing they sing, "Holy, holy, holy, the Lord God the Almighty, who was and is and is to come."

Psalm 90

The other was composed by Moses in the wilderness, upon the death of that vast multitude, who, for their murmuring and infidelity, were sentenced to leave their carcasses in the wilderness; and who accordingly wasted by little and little before they came into the land of Canaan. Upon this the prophet breaks forth into these religious meditations, not accusing the divine providence, but applying all to the best advantage; shewing us withal what thoughts we should entertain, when we have the prospect of a funeral before our eyes; viz. that we should reflect upon, and consider our own lot, and endeavour to apply the instance of mortality now before us, to the bettering and improving of our own condition.

In the first book of king Edward, instead of the Psalms of which we have now been speaking, there were three others appointed, viz. the 115th, the 139th, and 146th. And when they were left out at the next review, there were no other whatever ordered in the room of them, till these were inserted at king Charles’s restoration.

Psalm 90 Lord, you have been our dwelling place in all generations. Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever you had formed the earth and the world, from everlasting to everlasting you are God. You turn us back to dust, and say, "Turn back, you mortals." For a thousand years in your sight are like yesterday when it is past, or like a watch in the night. You sweep them away; they are like a dream, like grass that is renewed in the morning; in the morning it flourishes and is renewed; in the evening it fades and withers. For we are consumed by your anger; by your wrath we are overwhelmed. You have set our iniquities before you, our secret sins in the light of your countenance. For all our days pass away under your wrath; our years come to an end like a sigh. The days of our life are seventy years, or perhaps eighty, if we are strong; even then their span is only toil and trouble; they are soon gone, and we fly away. Who considers the power of your anger? Your wrath is as great as the fear that is due you. So teach us to count our days that we may gain a wise heart. Turn, O Lord! How long? Have compassion on your servants! Satisfy us in the morning with your steadfast love, so that we may rejoice and be glad all our days. Make us glad as many days as you have afflicted us, and as many years as we have seen evil. Let your work be manifest to your servants, and your glorious power to their children. Let the favor of the Lord our God be upon us, and prosper for us the work of our hands-- O prosper the work of our hands!
Is 6:3 And one called to another and said: "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory."
Matt 6:9 "Pray then in this way: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name.
Matt 28:19 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
Luke 2:14 "Glory to God in the highest heaven, and on earth peace among those whom he favors!"
Rom 16:27 to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever! Amen.
1 Cor 6:19-20 Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, which you have from God, and that you are not your own? For you were bought with a price; therefore glorify God in your body.
2 Peter 3:18 But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.
Rev 15:4 Lord, who will not fear and glorify your name? For you alone are holy. All nations will come and worship before you, for your judgments have been revealed."
Ps 50:23 Those who bring thanksgiving as their sacrifice honor me; to those who go the right way I will show the salvation of God."
John 13:32 If God has been glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself and will glorify him at once.
John 17:1 After Jesus had spoken these words, he looked up to heaven and said, "Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son so that the Son may glorify you,
Rom 15:6 so that together you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Rev 5:13 Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, singing, "To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!"
Job 38:7 when the morning stars sang together and all the heavenly beings shouted for joy?
Ps 104:31 May the glory of the Lord endure forever; may the Lord rejoice in his works--
Ps 106:48 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. And let all the people say, "Amen." Praise the Lord!
Ps 145:4 One generation shall laud your works to another, and shall declare your mighty acts.
Is 66:23 From new moon to new moon, and from sabbath to sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before me, says the Lord.
Eph 3:21 to him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations, forever and ever. Amen.
Matt 16:18 And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it.
Rev 4:8 And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and inside. Day and night without ceasing they sing, "Holy, holy, holy, the Lord God the Almighty, who was and is and is to come."

The Epistle

II. The Lesson. After the Psalms out of the Old Testament, follows the proper Lesson out of the New: for since the faith of the resurrection is not only the principal article of a Christian’s belief, but also the article which chiefly concerns us on this occasion, (as well to allay our sorrow for the party deceased, as to prepare us freely to follow him when God shall call us;) therefore the Church has chosen here the fullest account of the resurrection of the dead that the whole Scripture affords; that article being here so strongly proved, so plainly described, and so pertinently applied, that nothing could have been more suitable to the present purpose; for which reason we find it has always been used in this office of the Church.


§.3. The Psalms and Lesson, whether ever to be omitted. By the first Common Prayer, both the Psalms and Lesson, with the suffrages above mentioned, were to be said in the church either before or after the burial of the corpse. But from that time to the restoration of king Charles, the Lesson (for I have observed during all that time there were no Psalms) was appointed to be read wherever the grave was, whether in the church, or churchyard, immediately after the sentence taken out of the Revelation. But the Presbyterians objecting that this exposed both Minister and people to many inconveniences, by standing in the air, there was a rubric added at the last review, which orders, that the Psalms and Lesson shall be said after they care come into the church: so that now, I suppose, it is again left to the Minister’s discretion (as it was in the rubric of the first book of king Edward) whether he will read them before or after the burial of the corpse. For the second rubric at the beginning of the office permits him to go to the church or to the grave, i.e. to either of them directly, which he pleases: nor is there any further direction, that if he goes into the church, it shall be before he goes to the grave: but only that after they are come into the church, one or both of the Psalms shall be read with the Lesson that follows; and when they come to the grave, the rest of the devotions that are to be used.

I know some are of opinion, that the design of the rubrics, as they are worded now, is to give liberty to the Minister to go immediately to the grave, and so wholly to omit the Lesson and Psalms: but if that were the design of them» one would have expected some hint that they might be omitted; whereas the expression in the rubric, after they are come into the church, seems to suppose that either first or last they will come thither. I am therefore rather inclined to think, that the meaning of leaving the ruhric so dubious is, that if the Minister go directly into the church, the grave being there, he should use the Psalms and Lesson before the burial: but if the grave be without the church, he may first go thither to bury the corpse, and then afterwards, to prevent any inconveniency from the air, proceed to the church itself, to read the Psalms and Lesson, according to the rubric in the first Common Prayer. For I do not know any instance in the whole Liturgy besides, where the Minister is at liberty to leave out so considerable a part of an office, when it is so proper to be used. But I only give this as my private opinion: for I know it belongs to a much higher authority to appease diversity, and to resolve doubts concerning the manner how to understand, do, and execute the things contained in this book.

Then shall follow the Lesson taken out of the fifteenth Chapter of the former Epistle of Saint Paul to the Corinthians.

1 Corinthians 15:20-58 But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have died. For since death came through a human being, the resurrection of the dead has also come through a human being; for as all die in Adam, so all will be made alive in Christ. But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then at his coming those who belong to Christ. Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, after he has destroyed every ruler and every authority and power. For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. The last enemy to be destroyed is death. For "God has put all things in subjection under his feet." But when it says, "All things are put in subjection," it is plain that this does not include the one who put all things in subjection under him. When all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will also be subjected to the one who put all things in subjection under him, so that God may be all in all. Otherwise, what will those people do who receive baptism on behalf of the dead? If the dead are not raised at all, why are people baptized on their behalf? And why are we putting ourselves in danger every hour? I die every day! That is as certain, brothers and sisters, as my boasting of you--a boast that I make in Christ Jesus our Lord. If with merely human hopes I fought with wild animals at Ephesus, what would I have gained by it? If the dead are not raised, "Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die." Do not be deceived: "Bad company ruins good morals." Come to a sober and right mind, and sin no more; for some people have no knowledge of God. I say this to your shame. But someone will ask, "How are the dead raised? With what kind of body do they come?" Fool! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. And as for what you sow, you do not sow the body that is to be, but a bare seed, perhaps of wheat or of some other grain. But God gives it a body as he has chosen, and to each kind of seed its own body. Not all flesh is alike, but there is one flesh for human beings, another for animals, another for birds, and another for fish. There are both heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is one thing, and that of the earthly is another. There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; indeed, star differs from star in glory. So it is with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body. Thus it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a living being"; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. But it is not the spiritual that is first, but the physical, and then the spiritual. The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is from heaven. As was the man of dust, so are those who are of the dust; and as is the man of heaven, so are those who are of heaven. Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we will also bear the image of the man of heaven. What I am saying, brothers and sisters, is this: flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. Listen, I will tell you a mystery! We will not all die, but we will all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. For this perishable body must put on imperishability, and this mortal body must put on immortality. When this perishable body puts on imperishability, and this mortal body puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will be fulfilled: "Death has been swallowed up in victory." "Where, O death, is your victory? Where, O death, is your sting?" The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore, my beloved, be steadfast, immovable, always excelling in the work of the Lord, because you know that in the Lord your labor is not in vain.

The Burial

The Meditation at the Grave

When they come to the Grave, while the corps is made ready to be laid into the grave, the Priest shall say or sing, Man that is born of a Woman, &c.] closing with a most devout prayer for grace and assistence in our last hour; a prayer very suitable to such a time, and such a spectacle before us.

I. The meditation at the grave. WHEN the body is stript of all but its grave-attire, and is just going to be put into the ground, it is most like to make the deepest impression upon us, and to strike us with the most serious apprehensions of our mortality. This happy opportunity the Church is unwilling to lose; and therefore, whilst we are in such good dispositions of mind, she presents us with a noble strain of devotion, consisting of a meditation on the shortness,, and misery, and uncertainty of life, together with an acknowledgment of our dependence on Goa, whom yet we have disobliged and offended with our sins. However, we presume to fly to him for succour, and beg of him to preserve us from eternal death hereafter, and to support us under the pains of temporal death here.

When they come to the Grave, while the Corpse is made ready to be laid into the earth, the Priest shall say, or the Priest and Clerks shall sing:

Gen 47:9 Jacob said to Pharaoh, "The years of my earthly sojourn are one hundred thirty; few and hard have been the years of my life. They do not compare with the years of the life of my ancestors during their long sojourn."
1 Chron 29:15 For we are aliens and transients before you, as were all our ancestors; our days on the earth are like a shadow, and there is no hope.
Job 5:7 but human beings are born to trouble just as sparks fly upward.
Job 9:25-26 "My days are swifter than a runner; they flee away, they see no good. They go by like skiffs of reed, like an eagle swooping on the prey.
Job 14:1-2 "A mortal, born of woman, few of days and full of trouble, comes up like a flower and withers, flees like a shadow and does not last.
Ps 39:5 You have made my days a few handbreadths, and my lifetime is as nothing in your sight. Surely everyone stands as a mere breath.
Ps 90:5-7 You sweep them away; they are like a dream, like grass that is renewed in the morning; in the morning it flourishes and is renewed; in the evening it fades and withers. For we are consumed by your anger; by your wrath we are overwhelmed.
Ps 90:10 The days of our life are seventy years, or perhaps eighty, if we are strong; even then their span is only toil and trouble; they are soon gone, and we fly away.
Ps 103:15-16 As for mortals, their days are like grass; they flourish like a flower of the field; for the wind passes over it, and it is gone, and its place knows it no more.
Is 40:5-8 Then the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all people shall see it together, for the mouth of the Lord has spoken." A voice says, "Cry out!" And I said, "What shall I cry?" All people are grass, their constancy is like the flower of the field. The grass withers, the flower fades, when the breath of the Lord blows upon it; surely the people are grass. The grass withers, the flower fades; but the word of our God will stand forever.
Jam 1:10-11 and the rich in being brought low, because the rich will disappear like a flower in the field. For the sun rises with its scorching heat and withers the field; its flower falls, and its beauty perishes. It is the same way with the rich; in the midst of a busy life, they will wither away.
1 Pet 1:24 For "All flesh is like grass and all its glory like the flower of grass. The grass withers, and the flower falls,
1 Sam 20:3 But David also swore, "Your father knows well that you like me; and he thinks, 'Do not let Jonathan know this, or he will be grieved.' But truly, as the Lord lives and as you yourself live, there is but a step between me and death."
2 Kings 20:1 In those days Hezekiah became sick and was at the point of death. The prophet Isaiah son of Amoz came to him, and said to him, "Thus says the Lord: Set your house in order, for you shall die; you shall not recover."
Ps 7:11 God is a righteous judge, and a God who has indignation every day.
Ps 18:31 For who is God except the Lord? And who is a rock besides our God?--
Ps 41:4 As for me, I said, "O Lord, be gracious to me; heal me, for I have sinned against you."
Ps 46:1 God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.
Ps 60:1 O God, you have rejected us, broken our defenses; you have been angry; now restore us!
Ps 90:8 You have set our iniquities before you, our secret sins in the light of your countenance.
Ps 90:11 Who considers the power of your anger? Your wrath is as great as the fear that is due you.
Prov 27:1 Do not boast about tomorrow, for you do not know what a day may bring.
Is 43:25 I, I am He who blots out your transgressions for my own sake, and I will not remember your sins.
Is 45:22 Turn to me and be saved, all the ends of the earth! For I am God, and there is no other.
Jer 16:19 O Lord, my strength and my stronghold, my refuge in the day of trouble, to you shall the nations come from the ends of the earth and say: Our ancestors have inherited nothing but lies, worthless things in which there is no profit.
Jer 17:11 Like the partridge hatching what it did not lay, so are all who amass wealth unjustly; in mid-life it will leave them, and at their end they will prove to be fools.
John 6:68 Simon Peter answered him, "Lord, to whom can we go? You have the words of eternal life.
Rom 3:23 since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God;
2 Cor 1:9 Indeed, we felt that we had received the sentence of death so that we would rely not on ourselves but on God who raises the dead.
Jam 4:14 Yet you do not even know what tomorrow will bring. What is your life? For you are a mist that appears for a little while and then vanishes.
Ex 15:11 "Who is like you, O Lord, among the gods? Who is like you, majestic in holiness, awesome in splendor, doing wonders?
1 Sam 2:2 "There is no Holy One like the Lord, no one besides you; there is no Rock like our God.
Neh 9:17 they refused to obey, and were not mindful of the wonders that you performed among them; but they stiffened their necks and determined to return to their slavery in Egypt. But you are a God ready to forgive, gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and you did not forsake them.
Neh 9:31 Nevertheless, in your great mercies you did not make an end of them or forsake them, for you are a gracious and merciful God.
Ps 26:9 Do not sweep me away with sinners, nor my life with the bloodthirsty,
Ps 89:6 For who in the skies can be compared to the Lord? Who among the heavenly beings is like the Lord,
Ps 89:8 O Lord God of hosts, who is as mighty as you, O Lord? Your faithfulness surrounds you.
Is 33:14 The sinners in Zion are afraid; trembling has seized the godless: "Who among us can live with the devouring fire? Who among us can live with everlasting flames?"
Is 60:16 You shall suck the milk of nations, you shall suck the breasts of kings; and you shall know that I, the Lord, am your Savior and your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.
Jer 14:8-9 O hope of Israel, its savior in time of trouble, why should you be like a stranger in the land, like a traveler turning aside for the night? Why should you be like someone confused, like a mighty warrior who cannot give help? Yet you, O Lord, are in the midst of us, and we are called by your name; do not forsake us!
Zep 3:17 The Lord, your God, is in your midst, a warrior who gives victory; he will rejoice over you with gladness, he will renew you in his love; he will exult over you with loud singing
Matt 6:13 And do not bring us to the time of trial, but rescue us from the evil one.
Matt 25:46 And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life."
Heb 2:14-15 Since, therefore, the children share flesh and blood, he himself likewise shared the same things, so that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and free those who all their lives were held in slavery by the fear of death.
2 Pet 2:9 then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trial, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment
Rev 2:11 Let anyone who has an ear listen to what the Spirit is saying to the churches. Whoever conquers will not be harmed by the second death.
Jam 5:11 Indeed we call blessed those who showed endurance. You have heard of the endurance of Job, and you have seen the purpose of the Lord, how the Lord is compassionate and merciful.
2 Kings 19:16 Incline your ear, O Lord, and hear; open your eyes, O Lord, and see; hear the words of Sennacherib, which he has sent to mock the living God.
Ps 22:3 Yet you are holy, enthroned on the praises of Israel.
Ps 23:4 Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I fear no evil; for you are with me; your rod and your staff-- they comfort me.
Ps 30:10 Hear, O Lord, and be gracious to me! O Lord, be my helper!"
Ps 38:9 O Lord, all my longing is known to you; my sighing is not hidden from you.
Ps 50:1 The mighty one, God the Lord, speaks and summons the earth from the rising of the sun to its setting.
Ps 93:5 Your decrees are very sure; holiness befits your house, O Lord, forevermore.
Ps 116:3-4 The snares of death encompassed me; the pangs of Sheol laid hold on me; I suffered distress and anguish. Then I called on the name of the Lord: "O Lord, I pray, save my life!"
Ps 130:2 Lord, hear my voice! Let your ears be attentive to the voice of my supplications!
Is 43:1-3 But now thus says the Lord, he who created you, O Jacob, he who formed you, O Israel: Do not fear, for I have redeemed you; I have called you by name, you are mine. When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and through the rivers, they shall not overwhelm you; when you walk through fire you shall not be burned, and the flame shall not consume you. For I am the Lord your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Savior. I give Egypt as your ransom, Ethiopia and Seba in exchange for you.
Joel 2:17 Between the vestibule and the altar let the priests, the ministers of the Lord, weep. Let them say, "Spare your people, O Lord, and do not make your heritage a mockery, a byword among the nations. Why should it be said among the peoples, 'Where is their God?'"
Mal 3:17 They shall be mine, says the Lord of hosts, my special possession on the day when I act, and I will spare them as parents spare their children who serve them.
Acts 3:14 But you rejected the Holy and Righteous One and asked to have a murderer given to you,
Acts 7:59-60 While they were stoning Stephen, he prayed, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit." Then he knelt down and cried out in a loud voice, "Lord, do not hold this sin against them." When he had said this, he died.
Acts 10:42 He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that he is the one ordained by God as judge of the living and the dead.
1 Tim 4:10 For to this end we toil and struggle, because we have our hope set on the living God, who is the Savior of all people, especially of those who believe.
Heb 2:17 Therefore he had to become like his brothers and sisters in every respect, so that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make a sacrifice of atonement for the sins of the people.
Heb 4:13 And before him no creature is hidden, but all are naked and laid bare to the eyes of the one to whom we must render an account.
1 Pet 3:12 For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears are open to their prayer. But the face of the Lord is against those who do evil."
Rev 4:11 "You are worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and by your will they existed and were created."
Luke 16:15 So he said to them, "You are those who justify yourselves in the sight of others; but God knows your hearts; for what is prized by human beings is an abomination in the sight of God.
1 Cor 10:13 No testing has overtaken you that is not common to everyone. God is faithful, and he will not let you be tested beyond your strength, but with the testing he will also provide the way out so that you may be able to endure it.

The Interment

Then they commit the body to the earth (not as a lost and perislied carkass, but as having in it a seed of eternity) in sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal life. This is to bury it Christianly; the hope of the resurrection, being the proper hope of Christians. Such was the Christians burial of old, that it was accounted both an evident argument and presage of the resurrection; and an honour done to that body, which the Holy Ghost had once made his Temple for the Offices of piety. Aug. de Civit. l. 1. c. 13.

II. The taking leave of the body. Next after this follows the solemn interment: immediately before which the Gentiles took their leave of their deceased friends, by bidding them Farewell for ever. And the ancient Christians used to give a parting kiss of charity, just as the body was about to he put into the grave, to declare their affection, and evidence that he died in the unity and peace of the Church, a custom still retained in the Greek Church, and in some of the northern parts of England.

§. 2. The position of the corpse in the grave. As for the posture or position of the corpse in the grave, it hath been always a custom to bury them with their feet eastward, and their face upwards, that so at the resurrection they may be ready to meet Christ, who is expected from the east, and that they may be in a posture of prayer as soon as they are raised.

§. 3. The throwing earth upon the body. Casting earth upon the body was esteemed an act of piety by the very heathens; insomuch that to find a body unburied, and leave it uncovered, was judged amongst them a great crime. In the Greek Church this has been accounted so essential to the solemnity, that it is ordered to be done by the Priest himself. And the same was enjoined by our own rubric in the first Common Prayer of king Edward VI. But in our present Liturgy it is only ordered that it shall be cast upon the body by some standing by: and so it is generally left to one of the bearers, or sexton, who, according to Horace’s description, gives three casts of earth upon the body or coffin, whilst the Priest pronounces the solemn form which explains the ceremony, viz. Earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust.

§. 4. The form of words. And indeed the whole form of words, which the Priest is to use whilst the ceremony is performed, is very pertinent and significant.* The phrase of committed his body to the ground, implies, that we deliver it into safe custody, and into such hands as will faithfully restore it again. We do not cast it away as a lost and perished carcass; but carefully lay it in the ground, as having in it a seed of eternity, and in sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal life: not that we believe that every one we bury shall rise again to joy and felicity, or profess this sure and certain hope of the resurrection of the person that is now interred. It is not his resurrection, but HIS resurrection, that is here expressed; nor do we go on to mention the change of his body, in the singular number, but of our vile body, which comprehends the bodies of Christians in general. That this is the sense and meaning of the words, may be shewn from the other parallel form which the Church has appointed to be used at the burial of the dead at sea,* And this being a principal article of our faith, it is highly reasonable that we should publicly acknowledge and declare our steadfastness in it, when we lay the body of any Christian in the grave.

Then, while the earth shall be cast upon the Body by some standing by, the Priest shall say,

Gen 3:19 By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; you are dust, and to dust you shall return."
Ex 9:16 But this is why I have let you live: to show you my power, and to make my name resound through all the earth.
1 Sam 2:6 The Lord kills and brings to life; he brings down to Sheol and raises up.
1 Kings 14:11-13 Anyone belonging to Jeroboam who dies in the city, the dogs shall eat; and anyone who dies in the open country, the birds of the air shall eat; for the Lord has spoken.' Therefore set out, go to your house. When your feet enter the city, the child shall die. All Israel shall mourn for him and bury him; for he alone of Jeroboam's family shall come to the grave, because in him there is found something pleasing to the Lord, the God of Israel, in the house of Jeroboam.
2 Kings 22:19-20 because your heart was penitent, and you humbled yourself before the Lord, when you heard how I spoke against this place, and against its inhabitants, that they should become a desolation and a curse, and because you have torn your clothes and wept before me, I also have heard you, says the Lord. Therefore, I will gather you to your ancestors, and you shall be gathered to your grave in peace; your eyes shall not see all the disaster that I will bring on this place." They took the message back to the king.
Job 3:11 "Why did I not die at birth, come forth from the womb and expire?
Job 3:13 Now I would be lying down and quiet; I would be asleep; then I would be at rest
Job 3:17 There the wicked cease from troubling, and there the weary are at rest.
Ps 104:29 When you hide your face, they are dismayed; when you take away their breath, they die and return to their dust.
Ecc 8:12-13 Though sinners do evil a hundred times and prolong their lives, yet I know that it will be well with those who fear God, because they stand in fear before him, but it will not be well with the wicked, neither will they prolong their days like a shadow, because they do not stand in fear before God.
Ecc 12:7 and the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the breath returns to God who gave it.
Is 57:1 The righteous perish, and no one takes it to heart; the devout are taken away, while no one understands. For the righteous are taken away from calamity,
Phil 1:23 I am hard pressed between the two: my desire is to depart and be with Christ, for that is far better;
Gen 18:27 Abraham answered, "Let me take it upon myself to speak to the Lord, I who am but dust and ashes.
Gen 23:2-6 And Sarah died at Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan; and Abraham went in to mourn for Sarah and to weep for her. Abraham rose up from beside his dead, and said to the Hittites, "I am a stranger and an alien residing among you; give me property among you for a burying place, so that I may bury my dead out of my sight." The Hittites answered Abraham, "Hear us, my lord; you are a mighty prince among us. Bury your dead in the choicest of our burial places; none of us will withhold from you any burial ground for burying your dead."
Gen 23:12-13 Then Abraham bowed down before the people of the land. He said to Ephron in the hearing of the people of the land, "If you only will listen to me! I will give the price of the field; accept it from me, so that I may bury my dead there."
Gen 23:19 After this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah facing Mamre (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan.
Ecc 3:20 All go to one place; all are from the dust, and all turn to dust again.
Ecc 12:7 and the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the breath returns to God who gave it.
Luke 23:52-53 This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then he took it down, wrapped it in a linen cloth, and laid it in a rock-hewn tomb where no one had ever been laid.
1 Cor 15:47 The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is from heaven.
Dan 12:2 Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.
John 6:39-40 And this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me, but raise it up on the last day. This is indeed the will of my Father, that all who see the Son and believe in him may have eternal life; and I will raise them up on the last day."
John 11:25 Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. Those who believe in me, even though they die, will live,
Acts 24:15 I have a hope in God--a hope that they themselves also accept--that there will be a resurrection of both the righteous and the unrighteous.
1 Cor 15:21-22 For since death came through a human being, the resurrection of the dead has also come through a human being; for as all die in Adam, so all will be made alive in Christ.
1 Cor 15:52 in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed.
Phil 3:20-21 But our citizenship is in heaven, and it is from there that we are expecting a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ. He will transform the body of our humiliation that it may be conformed to the body of his glory, by the power that also enables him to make all things subject to himself.
1 John 3:2 Beloved, we are God's children now; what we will be has not yet been revealed. What we do know is this: when he is revealed, we will be like him, for we will see him as he is.

Z. In sure and certain hope of the resurrection.] These words have not, as some mistake, peculiar reference to the party deceased, but import the faith of the congregation, then present, in the article of the resurrection, and that their own bodies shall rise again to eternal life, as is evident by the words, “shall change our vile bodies,” where the plural excludes the restraint to a singular number.

The Consolatory Sentence

Then shall be said or sung,

Rev 14:13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying, "Write this: Blessed are the dead who from now on die in the Lord." "Yes," says the Spirit, "they will rest from their labors, for their deeds follow them."

III. The Sentence out of the Revelation. After the foregoing form follows a consolatory sentence from Rev. 14:3, to be said by the Priest alone, or to be sung by him and the Clerks together. The propriety of it to the present solemnity occasioned its being used in the Western Church many centuries ago. It is a special revelation that was made to St. John, and ordered to be recorded forever by him, to be a perpetual consolation in relation to the state of departed saints. For since JESUS hath now conquered death, from henceforth blessed are the dead which die in the Lord. They are no more, to be lamented, but to be the subjects of our joy. The Spirit assures us that they rest from their labours, their work is done, their warfare accomplished, and now they enjoy crowns of victory as the rewards of their pains.

Kyrie eleison

Ps 6:2 Be gracious to me, O Lord, for I am languishing; O Lord, heal me, for my bones are shaking with terror.
Ps 123:3 Have mercy upon us, O Lord, have mercy upon us, for we have had more than enough of contempt.
Luke 17:13 they called out, saying, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us!"

The Lord's Prayer

IV. The Lord's Prayer. But though the deceased rest from their labours, yet we are in the midst of ours: and therefore in the next place we proceed to pray for our own salvation, and the consummation of our own happiness, beginning first (as in most other offices) with the lesser Litany and Lord’s Prayer.

Luke 11:2-4 He was praying in a certain place, and after he had finished, one of his disciples said to him, “Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.” He said to them, “When you pray, say: Father, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come. Give us each day our daily bread. And forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone indebted to us. And do not bring us to the time of trial.”

The Prayers

After follows another Triumphant Hymn. Then a Lesson out of S. PAVL to the same purpose; Then a Thanksgiving for that our brothers safe delivery out of misery; Lastly a Prayer for his and our consummation in Glory, and joyful Absolution at the last day. By all which prayers, praises, and holy Lessons, and decent solemnities, we do glorifie God, honour the dead, and comfort the living.

Take away these prayers, praises and holy lessons, which were ordained to shew at Burials, the peculiar hope of the Church of the Resurrection of the dead, and in the manner of the dumb funerals, what one thing is there, whereby the world may perceive that we are Christians? HOOKER l. 5. Eccl. pol. §. 75. There being in those dumb shews nothing but what heathens and pagans do, How can any unlearned or unbeliever be convinced by them, that either we who are present at them do, or that he ought to believe any part of Christian Religion? but when the unlearned or unbeliever hears us sing triumphant songs to God for our victory over death, when he hears holy Lessons and discourses of the Resurrection, when he hears us pray for a happy and joyful Resurrection to Glory: by all these he must be convinced, that we do believe the Resurrection, which is a principal Article of Christian faith, and the same may be the means to convince him also, and make him believe the same, and so fall down and worship God. And this is according to S. Paul's rule, 1 Cor. 14. 23, 24, 25. who thence concludes, that all our publick religious services ought to be done, that the unlearned or unbeliever may be convinced, and brought to worship God.

The two prayers. After this follow two other Prayers; in each of which there is such a noble mixture of acts of faith and hope concerning the state of our deceased friend, and of prayers and petitions for our happiness with him, as, being duly attended to, will effectually pacify that unnecessary erief, which is pernicious to ourselves without benefiting the deceased; and will turn our thoughts to a due care of our own souls, in order to our meeting again, with infinitely more joy, than we now part with sorrow and grief.

Ex 3:6 He said further, "I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God.
Ps 16:11 You show me the path of life. In your presence there is fullness of joy; in your right hand are pleasures forevermore.
Ps 17:15 As for me, I shall behold your face in righteousness; when I awake I shall be satisfied, beholding your likeness.
Ps 73:24 You guide me with your counsel, and afterward you will receive me with honor.
Ecc 12:7 and the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the breath returns to God who gave it.
Luke 16:22 The poor man died and was carried away by the angels to be with Abraham. The rich man also died and was buried.
Luke 20:38 Now he is God not of the dead, but of the living; for to him all of them are alive."
Luke 23:43 He replied, "Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise."
2 Cor 5:4 For while we are still in this tent, we groan under our burden, because we wish not to be unclothed but to be further clothed, so that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life.
Phil 1:23 I am hard pressed between the two: my desire is to depart and be with Christ, for that is far better;
Rev 14:13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying, "Write this: Blessed are the dead who from now on die in the Lord." "Yes," says the Spirit, "they will rest from their labors, for their deeds follow them."
1 Sam 3:18 So Samuel told him everything and hid nothing from him. Then he said, "It is the Lord; let him do what seems good to him."
2 Sam 12:19-23 But when David saw that his servants were whispering together, he perceived that the child was dead; and David said to his servants, "Is the child dead?" They said, "He is dead." Then David rose from the ground, washed, anointed himself, and changed his clothes. He went into the house of the Lord, and worshiped; he then went to his own house; and when he asked, they set food before him and he ate. Then his servants said to him, "What is this thing that you have done? You fasted and wept for the child while it was alive; but when the child died, you rose and ate food." He said, "While the child was still alive, I fasted and wept; for I said, 'Who knows? The Lord may be gracious to me, and the child may live.' But now he is dead; why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not return to me."
2 Kings 22:20 Therefore, I will gather you to your ancestors, and you shall be gathered to your grave in peace; your eyes shall not see all the disaster that I will bring on this place." They took the message back to the king.
Job 1:21 He said, "Naked I came from my mother's womb, and naked shall I return there; the Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord."
Job 5:7 but human beings are born to trouble just as sparks fly upward.
Ps 104:29 When you hide your face, they are dismayed; when you take away their breath, they die and return to their dust.
Is 57:1-2 The righteous perish, and no one takes it to heart; the devout are taken away, while no one understands. For the righteous are taken away from calamity, and they enter into peace; those who walk uprightly will rest on their couches.
John 16:33 I have said this to you, so that in me you may have peace. In the world you face persecution. But take courage; I have conquered the world!"
1 John 5:19 We know that we are God's children, and that the whole world lies under the power of the evil one.
Is 2:2-4 In days to come the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and shall be raised above the hills; all the nations shall stream to it. Many peoples shall come and say, "Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; that he may teach us his ways and that we may walk in his paths." For out of Zion shall go forth instruction, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. He shall judge between the nations, and shall arbitrate for many peoples; they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.
Is 53:11 Out of his anguish he shall see light; he shall find satisfaction through his knowledge. The righteous one, my servant, shall make many righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities.
Is 60:22 The least of them shall become a clan, and the smallest one a mighty nation; I am the Lord; in its time I will accomplish it quickly.
Dan 2:44 And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that shall never be destroyed, nor shall this kingdom be left to another people. It shall crush all these kingdoms and bring them to an end, and it shall stand forever;
Matt 6:10 Your kingdom come. Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.
Matt 13:41-42 The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will collect out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all evildoers, and they will throw them into the furnace of fire, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
Matt 13:49-50 So it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come out and separate the evil from the righteous and throw them into the furnace of fire, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
Matt 24:31 And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.
Rom 9:28 for the Lord will execute his sentence on the earth quickly and decisively."
Rev 6:9-11 When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slaughtered for the word of God and for the testimony they had given; they cried out with a loud voice, "Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long will it be before you judge and avenge our blood on the inhabitants of the earth?" They were each given a white robe and told to rest a little longer, until the number would be complete both of their fellow servants and of their brothers and sisters, who were soon to be killed as they themselves had been killed.
Rev 22:20 The one who testifies to these things says, "Surely I am coming soon." Amen. Come, Lord Jesus!
Dan 7:13-14 As I watched in the night visions, I saw one like a human being coming with the clouds of heaven. And he came to the Ancient One and was presented before him. To him was given dominion and glory and kingship, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that shall not pass away, and his kingship is one that shall never be destroyed.
John 17:24 Father, I desire that those also, whom you have given me, may be with me where I am, to see my glory, which you have given me because you loved me before the foundation of the world.
Phil 3:20-21 But our citizenship is in heaven, and it is from there that we are expecting a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ. He will transform the body of our humiliation that it may be conformed to the body of his glory, by the power that also enables him to make all things subject to himself.
1 Thess 4:17 Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up in the clouds together with them to meet the Lord in the air; and so we will be with the Lord forever.
2 Tim 4:8 From now on there is reserved for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will give me on that day, and not only to me but also to all who have longed for his appearing.
Heb 11:13 All of these died in faith without having received the promises, but from a distance they saw and greeted them. They confessed that they were strangers and foreigners on the earth,
Heb 11:39-40 Yet all these, though they were commended for their faith, did not receive what was promised, since God had provided something better so that they would not, apart from us, be made perfect.
1 John 3:2 Beloved, we are God's children now; what we will be has not yet been revealed. What we do know is this: when he is revealed, we will be like him, for we will see him as he is.
Rev 7:14-17 I said to him, "Sir, you are the one that knows." Then he said to me, "These are they who have come out of the great ordeal; they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. For this reason they are before the throne of God, and worship him day and night within his temple, and the one who is seated on the throne will shelter them. They will hunger no more, and thirst no more; the sun will not strike them, nor any scorching heat; for the Lamb at the center of the throne will be their shepherd, and he will guide them to springs of the water of life, and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes."
Rev 11:15 Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Messiah, and he will reign forever and ever."

The Collect

§.2. Hope of the party's salvation, how much it necessarily implies. Against the last of these prayers it is often objected that we make declaration of hope that all we bury are saved. In order to appease the scruples about which, as far as the nature of the expression will bear, we desire it may be considered, that there are very different degrees of hope, the lowest of which is but one remove from despair. Now there are but very few with whom we are concerned, that die in a state so utterly desperate, as that we may positively affirm they are damned; which yet we might do, did we absolutely and entirely despair of their salvation. It remains, therefore, that we must have some, though very faint hopes of their salvation: and this seems sufficient to warrant this declaration, especially if it be pronounced as faintly as the hope itself is entertained. However, it must be confessed, that it is very plain, from the whole tenor of this office, that the compilers of it, presuming upon a due exercise of discipline, never supposed that any would be offered to Christian burial, who had not led Christian lives. But since iniquity hath so far prevailed over the discipline of the Church, that schismatics, heretics, and all manner of vicious livers, escape its censures, this gloss seems the best that our present circumstances will admit of. And if it be not satisfactory, there seems to be no other remedy left, than that our governors should leave us to a discretionary use of these expressions, either till they be altered by public authority, or, which is much rather to be wished, till discipline be so vigorously exercised, that there be no offence in the use of them.

§. 3. Celebration of the Communion at funerals formerly appointed. The prayer, against which this objection is made, is in our present Common Prayer Book called the Collect: the reason of which is, because in king Edward’s first book, at the end of the Burial-office, there is an order for the celebration of the holy Communion when there is a burial of the dead. The forty-second Psalm is appointed for the introit. The prayer I am now speaking of, with a little alteration at the end, which I shall give by and by, stands there for the Collect; 1 Thess. 4:13 to the end, is ordered for the Epistle; and for the Gospel, St. John 6:37 to 48.

Receiving the Eucharist at funerals is not without precedents in the ancient Church. Bishop Cosin was of opinion, that “the design of it was to declare, that the dead person departed out of this life in the public faith and unity of the Catholic Church of Christ. From whence, saith he, we learn, what the reason was, that Monica, the mother of St. Augustine, so much desired to be remembered at the altar after her death, which was not (as the fond and ignorant sort of people among the new Roman Catholics imagine) to fetch her soul so much the sooner out of purgatory, (for the papal purgatory fire was not then kindled or known;) but partly to testify her faithful departure in the religion and communion among all other good Christians; and partly to have praise and thanksgivings rendered to Almighty God, for her happy departure out of this world to a better; and partly also, that by the prayers of the Church, made at the celebration of the holy Eucharist, and by virtue of Christ’s death and sacrifice therein commemorated, she might obtain a joyful resurrection of her body out of the grave, and have her perfect consummation of glory, both in body and soul, in God’s everlasting kingdom.” “Innocent (saith Mr. L’Estrange) was this rite, whilst it preserved its first intent: but it degenerating from its original purity, by masses and dirges sung for the souls of the dead, wisely was it done of our second Reformers, to remove not only the evils themselves of such heterodox opinions, but even the occasions of them also, viz. the Communion used at Burials.” Which being so evident as to matter of fact, (for the second book of king Edward was published without it,) it may seem something strange, how it came to be reprinted in the Latin translation of queen Elizabeth’s Common Prayer Book, in the second year of her reign. That this was not a translation of a private pen not licensed by authority, and so the effect of mistake, or a clandestine practice, (as bishop Sparrow conjectures,) is plain from its being done by the command of the queen, and by her recommendation of it to the two Universities, and to the colleges of Winchester and Eton: and particularly by the express words of her Majesty’s proclamation, wherein she declares, that some things peculiar at the funerals of Christians she had added and commanded to be used, the Act for Uniformity, set forth in the first year of her reign, to the contrary notwithstanding. Perhaps it might have been ordered for the same reason that I have supposed the reservation of the elements was allowed, or indulged to those learned societies by the same book, viz. because they were in less danger of abusing it, and it might contribute to reconcile them the easier to the Reformation.

I have already hinted that the close of the prayer, which is called the Collect in our present office, was different, as it stood in the first Common Prayer, from what it is now. The present conclusion of it was taken from the end of another prayer, which was then in this office; but of which the beginning has ever since been left out: but the best way to give the reader a clear notion of it, is to transcribe the prayers at the bottom of the page, whither therefore I refer him.

John 3:16 "For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life.
John 5:21 Indeed, just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whomever he wishes.
John 5:24 Very truly, I tell you, anyone who hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life, and does not come under judgment, but has passed from death to life.
John 5:26 For just as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself;
John 6:39 And this is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose nothing of all that he has given me, but raise it up on the last day.
John 8:51 Very truly, I tell you, whoever keeps my word will never see death."
John 11:25-26 Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. Those who believe in me, even though they die, will live, and everyone who lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this?"
Rom 8:11 If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also through his Spirit that dwells in you.
2 Cor 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and the God of all consolation,
Heb 11:13-16 All of these died in faith without having received the promises, but from a distance they saw and greeted them. They confessed that they were strangers and foreigners on the earth, for people who speak in this way make it clear that they are seeking a homeland. If they had been thinking of the land that they had left behind, they would have had opportunity to return. But as it is, they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God; indeed, he has prepared a city for them.
1 Pet 1:3-4 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! By his great mercy he has given us a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and into an inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, kept in heaven for you,
Gen 37:35 All his sons and all his daughters sought to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted, and said, "No, I shall go down to Sheol to my son, mourning." Thus his father bewailed him.
2 Sam 18:33 The king was deeply moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept; and as he went, he said, "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!"
Job 19:25-27 For I know that my Redeemer lives, and that at the last he will stand upon the earth; and after my skin has been thus destroyed, then in my flesh I shall see God, whom I shall see on my side, and my eyes shall behold, and not another. My heart faints within me!
Ps 17:15 As for me, I shall behold your face in righteousness; when I awake I shall be satisfied, beholding your likeness.
1 Thess 4:13-14 But we do not want you to be uninformed, brothers and sisters, about those who have died, so that you may not grieve as others do who have no hope. For since we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so, through Jesus, God will bring with him those who have died.
Ps 30:8 To you, O Lord, I cried, and to the Lord I made supplication:
Rom 6:11 So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.
Eph 2:1-6 You were dead through the trespasses and sins in which you once lived, following the course of this world, following the ruler of the power of the air, the spirit that is now at work among those who are disobedient. All of us once lived among them in the passions of our flesh, following the desires of flesh and senses, and we were by nature children of wrath, like everyone else. But God, who is rich in mercy, out of the great love with which he loved us even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ--by grace you have been saved-- and raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus,
1 Pet 2:24 He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross, so that, free from sins, we might live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed.
Ps 116:4 Then I called on the name of the Lord: "O Lord, I pray, save my life!"
Gen 3:19 By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; you are dust, and to dust you shall return."
Ps 89:48 Who can live and never see death? Who can escape the power of Sheol?Selah
Ps 147:11 but the Lord takes pleasure in those who fear him, in those who hope in his steadfast love.
Ecc 3:20 All go to one place; all are from the dust, and all turn to dust again.
Is 57:1-2 The righteous perish, and no one takes it to heart; the devout are taken away, while no one understands. For the righteous are taken away from calamity, and they enter into peace; those who walk uprightly will rest on their couches.
Matt 11:28 "Come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.
Luke 6:37 "Do not judge, and you will not be judged; do not condemn, and you will not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven;
Rom 14:4 Who are you to pass judgment on servants of another? It is before their own lord that they stand or fall. And they will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make them stand.
1 Cor 13:5 or rude. It does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful;
1 Cor 13:7 It bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.
2 Cor 5:10 For all of us must appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each may receive recompense for what has been done in the body, whether good or evil.
Phil 3:8-11 More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but one that comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God based on faith. I want to know Christ and the power of his resurrection and the sharing of his sufferings by becoming like him in his death, if somehow I may attain the resurrection from the dead.
Heb 4:3 For we who have believed enter that rest, just as God has said, "As in my anger I swore, 'They shall not enter my rest,'" though his works were finished at the foundation of the world.
Heb 4:9 So then, a sabbath rest still remains for the people of God;
Heb 9:27 And just as it is appointed for mortals to die once, and after that the judgment,
Matt 7:1 "Do not judge, so that you may not be judged.
John 6:40 This is indeed the will of my Father, that all who see the Son and believe in him may have eternal life; and I will raise them up on the last day."
John 11:24 Martha said to him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day."
John 12:48 The one who rejects me and does not receive my word has a judge; on the last day the word that I have spoken will serve as judge,
Acts 24:15 I have a hope in God--a hope that they themselves also accept--that there will be a resurrection of both the righteous and the unrighteous.
Rom 16:10 Greet Apelles, who is approved in Christ. Greet those who belong to the family of Aristobulus.
2 Cor 5:9 So whether we are at home or away, we make it our aim to please him.
2 Cor 10:18 For it is not those who commend themselves that are approved, but those whom the Lord commends.
Gal 2:6 And from those who were supposed to be acknowledged leaders (what they actually were makes no difference to me; God shows no partiality)--those leaders contributed nothing to me.
Eph 1:6 to the praise of his glorious grace that he freely bestowed on us in the Beloved.
2 Tim 1:18 --may the Lord grant that he will find mercy from the Lord on that day! And you know very well how much service he rendered in Ephesus.
Ps 133:3 It is like the dew of Hermon, which falls on the mountains of Zion. For there the Lord ordained his blessing, life forevermore.
Matt 10:28 Do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell.
Matt 25:34 Then the king will say to those at his right hand, 'Come, you that are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world;
Luke 12:32 "Do not be afraid, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom.
John 5:22 The Father judges no one but has given all judgment to the Son,
John 5:25 "Very truly, I tell you, the hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live.
John 14:2-3 In my Father's house there are many dwelling places. If it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, so that where I am, there you may be also.
John 15:9 As the Father has loved me, so I have loved you; abide in my love.
Rom 5:20-21 But law came in, with the result that the trespass multiplied; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, just as sin exercised dominion in death, so grace might also exercise dominion through justification leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
1 Cor 2:9 But, as it is written, "What no eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the human heart conceived, what God has prepared for those who love him"--
2 Tim 2:12 if we endure, we will also reign with him; if we deny him, he will also deny us;
Jam 1:12 Blessed is anyone who endures temptation. Such a one has stood the test and will receive the crown of life that the Lord has promised to those who love him.
1 Pet 1:3-5 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! By his great mercy he has given us a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and into an inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, kept in heaven for you, who are being protected by the power of God through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.
2 Pet 1:17 For he received honor and glory from God the Father when that voice was conveyed to him by the Majestic Glory, saying, "This is my Son, my Beloved, with whom I am well pleased."

Dismissal.

§. 4. The blessing. The blessing was added at the end of the whole office at the last review, of which enough has been said in other places.

§. 5. The peal. The whole solemnity is concluded with another peal, which the same canon orders after the Burial, that appoints one before it.