The Scriptural BCP - The Ministration of Publick Baptism of Infants

The Ministration of Publick Baptism of Infants,
To be Used in the Church.

Holy Churches aim being in all her Services to make them Reasonable, that according to S. Paul 1 Cor. 14. We may all joyn with her in her Offices, both with our spirit and understanding, she hath been careful, not only to put them into a known tongue, but also to instruct us in the nature of them; making thus her Prayer-Book a sum of Divinity. Therefore here in the beginning, she instructs out of holy Scripture concerning the necessity and efficacy of Baptism, as very briefly, so very pithily and fully. First, laying down this for a rule, That we are all born in sin, as it is Rom. 5. 18, 19. all guilty in Adams fall, (so the Catholick Church spread over the world always understood it, CON. MILEVAN. c. 2.) and therefore by our first birth have no right to heaven, into which no unclean thing shall enter, Ephes. 5. 5. Secondly, that therefore there is need of a second birth, to give us right to that, as it is S. John 3. 3. Except a man be born again, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God. Thirdly, that this second or new birth is by Water and the Holy Ghost, S. John 3 5. Except a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. By Water and the Holy Ghost is there meant holy Baptism. For first, this is the most literal interpretation of the words (for what is Baptism but Water and the Holy Ghost?) and therefore the best: for that is certainly the sense of the Holy Ghost, who, as we all believe, was the Author of the letter of the Scriptures, and therefore of the literal sense, where that is not contrary to, but agreeable with the other Scriptures. Now this literal sense given is agreeable to other texts: as namely, to Acts 8. 38. and 10. 47. Where Water is declared to be the element of Baptism. And expresly again, Ephes. 5. 26. Christ loved the Church, and gave himself for it, that he might sanctifie and cleanse it with the washing of water. And as this is the most literal, so is it the most Catholick interpretation of the words, and therefore also the best, by S. Peters rule, 2 S. Pet. 1. 20. Knowing this first, that no prophesie of Scripture is of private interpretation. That this is the most Catholick interpretation appears by S. August. l. I. de peccator. mer. & rem. c. 30. Tertul. de Bapt. and all the ancient interpreters upon the place, who expound it all of Baptism. And indeed if it were lawful to expound it otherwise, seeing no other Scripture contradicts this literal sense; I know not how it can be avoided, but that men may lose all their Creed, by playing so with Scripture, leaving the letter for figures. Thus are we instructed in the nature, necessity, and efficacy of holy Baptism, that it is the only ordinary means of our Regeneration or second birth, which gives us a right and title to Heaven.

Then is prescribed a Prayer, usually called the Benediction or Consecration of the Water, which is used only for reverence and decency, not for necessity, as if the Water without this were not available to Baptism: For, as the Prayer hath it, Jordan and all other waters are sanctified by Christ to the mystical washing away of sin. So that there needs no Consecration here, as in the other Sacraments there is, where the Bread and Wine must be blessed by us, saith S. Paul, 1 Cor. 10. 16. before it be the Communion of the body and blood of Christ to us. And that the Church does not think any Consecration of Water necessary, appears in her office of PRIVATE BAPTISM, where haste admitting no delays, no such Prayer or blessing is used.

D. Must be ready at the font.] When Christianity first entered the world, she did not find all utensils fitted to her hand, but was constrained to take what occasion did supply: whence it is, that as at first houses were her churches, so rivers were her fonts. No other baptisteries had she for two hundred years ; this is evident from Justin Martyr and Tertullian ; the first treating of persons fitted for the sacred seal, saith, ἔπειτα ἄγονται ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν ἔνθα ὕδωρ ἐστὶ, “then” (that is, after we had prayed together for and with them, as in the foregoing words) “they are led by us to some place where there is water.” Now lest it should be conceived that this expression may admit of a font within the church, (as we use to carry children according to the rites of our Church,) in the pursuit of this narrative he goes on thus: ἡμεῖς δὲ, μετὰ TO οὕτως λοῦσαι τὸν πεπεισμένον ἐπὶ τοὺς λεγομένους ἀδελφοὺς ἄγομεν ἔνθα συνηγμένοι εἰσὶ, κοινὰς εὐχὰς ποιησόμενοι: “then we, after the believer is thus washed, return with him to the place where the brethren are assembled for common prayer.” The second, aguam adituri ibidem, sed et aliquanto prius in ecclesia, sub antistitis manu contestamur nos renunciare diabolo, &c.; ‘'being ready to step into the water, there also, as we had done a little before in the church, the priest holding us up by the head, we make abrenunciation of the devil,” &c.

Clear proofs that the places where they baptized were distant from the churches. Probably their practice was counter to ours, for as we bring water to our churches, so in all likelihood they carried their churches to the water, that is, they had their places of religious assemblies near unto yivers, (not unlike the Proseucha mentioned Acts xvi. 13,) for the better accommodation of this Sacrament. After the second century baptisteries were erected, but not contiguous or annexed to churches, but a little separated from them ; and not every where neither, but only nigh unto cathedrals, called therefore ecclesie baptismales, “baptismal churches ;” not long after, they were brought into the churches, and then disposed near the door, at the lower end, denoting thereby that persons baptized did in that Sacrament make their first ingress into Christianity, who were therefore situated, by Nazianzen’s description, ἐν προθύροις τῆς εὐσεβείας, “in the entry to godliness.” But now it seems these baptisteries are turned out of doors, and more than so, a note of abomination affixed to the places where they stood. For baptism is to be administered “not in the places where fonts stoode,” and this by the direction of those very men, who yet after ingenuously confess, “no place is subject to such pollution by any superstition formerly used, and now laid aside, as may render it unlawful or inconvenient for Christians to meet together therein, for the public worship.” What can hinder the Directory from being herein felo de se, unless it be interpreted to speak in the first place of what is to be done in order to its directions, not of what is to be done of absolute necessity, flowing from the nature of the thing; and if they so intended, it had been a kindness had those learned divines been more explicit therein.

Rubric 1. Baptism formerly administered only at Easter and Whitsuntide. I. It appeareth by ancient writers, (as was expressed in the rubric till the last review) that the Sacrament of Baptism in the old time was not commonly ministered but at two times in the year, at Easter and at Whitsuntide: at Easter, in remembrance of Christ’s resurrection, of which baptism is a figure; and at Whitsuntide, in remembrance of the three thousand souls baptized by the Apostles at that time. For this reason in the Western Church, all that were born after Easter were kept until Whit-Sunday; and all that were born after Whit-Sunday were reserved until next Easter: unless some imminent danger of death hastened the administration of it before. Though in the Eastern Church, the feast of Epiphany was also assigned for the administration of this Sacrament, in memory of our Saviour’s being, as it is supposed, baptized upon that day. And about the eighth or ninth century, the time for solemn baptism was enlarged even in the Latin Church, all Churches being moved by reason of the thing, to administer baptism (as at first) at all times of the year.

To be administered now only upon Sundays or holy-days. But yet though the custom above mentioned be now grown out of use, and (as the old rubric goes on) cannot, for many considerations, be well restored again; it is thought good to follow the same, as near as conveniently may be. And therefore our present rubric still orders, that the people be admonished, that it is most convenient that baptism should not be administered but upon Sundays and other holy-days, when the most number of people come together: as well for that the congregation there present may testify the receiving of them that be newly baptized into the number of Christ’s Church; as also because in the baptism of infants every man present may be put in remembrance of his own profession made to God in his baptism. For this cause also it is further declared expedient, that baptism be administered in the vulgar tongue. Nevertheless (if necessity so require) children may be baptized upon any other day, or (as it was worded in the old Common Prayers) children may at all times be baptized at home; or lastly, as it was expressed in the first book of king Edward, either at Church or else at home.

§.2. The irregularity and scandal of administering Baptism at home. But then it is to be observed, that if the occasion be so urgent as to require baptism at home, the Church has provided a particular office for the administration of it: which directs, that the essential parts of the sacrament be administered immediately in private; but defers the performance of the other solemnities till the child can be brought into the church. As to the office we are now upon, it is by no means to be used in any place but the church. It is ordered to be said at the font, in the middle of the morning or evening prayer, and all along supposes a congregation to be present; and particularly in one of the addresses which the Priest is to use, it is very absurd for him to tell the godfathers and godmothers in a chamber, that they have brought the child thither to be baptized, when he himself is brought thither to baptize it. It is still more absurd for him in such a place to use that expression, Grant that whosoever is here dedicated to thee by our office and ministry, &c. For he knows that the word here cannot be applicable to the place he is in: nor yet has he any authority to omit or alter the form.

If we look back into the practice of the primitive Church, we shall find that the place where this solemn act was per formed was at first indeed unlimited: In any place where there was water, as Justin Martyr tells us; in ponds or lakes, in springs or rivers, as Tertullian speaks; but always as near as might be to the place of their public assemblies. For it was never (except upon extraordinary occasions) done without the presence of the congregation. A rule the primitive Christians so zealously kept to, that the Trullan Council does not allow this holy sacrament to be administered even in chapels that were appropriate or private, but only in the public or parish churches; punishing the persons offending, if clergy, with deposition; if laity, with excommunication.

In our own Church indeed, since our unhappy confusions, this office hath been very frequently made use of in private; and some Ministers have thought themselves, to prevent the greater mischief of separation, necessitated to comply with the obstinacy of the greater and more powerful of their parishioners: who, for their ease or humour, or for the convenience of a more splendid and pompous christening, resolving to have their children baptized at home, if their own Minister refuse it, will get some other to do it.

But such persons ought calmly to consider how contrary to reason and the plain design of the institution of this sacrament, this perverse custom, and their obstinate persisting in it, is. For what is the end of that sacred ordinance, but to initiate the person into the Church of Christ, and to entitle him to the privileges of it? And where can there be a better representation of that society, than in a congregation assembled after the most solemn and conspicuous manner for the worship of God, and for the testifying of their communion in it? Where can the profession be more properly made before such admission; where the stipulation given, where the promise to undertake the duties of a Christian, but in such an assembly of Christians? How then can all this be done in concision and precipitance, without any timely notice or preparation, in private, in the corner of a bed-chamber, parlour, or kitchen, (where I have known it to be administered) and there perhaps out of a basin, or pipkin, a tea-cup, or a punchbowl, (as the excellent Dr. Wall with indignation observes) and in the presence of only two or three, or scarce so many as may be called a congregation? The ordinance is certainly public; public in the nature and end of it, and therefore such ought the celebration of it to be; the neglect whereof is the less excusable, because it is so easily remedied.

II. Rubric 2. The original and antiquity of godfathers and godmothers. The next rubric (which was added at the last review) is concerning the godfathers and godmothers. The use of which in the Christian Church was derived from the Jews, as well as the initiation of infants itself. And it is by some believed that the witnesses mentioned by Isaiah at the naming of his son, were of the same nature with these sureties.

§.2. The use of them. Whence called sureties, witnesses, and godfathers, &c. In the primitive Church they were so early, that it is not easy to fix the time of their beginning. Some of the most ancient Fathers make mention of them, and through all the successive ages afterwards we find the use of them continued, without any scruple or interruption, till the Anabaptists, and other Puritans of late years, raised some idle clamours against them. Some of these I shall have a proper place to speak to hereafter. In the mean while I desire to observe in general, that since the laws of all nations (because infants cannot speak for themselves) have allowed them guardians to contract for them in secular matters; which contracts, if they be fair and beneficial, the infants must make good when they come to age; it cannot, one would think, be unreasonable for the Church to allow them spiritual guardians, to promise those things in their name, without which they cannot obtain salvation. And this too, at the same time, gives security to the Church, that the children shall not apostatize, from whence they are called sureties; provides monitors to every Christian, to remind them of the vow which they made in their presence, from whence they are called witnesses; and better represents the new birth, by giving the infants new and spiritual relations, whence they are termed godfathers and godmothers.

§.3. The number of them. How long the Church has fixed the number of these sureties, I cannot tell: but by a constitution of Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 1236, and in a synod held at Worcester, A.D. 1240, I find the same provision made as is now required by our rubric, viz. That there should be for every male child that is to be baptized, two godfathers and one godmother, and for every female one godfather and two godmothers.

§.4. The qualifications of persons to be admitted godfathers and godmothers. By the twenty-ninth canon of our Church, no parent is to he admitted to answer as godfather for his own child. For the parents are already engaged under such strict bonds, both by nature and religion, to take care of their children’s education, that the Church does not think she can lay them under greater: but still makes provision, that if, notwithstanding these obligations, the parents should be negligent, or if it should please God to take them to himself before their children be grown up; there yet may be others, upon whom it shall lie to see that the children do not want due instructions, by means of such carelessness, or death of their parents. And for a further prevention of people’s entering upon this charge, before they are capable of understanding the trust they take upon themselves, it is further provided by the above-mentioned canon, that no person be admitted godfather or godmother, before the said person so undertaking hath received the holy Communion.

III. Rubric 3. Fonts, why so called. Why placed at the lower end of the church. Formerly very large. Why made of stone. When there are children to be baptized, the parents shall give knowledge thereof over night, or in the morning, before the beginning of Morning Prayer, to the Curate. And then the godfathers and godmothers, and the people with the children must be ready at the font,* so called, I suppose, because Baptism, at the beginning of Christianity, was performed in springs or fountains. They were at first built near the church, then in the church-porch, and afterwards (as it is now usual amongst us) placed in the church itself, but still keeping the lower end, to intimate that Baptism is the entrance into the mystical Church. In the primitive times we meet with them very large and capacious, not only that they might comport with the general customs of those times, viz. of persons being immersed or put under water; but also because the stated times of Baptism returning so seldom, great numbers were usually baptized at the same time. In the middle of them was always a partition; the one part for men, the other for women; that so, by being baptized asunder, they might avoid giving offence and scandal. But immersion being now. too generally discontinued, they have shrunk into little small fonts, scarce bigger than mortars, and only employed to hold less basins with water, though this last be expressly contrary to an ancient advertisement of our Church. It is still indeed required that there be a font in every church made of stone; because, saith Durand, the water that typified Baptism in the wilderness flowed from a rock, and because Christ, who gave forth the living water, is in Scripture called the Corner-Stone and the Rock.

§.2. Baptism, why to be performed after the second Lesson. At this font the children, &c., are to be ready, either immediately after the last Lesson at morning prayer, or else immediately after the last Lesson at evening prayer, as the Curate by his discretion shall appoint. The reason of which I take to be, because by that time the whole congregation is supposed to be assembled; which shews the irregularity (which prevails much in some churches) of putting off christenings till the whole service is over, and so reducing them (by the departing of the congregation) to almost private baptism.

Due notice, normally of at least a week, shall be given before a child is brought to the church to be baptized.

For every child to be baptized there shall be not fewer than three godparents, of whom at least two shall be of the same sex as the child and of whom at least one shall be of the opposite sex; save that, when three cannot be conveniently had, one godfather and one godmother shall suffice. Parents may be godparents for their own children provided that the child shall have at least one other godparent. The godparents shall be persons who have been baptized and confirmed and will faithfully fulfil their responsibilities both by their care for the child committed to their charge and by the example of their own godly living. Nevertheless the Minister shall have power to dispense with the requirement of confirmation in any case in which in his judgement need so requires.

The Minister shall instruct the parents or guardians of an infant to be admitted to Holy Baptism that the same responsibilities rest on them as are in the service of Holy Baptism required of the godparents.

No Minister shall refuse or, save for the purpose of preparing or instructing the parents or guardians or godparents, delay to baptize any infant within his cure that is brought to the church to be baptized, provided that due notice has been given and the provisions relating to godparents are observed. If the Minister shall refuse or unduly delay to baptize any such infant, the parents or guardians may apply to the Bishop of the diocese who shall, after consultation with the Minister, give such directions as he thinks fit.

The Minister, before proceeding to the Baptism, shall have satisfied himself that the child presented to him has not already been baptized.

At the time appointed the godfathers and godmothers and the parents or guardians with the child must be ready at the Font, and the Priest coming to the Font (which is then to be filled with pure Water,) and standing there, shall proceed as follows.

The Invitation

I. The first question. THE people with the children, being ready, and the Priest coming to the font, (which is then to be filled with pure water) as our present rubric directs, and standing there, is, in the first place, to ask, Whether the child has been already baptized or no? The reason of which is, because Baptism is never to be repeated: for as there is but one Lord and one Faith, so there is but one Baptism. And in the primitive Church, those that stood up so earnestly for rebaptizing those who had been baptized by heretics, did not look upon that as a second Baptism, but esteemed that which had been conferred by heretics as invalid; seeing heretics, being out of the Church, could not give what they had not. And others, rather than repeat that sacrament, allowed even that Baptism to be valid which was administered by heretics, if it appeared that it had been performed in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

II. The Exhortation If the Minister be answered, that the child hath not been baptized, he then begins the solemnity with an exhortation to prayer; for there being a mutual covenant in this sacrament between God and man, so vast a disproportion between the parties, and so great a condescension on the part of the Almighty, (who designs only our advantage by it, and is moved by nothing but his own free grace to agree to it) it is very reasonable the whole solemnity should be begun with an humble address to God.

Job 25:4 How then can a mortal be righteous before God? How can one born of woman be pure?
Ps 51:5 Indeed, I was born guilty, a sinner when my mother conceived me.
John 3:5 Jesus answered, "Very truly, I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born of water and Spirit.
Rom 5:12 Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death came through sin, and so death spread to all because all have sinned--
Rom 5:18 Therefore just as one man's trespass led to condemnation for all, so one man's act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all.
Eph 2:3 All of us once lived among them in the passions of our flesh, following the desires of flesh and senses, and we were by nature children of wrath, like everyone else.
Rom 5:12 Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death came through sin, and so death spread to all because all have sinned--
Rom 5:18 Therefore just as one man's trespass led to condemnation for all, so one man's act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all.
Rom 7:14 For we know that the law is spiritual; but I am of the flesh, sold into slavery under sin.
Rom 7:18 For I know that nothing good dwells within me, that is, in my flesh. I can will what is right, but I cannot do it.
John 3:3 Jesus answered him, "Very truly, I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God without being born from above."
John 3:5 Jesus answered, "Very truly, I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born of water and Spirit.
Job 14:4 Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? No one can.
Matt 18:19-20 Again, truly I tell you, if two of you agree on earth about anything you ask, it will be done for you by my Father in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, I am there among them."
John 1:12-13 But to all who received him, who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God, who were born, not of blood or of the will of the flesh or of the will of man, but of God.
John 1:16 From his fullness we have all received, grace upon grace.
John 14:6 Jesus said to him, "I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.
Rom 9:8 This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as descendants.
Eph 2:7 so that in the ages to come he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus.
Eph 2:10 For we are what he has made us, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand to be our way of life.
Eph 4:24 and to clothe yourselves with the new self, created according to the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness.
Phil 4:6 Do not worry about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God.
Tit 3:5 he saved us, not because of any works of righteousness that we had done, but according to his mercy, through the water of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit.
1 Pet 1:17 If you invoke as Father the one who judges all people impartially according to their deeds, live in reverent fear during the time of your exile.
Gen 5:3 When Adam had lived one hundred thirty years, he became the father of a son in his likeness, according to his image, and named him Seth.
Job 15:14-16 What are mortals, that they can be clean? Or those born of woman, that they can be righteous? God puts no trust even in his holy ones, and the heavens are not clean in his sight; how much less one who is abominable and corrupt, one who drinks iniquity like water!
Job 25:4-6 How then can a mortal be righteous before God? How can one born of woman be pure? If even the moon is not bright and the stars are not pure in his sight, how much less a mortal, who is a maggot, and a human being, who is a worm!"
John 3:6-7 What is born of the flesh is flesh, and what is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not be astonished that I said to you, 'You must be born from above.'
John 15:7 If you abide in me, and my words abide in you, ask for whatever you wish, and it will be done for you.
1 John 5:14-15 And this is the boldness we have in him, that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us. And if we know that he hears us in whatever we ask, we know that we have obtained the requests made of him.
Acts 1:5 for John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now."
Acts 2:41 So those who welcomed his message were baptized, and that day about three thousand persons were added.
Acts 2:47 praising God and having the goodwill of all the people. And day by day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.
Acts 8:39 When they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord snatched Philip away; the eunuch saw him no more, and went on his way rejoicing.
Acts 10:47 "Can anyone withhold the water for baptizing these people who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?"
Rom 6:3 Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
Rom 6:8-9 But if we have died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him. We know that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him.
Rom 6:11 So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.
1 Cor 12:13 For in the one Spirit we were all baptized into one body--Jews or Greeks, slaves or free--and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.
1 Cor 12:27 Now you are the body of Christ and individually members of it.
Eph 1:22-23 And he has put all things under his feet and has made him the head over all things for the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all.
1 Pet 2:5 like living stones, let yourselves be built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.

The Introductory Prayers

Then follows a Prayer for Gods merciful acceptance of the Infant that is brought; that, as he is to receive the Sacrament, so he may receive all the benefits of it, And lest any should doubt whether CHRIST will accept an Infant to Baptism, and the Effects of it, holy Church propounds to us the 10. chap. of S. Mark, out of which she concludes CHRISTS love and good will to children in general; For he commanded them to be brought to him; he rebuked those that would have kept them from him, he embraced them in his arms, and blessed them: which are all plain arguments that he will receive them when they are brought to him: Yea, and that he will so far embrace them as to receive them to eternal life, if they be brought to him, is plain by his own words in that Gospel; Suffer little children to come unto me, for to such, and therefore to themselves (for Quod in uno similium valet, valebit in altero, what belongs to others because they are such as children are, must needs belong to the children) belongeth the kingdom of God. Since then they be capable of the Kingdom of heaven, and there is no ordinary way for them to the Kingdom of heaven, but by a new and second birth of Water and the Holy Ghost, that is, Baptism; Doubt ye not, but that He who exprest so much love to them as is mentioned in the Gospel, will favourably receive the present infant to baptism, and gratiously accept our charitable work in bringing it to him. Thus holy Church concludes out of Scripture according to the practice and doctrine of the Catholick Church.

CYPRIAN tells us that no Infant is to be hindred from baptism. Ep. 59. This was the sentence of that Council: Anno Dom. 246. and this was no new decree, but fides Ecclesiae firmissima, the most established faith of the Church, AVG. ep. 28. ad Hieron. Haec sententia olim in Ecclesia Catholica summa authoritate fundata est. This definition was long before S. Cyprian settled in the Catholick Church by the highest Authority. AVG. de verb. Apost. Ser. 14. Let no man whisper to you any strange doctrines. This the Church always had, always held, this she received from our forefathers, and this she holds constantly to the end. And, Quicunque parvulos recentes, ab uteris matrum, baptizandos negat, Anathema sit, saith the COVNG. of Milevis, c. 2. being the CXth in the African Code. That Council pronounced Anathema to any that shall deny the baptism of Infants. And that Counc. is confirmed by the fourth and sixth GENERAL COVNCILS.

III. The two prayers. For which purpose follow two prayers: in the first of which we commemorate how God did typify this salvation, which he now gives by Baptism, in saving Noah and his family by water, and by carrying the Israelites safe through the Red Sea, as also how Christ himself, by being baptized, sanctified water to the mystical washing away of sin; and upon these grounds, we pray that God by his Spirit will wash and sanctify this child that he may be delivered from his wrath, received into the ark of his Church, and so filled with grace as to live holily here, and happily hereafter.

In the second prayer, to express our earnestness and importunity, we again renew our address, requesting, first. That this child may be pardoned and regenerated; and, secondly. That it may be adopted and accepted by Almighty God.

§.2. Double crossing of the persons baptized in the primitive Church. Between these two prayers in king Edward’s first Liturgy, the Priest was to ask the name of the child of its godfathers and godmothers, and then to make a cross upon its forehead and breast, saying, N. Receive the sign of the holy cross both in thy forehead and in thy breast, in token that thou shall not be ashamed to confess thy faith in Christ crucified; and so on, as in our own form, only speaking all along to the child. This is now done only upon the forehead, and reserved till after the child is baptized: though it is manifest there were anciently in the primitive Church two several signings with the cross: viz. one before Baptism, as was ordered by our first Liturgy; and the other after it, which was used with Unction at the time of Confirmation, of which I shall have occasion to speak hereafter. Why the crossing which we now retain is ordered after Baptism, will be shewn when I come to that part of the service.

§.3. Exorcising, an ancient practice in Baptism. After the second of these prayers, in the first Liturgy of king Edward, follows a form of exorcism, which I have printed in the margin,* which was founded upon a custom that obtained in the ancient ages of the Church, to exorcise the person baptized, or to cast the Devil out of him, who was supposed to have taken possession of the catechumen in his unregenerate state. And it cannot be denied but that possessions by evil spirits were very frequent before the spreading of the Gospel, when we read that many of them were ejected through the name of Christ. But the use of exorcism, as an ordinary rite in the administration of Baptism, cannot well be proved from any earlier authors than the fourth century, when it was taken in to denote that persons, before they were regenerate by Baptism, were under the kingdom of darkness, and held by the power of sin and the Devil. But it being urged by Bucer, in his censure of the Liturgy, that this exorcism was originally used to none but demoniacs, and that it was uncharitable to imagine that all were demoniacs who came to Baptism; it was thought prudent by our reformers to leave it out of the Liturgy, when they took a review of it in the fifth and sixth of king Edward. But to proceed in our own office.

Then shall the Priest say,

Gen 6:12-13 And God saw that the earth was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted its ways upon the earth. And God said to Noah, "I have determined to make an end of all flesh, for the earth is filled with violence because of them; now I am going to destroy them along with the earth.
Gen 6:17-18 For my part, I am going to bring a flood of waters on the earth, to destroy from under heaven all flesh in which is the breath of life; everything that is on the earth shall die. But I will establish my covenant with you; and you shall come into the ark, you, your sons, your wife, and your sons' wives with you.
Gen 7:20-23 the waters swelled above the mountains, covering them fifteen cubits deep. And all flesh died that moved on the earth, birds, domestic animals, wild animals, all swarming creatures that swarm on the earth, and all human beings; everything on dry land in whose nostrils was the breath of life died. He blotted out every living thing that was on the face of the ground, human beings and animals and creeping things and birds of the air; they were blotted out from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those that were with him in the ark.
Ex 14:29 But the Israelites walked on dry ground through the sea, the waters forming a wall for them on their right and on their left.
Ps 106:9 He rebuked the Red Sea, and it became dry; he led them through the deep as through a desert.
1 Cor 10:1-2 I do not want you to be unaware, brothers and sisters, that our ancestors were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea,
1 Pet 3:19-21 in which also he went and made a proclamation to the spirits in prison, who in former times did not obey, when God waited patiently in the days of Noah, during the building of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were saved through water. And baptism, which this prefigured, now saves you--not as a removal of dirt from the body, but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ,
2 Pet 2:4-5 For if God did not spare the angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell and committed them to chains of deepest darkness to be kept until the judgment; and if he did not spare the ancient world, even though he saved Noah, a herald of righteousness, with seven others, when he brought a flood on a world of the ungodly;
2 Pet 2:9 then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trial, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment
Neh 9:11 And you divided the sea before them, so that they passed through the sea on dry land, but you threw their pursuers into the depths, like a stone into mighty waters.
Ps 66:6 He turned the sea into dry land; they passed through the river on foot. There we rejoiced in him,
Matt 3:13-17 Then Jesus came from Galilee to John at the Jordan, to be baptized by him. John would have prevented him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?" But Jesus answered him, "Let it be so now; for it is proper for us in this way to fulfill all righteousness." Then he consented. And when Jesus had been baptized, just as he came up from the water, suddenly the heavens were opened to him and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, "This is my Son, the Beloved, with whom I am well pleased."
Acts 22:16 And now why do you delay? Get up, be baptized, and have your sins washed away, calling on his name.'
Col 2:11-12 In him also you were circumcised with a spiritual circumcision, by putting off the body of the flesh in the circumcision of Christ; when you were buried with him in baptism, you were also raised with him through faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead.
1 John 5:6 This is the one who came by water and blood, Jesus Christ, not with the water only but with the water and the blood. And the Spirit is the one that testifies, for the Spirit is the truth.
John 3:5-9 Jesus answered, "Very truly, I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born of water and Spirit. What is born of the flesh is flesh, and what is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not be astonished that I said to you, 'You must be born from above.' The wind blows where it chooses, and you hear the sound of it, but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes. So it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit." Nicodemus said to him, "How can these things be?"

E. Didst sanctify the flood Jordan.] Such was the language of the primitive Church, not that they thought the water contracted any new quality in the nature, but was only said to be sanctified in the use thereof, being converted by Christ’s institution from common to sacred purposes. Omnesaque, saith Tertullian, sacramentum sanctificationis consequuntur invocato Deo; i: 6. “all waters obtain the mystery of sanctification by invocation of God.” So Gregory Nazianzen speaketh of our Saviour, ὡγνίζοντα τῇ καθάρσει τὰ ὕδατα i, e. “sanctifying the waters by His own washing.” So Jerome, Dominus noster, Jesus Christus, lavacro suo universas aguas mundavit, “our Lord Christ by His own washing, being exemplary to us, cleansed all waters.” Lastly, Ambrose, sacerdos precem defert, ut sanctificetur fons, et adsit presentia Trinitatis eterne, 1. 6. “ the priest prayeth that the font may be sanctified, and that the eternal Trinity would vouchsafe to be present at the ordinance.”

Gen 7:1 Then the Lord said to Noah, "Go into the ark, you and all your household, for I have seen that you alone are righteous before me in this generation.
Ps 145:9 The Lord is good to all, and his compassion is over all that he has made.
Is 40:11 He will feed his flock like a shepherd; he will gather the lambs in his arms, and carry them in his bosom, and gently lead the mother sheep.
Matt 18:14 So it is not the will of your Father in heaven that one of these little ones should be lost.
Mark 10:13-14 People were bringing little children to him in order that he might touch them; and the disciples spoke sternly to them. But when Jesus saw this, he was indignant and said to them, "Let the little children come to me; do not stop them; for it is to such as these that the kingdom of God belongs.
Mark 16:16 The one who believes and is baptized will be saved; but the one who does not believe will be condemned.
John 3:16 "For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life.
Acts 2:47 praising God and having the goodwill of all the people. And day by day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.
Rom 5:9 Much more surely then, now that we have been justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath of God.
1 Cor 6:11 And this is what some of you used to be. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.
Ps 85:3 You withdrew all your wrath; you turned from your hot anger.
Matt 8:6 and saying, "Lord, my servant is lying at home paralyzed, in terrible distress."
Matt 8:13 And to the centurion Jesus said, "Go; let it be done for you according to your faith." And the servant was healed in that hour.
Matt 15:22-28 Just then a Canaanite woman from that region came out and started shouting, "Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David; my daughter is tormented by a demon." But he did not answer her at all. And his disciples came and urged him, saying, "Send her away, for she keeps shouting after us." He answered, "I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel." But she came and knelt before him, saying, "Lord, help me." He answered, "It is not fair to take the children's food and throw it to the dogs." She said, "Yes, Lord, yet even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters' table." Then Jesus answered her, "Woman, great is your faith! Let it be done for you as you wish." And her daughter was healed instantly.
Matt 17:14-15 When they came to the crowd, a man came to him, knelt before him, and said, "Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is an epileptic and he suffers terribly; he often falls into the fire and often into the water.
Matt 17:18 And Jesus rebuked the demon, and it came out of him, and the boy was cured instantly.
Luke 2:22 When the time came for their purification according to the law of Moses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord
Rom 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.
Eph 1:23 which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all.
Jam 5:16 Therefore confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another, so that you may be healed. The prayer of the righteous is powerful and effective.
Gen 7:1 Then the Lord said to Noah, "Go into the ark, you and all your household, for I have seen that you alone are righteous before me in this generation.
Ps 145:9 The Lord is good to all, and his compassion is over all that he has made.
Is 40:11 He will feed his flock like a shepherd; he will gather the lambs in his arms, and carry them in his bosom, and gently lead the mother sheep.
Matt 18:14 So it is not the will of your Father in heaven that one of these little ones should be lost.
Mark 10:13-14 People were bringing little children to him in order that he might touch them; and the disciples spoke sternly to them. But when Jesus saw this, he was indignant and said to them, "Let the little children come to me; do not stop them; for it is to such as these that the kingdom of God belongs.
Mark 16:16 The one who believes and is baptized will be saved; but the one who does not believe will be condemned.
John 3:16 "For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life.
Acts 2:47 praising God and having the goodwill of all the people. And day by day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.
Rom 5:9 Much more surely then, now that we have been justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath of God.
1 Cor 6:11 And this is what some of you used to be. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.
Ps 85:3 You withdrew all your wrath; you turned from your hot anger.
Matt 8:6 and saying, "Lord, my servant is lying at home paralyzed, in terrible distress."
Matt 8:13 And to the centurion Jesus said, "Go; let it be done for you according to your faith." And the servant was healed in that hour.
Matt 15:22-28 Just then a Canaanite woman from that region came out and started shouting, "Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David; my daughter is tormented by a demon." But he did not answer her at all. And his disciples came and urged him, saying, "Send her away, for she keeps shouting after us." He answered, "I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel." But she came and knelt before him, saying, "Lord, help me." He answered, "It is not fair to take the children's food and throw it to the dogs." She said, "Yes, Lord, yet even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters' table." Then Jesus answered her, "Woman, great is your faith! Let it be done for you as you wish." And her daughter was healed instantly.
Matt 17:14-15 When they came to the crowd, a man came to him, knelt before him, and said, "Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is an epileptic and he suffers terribly; he often falls into the fire and often into the water.
Matt 17:18 And Jesus rebuked the demon, and it came out of him, and the boy was cured instantly.
Luke 2:22 When the time came for their purification according to the law of Moses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord
Rom 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.
Eph 1:23 which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all.
Jam 5:16 Therefore confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another, so that you may be healed. The prayer of the righteous is powerful and effective.

Ps 9:10 And those who know your name put their trust in you, for you, O Lord, have not forsaken those who seek you.
Ps 72:12 For he delivers the needy when they call, the poor and those who have no helper.
Ps 124:8 Our help is in the name of the Lord, who made heaven and earth.
Ps 143:9 Save me, O Lord, from my enemies; I have fled to you for refuge.
Ps 146:7-9 who executes justice for the oppressed; who gives food to the hungry. The Lord sets the prisoners free; the Lord opens the eyes of the blind. The Lord lifts up those who are bowed down; the Lord loves the righteous. The Lord watches over the strangers; he upholds the orphan and the widow, but the way of the wicked he brings to ruin.
Is 25:4 For you have been a refuge to the poor, a refuge to the needy in their distress, a shelter from the rainstorm and a shade from the heat. When the blast of the ruthless was like a winter rainstorm,
2 Cor 6:2 For he says, "At an acceptable time I have listened to you, and on a day of salvation I have helped you." See, now is the acceptable time; see, now is the day of salvation!
1 Tim 6:15-16 which he will bring about at the right time--he who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords. It is he alone who has immortality and dwells in unapproachable light, whom no one has ever seen or can see; to him be honor and eternal dominion. Amen.
2 Chron 14:11 Asa cried to the Lord his God, "O Lord, there is no difference for you between helping the mighty and the weak. Help us, O Lord our God, for we rely on you, and in your name we have come against this multitude. O Lord, you are our God; let no mortal prevail against you."
2 Chron 20:12 O our God, will you not execute judgment upon them? For we are powerless against this great multitude that is coming against us. We do not know what to do, but our eyes are on you."
Matt 8:25-26 And they went and woke him up, saying, "Lord, save us! We are perishing!" And he said to them, "Why are you afraid, you of little faith?" Then he got up and rebuked the winds and the sea; and there was a dead calm.
1 Tim 1:17 To the King of the ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen.
Ps 36:9 For with you is the fountain of life; in your light we see light.
John 3:36 Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever disobeys the Son will not see life, but must endure God's wrath.
John 11:25-26 Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. Those who believe in me, even though they die, will live, and everyone who lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this?"
Col 3:3 for you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God.
1 John 5:11-12 And this is the testimony: God gave us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. Whoever has the Son has life; whoever does not have the Son of God does not have life.
John 6:53-55 So Jesus said to them, "Very truly, I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Those who eat my flesh and drink my blood have eternal life, and I will raise them up on the last day; for my flesh is true food and my blood is true drink.
Gal 2:20 and it is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.
Ps 145:18-19 The Lord is near to all who call on him, to all who call on him in truth. He fulfills the desire of all who fear him; he also hears their cry, and saves them.
Matt 15:22 Just then a Canaanite woman from that region came out and started shouting, "Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David; my daughter is tormented by a demon."
Matt 17:14-15 When they came to the crowd, a man came to him, knelt before him, and said, "Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is an epileptic and he suffers terribly; he often falls into the fire and often into the water.
Matt 19:13 Then little children were being brought to him in order that he might lay his hands on them and pray. The disciples spoke sternly to those who brought them;
Acts 2:38 Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
Col 2:12-13 when you were buried with him in baptism, you were also raised with him through faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead. And when you were dead in trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, God made you alive together with him, when he forgave us all our trespasses,
Tit 3:5 he saved us, not because of any works of righteousness that we had done, but according to his mercy, through the water of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit.
Jam 5:16 Therefore confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another, so that you may be healed. The prayer of the righteous is powerful and effective.
Gen 17:18 And Abraham said to God, "O that Ishmael might live in your sight!"
Luke 3:3 He went into all the region around the Jordan, proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins,
1 Sam 1:24-28 When she had weaned him, she took him up with her, along with a three-year-old bull, an ephah of flour, and a skin of wine. She brought him to the house of the Lord at Shiloh; and the child was young. Then they slaughtered the bull, and they brought the child to Eli. And she said, "Oh, my lord! As you live, my lord, I am the woman who was standing here in your presence, praying to the Lord. For this child I prayed; and the Lord has granted me the petition that I made to him. Therefore I have lent him to the Lord; as long as he lives, he is given to the Lord." She left him there for the Lord.
Matt 7:7-8 "Ask, and it will be given you; search, and you will find; knock, and the door will be opened for you. For everyone who asks receives, and everyone who searches finds, and for everyone who knocks, the door will be opened.
Luke 9:13 But he said to them, "You give them something to eat." They said, "We have no more than five loaves and two fish--unless we are to go and buy food for all these people."
Luke 11:38 The Pharisee was amazed to see that he did not first wash before dinner.
1 Cor 6:11 And this is what some of you used to be. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.
Gal 3:27-29 As many of you as were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. There is no longer Jew or Greek, there is no longer slave or free, there is no longer male and female; for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham's offspring, heirs according to the promise.
Rev 1:5-6 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and freed us from our sins by his blood, and made us to be a kingdom, priests serving his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.
Matt 5:8 "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God.
Luke 2:22 When the time came for their purification according to the law of Moses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord

The Gospel

IV. The Gospel, how properly chose. The people standing up, (which shews that they were to kneel at the two foregoing prayers,) the Minister, in the next place, is to read to them a portion out of the Gospel of St. Mark.* Which, though anciently applied to the sacrament of Baptism, has been censured by some as improper for this place; because the children there mentioned were not brought to be baptized. But if people would but consider upon what account the Gospel is placed here, I cannot think hut they would retract so impertinent a charge. In the making of a covenant, the express consent of both parties is required: and therefore the covenant of Baptism being now to be made, between Almighty God and the child to be baptized; it is reasonable, that, before the sureties engage in behalf of the infant, they should have some comfortable assurances that God on his part will be pleased to consent to and make good the agreement. For their satisfaction, therefore, the Priest, who is God’s ambassador, produces a warrant from Scripture, (the declaration of his will,) whereby it appears that God is willing to receive infants into his favour, and hath by Jesus Christ declared them capable of that grace and glory, which on God’s part are promised in this baptismal covenant: wherefore the sureties need not fear to make the stipulation on their part, since they have God’s own word that there is no impediment in children to make them incapable of receiving that which he hath promised, and will surely perform.

Then shall the people stand up, and the Priest shall say, "Hear the words of the Gospel, written by Saint Mark, in the tenth Chapter, at the thirteenth Verse."

Mark 10:13-16 People were bringing little children to him in order that he might touch them; and the disciples spoke sternly to them. But when Jesus saw this, he was indignant and said to them, "Let the little children come to me; do not stop them; for it is to such as these that the kingdom of God belongs. Truly I tell you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God as a little child will never enter it." And he took them up in his arms, laid his hands on them, and blessed them.

The Exhortation

An Exhortation. From all which premises, the Church, in a brief exhortation that follows, concludes, that the sureties may cheerfully promise that which belongs to their part, since God by his Son hath given sufficient security that his part shall be accomplished. But this being the overflowings of God’s pure mercy and goodness, and not owing to any merits or deserts in us, it is fit it should be acknowledged in an humble manner.

After the Gospel is read, the Minister shall make this brief Exhortation upon the words of the Gospel.

Matt 18:10 "Take care that you do not despise one of these little ones; for, I tell you, in heaven their angels continually see the face of my Father in heaven.
Matt 18:14 So it is not the will of your Father in heaven that one of these little ones should be lost.
Matt 21:21-22 Jesus answered them, "Truly I tell you, if you have faith and do not doubt, not only will you do what has been done to the fig tree, but even if you say to this mountain, 'Be lifted up and thrown into the sea,' it will be done. Whatever you ask for in prayer with faith, you will receive."
Mark 11:22-24 Jesus answered them, "Have faith in God. Truly I tell you, if you say to this mountain, 'Be taken up and thrown into the sea,' and if you do not doubt in your heart, but believe that what you say will come to pass, it will be done for you. So I tell you, whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours.
1 Tim 2:8 I desire, then, that in every place the men should pray, lifting up holy hands without anger or argument;
Jam 1:6 But ask in faith, never doubting, for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea, driven and tossed by the wind;
Ps 89:7 a God feared in the council of the holy ones, great and awesome above all that are around him?
Ps 89:14-16 Righteousness and justice are the foundation of your throne; steadfast love and faithfulness go before you. Happy are the people who know the festal shout, who walk, O Lord, in the light of your countenance; they exult in your name all day long, and extol your righteousness.

The Thanksgiving

Next follows a Thanksgiving for our Baptism, which we are put in mind of by this occasion, with an excellent prayer for our selves; and the Infants before us, that we may walk worthy of baptism; and they be accepted to it graciously.

V. The Thanksgiving. And therefore next follows a thanksgiving† for our own call to the knowledge of, and faith in God, which we are put in mind of by this fresh occasion: and wherein we also beg of God to give a new instance of his goodness, by giving his holy Spirit to the infant now to be baptized, that so it may he born again, and made an heir of everlasting salvation.

§.2. An old ceremony in king Edward's first book. After this thanksgiving in king Edward’s first Liturgy, the Priest was to take one of the children oy the right hand, the other being brought after him: and coming into the church toward the font (for all the former part of the service was then said at the church-door) he was to say. The Lord vouchsafe to receive you into his holy household, and to keep and govern you always in the same, that you may have everlasting life. Amen[.]

Gen 17:1 When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said to him, "I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless.
Ps 41:13 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Amen and Amen.
Rom 10:17 So faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes through the word of Christ.
Rom 16:25-26 Now to God who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery that was kept secret for long ages but is now disclosed, and through the prophetic writings is made known to all the Gentiles, according to the command of the eternal God, to bring about the obedience of faith--
2 Cor 8:9 For you know the generous act of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, so that by his poverty you might become rich.
Col 1:5-6 because of the hope laid up for you in heaven. You have heard of this hope before in the word of the truth, the gospel that has come to you. Just as it is bearing fruit and growing in the whole world, so it has been bearing fruit among yourselves from the day you heard it and truly comprehended the grace of God.
Col 2:3 in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.
Col 3:10 and have clothed yourselves with the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge according to the image of its creator.
2 Tim 1:9 who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works but according to his own purpose and grace. This grace was given to us in Christ Jesus before the ages began,
1 Pet 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! By his great mercy he has given us a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,
1 Pet 2:9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, in order that you may proclaim the mighty acts of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.
2 Pet 1:3 His divine power has given us everything needed for life and godliness, through the knowledge of him who called us by his own glory and goodness.
1 John 3:23 And this is his commandment, that we should believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ and love one another, just as he has commanded us.
1 Cor 1:21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world did not know God through wisdom, God decided, through the foolishness of our proclamation, to save those who believe.
Ps 92:12-13 The righteous flourish like the palm tree, and grow like a cedar in Lebanon. They are planted in the house of the Lord; they flourish in the courts of our God.
1 Cor 1:7-8 so that you are not lacking in any spiritual gift as you wait for the revealing of our Lord Jesus Christ. He will also strengthen you to the end, so that you may be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Eph 1:15-19 I have heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and your love toward all the saints, and for this reason I do not cease to give thanks for you as I remember you in my prayers. I pray that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give you a spirit of wisdom and revelation as you come to know him, so that, with the eyes of your heart enlightened, you may know what is the hope to which he has called you, what are the riches of his glorious inheritance among the saints, and what is the immeasurable greatness of his power for us who believe, according to the working of his great power.
Eph 3:14-19 For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, from whom every family in heaven and on earth takes its name. I pray that, according to the riches of his glory, he may grant that you may be strengthened in your inner being with power through his Spirit, and that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith, as you are being rooted and grounded in love. I pray that you may have the power to comprehend, with all the saints, what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ that surpasses knowledge, so that you may be filled with all the fullness of God.
Phil 3:13-14 Beloved, I do not consider that I have made it my own; but this one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead, I press on toward the goal for the prize of the heavenly call of God in Christ Jesus.
Col 1:10 so that you may lead lives worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing to him, as you bear fruit in every good work and as you grow in the knowledge of God.
Col 2:7 rooted and built up in him and established in the faith, just as you were taught, abounding in thanksgiving.
2 Pet 3:18 But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.
2 Thess 1:3-5 We must always give thanks to God for you, brothers and sisters, as is right, because your faith is growing abundantly, and the love of every one of you for one another is increasing. Therefore we ourselves boast of you among the churches of God for your steadfastness and faith during all your persecutions and the afflictions that you are enduring. This is evidence of the righteous judgment of God, and is intended to make you worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you are also suffering.
Heb 10:23 Let us hold fast to the confession of our hope without wavering, for he who has promised is faithful.
Dan 9:17 Now therefore, O our God, listen to the prayer of your servant and to his supplication, and for your own sake, Lord, let your face shine upon your desolated sanctuary.
Luke 11:13 If you then, who are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!"
John 3:3 Jesus answered him, "Very truly, I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God without being born from above."
John 3:5-7 Jesus answered, "Very truly, I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born of water and Spirit. What is born of the flesh is flesh, and what is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not be astonished that I said to you, 'You must be born from above.'
John 3:16 "For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life.
John 7:37 On the last day of the festival, the great day, while Jesus was standing there, he cried out, "Let anyone who is thirsty come to me,
John 7:39 Now he said this about the Spirit, which believers in him were to receive; for as yet there was no Spirit, because Jesus was not yet glorified.
Acts 26:18 to open their eyes so that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, so that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in me.'
Gal 3:27 As many of you as were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.
Gal 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham's offspring, heirs according to the promise.
Gal 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a child, and if a child then also an heir, through God.
Gal 6:15 For neither circumcision nor uncircumcision is anything; but a new creation is everything!
2 Thess 2:13-14 But we must always give thanks to God for you, brothers and sisters beloved by the Lord, because God chose you as the first fruits for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit and through belief in the truth. For this purpose he called you through our proclamation of the good news, so that you may obtain the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Tit 3:7 so that, having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs according to the hope of eternal life.
Heb 1:14 Are not all angels spirits in the divine service, sent to serve for the sake of those who are to inherit salvation?
Heb 5:9 and having been made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him,
1 Thess 5:9 For God has destined us not for wrath but for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ,

The Promises

Then shall the Priest demand of the Godfathers, &c. These questions, Dost thou forsake, &c. This Form of interrogating the Godfathers in the name of the child, is very Ancient and Reasonable.

For the Antiquity of it, see S. Chrys. in Psal. 14. Adducit quisquam infantem ubera sugentem, ut baptizetur, & statim sacerdos exigit ab infirma aetate, pacta, conventa, assensiones, & minoris aetate fide jussorem accipit susceptorem, & interrogat an renunciat Satanae. The sucking Infant is brought to baptism. The Priest exacts of that Infant covenants, contracts and agreements: and accepting of the Godfather in the Infants stead, he asks, whether he does forsake the Devil, &c.] Cyprian ep. 7.

H. The moving of these following interrogatories to infants, seemed over light for a Sacrament of so high importance ; and I confess, at the first glance, and perfunctory view, it exhibits much in favour of that misapprehension. But go nearer and behold it with a stricter scrutiny, the practice will appear not only defensible enough, but decently accommodated to the sacred office of peedo-baptism.

This Sacrament, all men know and grant, is the initiation, the first admission into the gospel-covenant ; a covenant must be bipartite, there must be at least two parties to it, Christ here for His part promiseth to persons baptized, remission of sins, Acts il. 38, (as also in that great charter of “ask and ye shall have,”’) and all other things advancing their eternal salvation. And that this prove not nudum pactum, “a naked contract,” without guid pro guo, reason good he should covenant with persons to be baptized, “that they forsake the devil and all his works, and constantly believe God’s holy word, and obediently keep His commandments.” Now because tender babes are in no capacity to stipulate for themselves, therefore the Church, who is the common mother to all such as profess Christianity, assigneth to those infants, and to all persons naturally so impedited, sponsores, i. e. “ godfathers” or guardians to undertake and assume for them what they ought to do for themselves, were it consistent with their, rather days than, years. For the presentment of children at the font, is most properly the act of the Church, and but ministerially the act of the sponsores. Accommodat illis mater Ecclesia aliorum pedes, ut veniant, aliorum cor ut credant, aliorum linguam ut fateantur, saith St. Augustine; i. 6. “the Church furnisheth them with others’ feet to come, with the heart of others to believe, and with the tongue of others to confess their faith.” And it is an act of her charity indulged unto the infants of all such as have consigned up their names to Christianity, without regard to the either, perhaps blameworthy conversation, or misbelief in points of religion of the parents, much less to spurious generation.

Nor this a practice rare and unheard of, but hath its parallel amongst almost all nations in civil transactions, they indulging the like favour not only to infants, but also to all that labour of the like incapacity: Valerius Flaccus quem edilem creaverant, quia Flamen Dialis erat, jurare in leges non poterat, magistratum autem plus quinque dies, nisi qui jurasset in leges, non licebat gerere, ideo petiit ut legibus solveretur: quare dutus alter, viz., Frater ejus, qui pro eo juraret, plebesque scivit, ut perinde esset, ac si ipse edilis jurasset, i.e. “ Valerius being before Flamen Dialis, or Jupiter’s high-priest, soon after was created aedile,” (or overseer of dilapidations ;) ‘‘as he was high-priest he ought not to swear,” (the law of the Romans supposing such a sacred person would voluntarily do what an oath would compel, much like the value our nation hath for her nobility upon that very account, not demanding corporal oath from such persons of honour,) “and no man could hold any office of magistracy above five days, unless he first took oath to observe the laws: whereupon, he moved the law might be dispensed with; wherefore another was assigned for his proxy, and his brother sworn in his stead, the people decreeing that it should be as firm in law as if the edile himself had taken the oath.” So the civil law confirmeth all stipulations of the guardians or tutors of pupils, which are made for the benefit of the minor, and so doth the common law of this land. Authoritas custodum est, ut contrahant, in judicio stent, reliquaque faciant pro pupillo suo, que rerum statusque sui vel conservationem, vel incrementum spectant, 1. 6. “ guardians have full authority to contract, to bring an action, and to act any thing in their pupil’s behalf, which may tend to the preservation of his estate, or advantage of his affairs.” Yea, custos in animam minoris jurare potest, 1. 6. “the guardian may swear for his minor,” saith the same author: and I myself am not ignorant, that in court-rolls, entries are to be, found of several persons, who have been sworn for minors and infants, who, in respect of tenure, were obliged in course to bear offices relating to their lord paramount.

VI. The preface to the covenant. And now no doubt remaining but that God is ready and willing to perform his part of the covenant, so soon as the child shall promise on his; the Priest addresses himself to the godfathers and godmothers to promise for him, and from them takes security that the infant shall observe the conditions that are required of him. And in this there is nothing strange or new; nothing which is not used almost in every contract. By an old law of the Romans, all magistrates were obliged, within five days after admission to their office, to take an oath to observe the laws. Now it happened that C. Valerius Flaccus was chosen edile, or overseer of the public buildings. But he being before Flamen Dialis, or Jupiter’s high priest, could not be admitted by the Romans to swear; their laws supposing that so sacred a person would voluntarily do what an oath would oblige him to. C. Valerius however desired that his brother, as his proxy, might be sworn in his stead: to this the commons agreed, and passed an act that it should be all the same as if the edile had sworn himself. Much after the same manner, whenever kings are crowned in their infancy, some of the nobility, deputed to represent them, take the usual oaths. The same do ambassadors for their principals at the ratifying of leagues or articles; and guardians for their minors, who are bound by the law to stand to what is contracted for them. Since then all nations and orders of men act by this method, why should it be charged as a fault upon the Church, that she admits infants to baptism, by sponsors undertaking for them?

Then shall the Priest speak unto the Godfathers and Godmothers on this wise.

Deut 7:9 Know therefore that the Lord your God is God, the faithful God who maintains covenant loyalty with those who love him and keep his commandments, to a thousand generations,
Acts 7:8 Then he gave him the covenant of circumcision. And so Abraham became the father of Isaac and circumcised him on the eighth day; and Isaac became the father of Jacob, and Jacob of the twelve patriarchs.
Rom 4:11-12 He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the ancestor of all who believe without being circumcised and who thus have righteousness reckoned to them, and likewise the ancestor of the circumcised who are not only circumcised but who also follow the example of the faith that our ancestor Abraham had before he was circumcised.
2 Cor 4:16 So we do not lose heart. Even though our outer nature is wasting away, our inner nature is being renewed day by day.
Eph 1:7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace
Tit 1:1-2 Paul, a servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, for the sake of the faith of God's elect and the knowledge of the truth that is in accordance with godliness, in the hope of eternal life that God, who never lies, promised before the ages began--
Tit 1:4 To Titus, my loyal child in the faith we share: Grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior.
Heb 6:16-20 Human beings, of course, swear by someone greater than themselves, and an oath given as confirmation puts an end to all dispute. In the same way, when God desired to show even more clearly to the heirs of the promise the unchangeable character of his purpose, he guaranteed it by an oath, so that through two unchangeable things, in which it is impossible that God would prove false, we who have taken refuge might be strongly encouraged to seize the hope set before us. We have this hope, a sure and steadfast anchor of the soul, a hope that enters the inner shrine behind the curtain, where Jesus, a forerunner on our behalf, has entered, having become a high priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.
1 Pet 1:2 who have been chosen and destined by God the Father and sanctified by the Spirit to be obedient to Jesus Christ and to be sprinkled with his blood: May grace and peace be yours in abundance.
Gen 21:4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him.
Luke 2:21-22 After eight days had passed, it was time to circumcise the child; and he was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. When the time came for their purification according to the law of Moses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord
Deut 29:9-15 Therefore diligently observe the words of this covenant, in order that you may succeed in everything that you do. You stand assembled today, all of you, before the Lord your God--the leaders of your tribes, your elders, and your officials, all the men of Israel, your children, your women, and the aliens who are in your camp, both those who cut your wood and those who draw your water-- to enter into the covenant of the Lord your God, sworn by an oath, which the Lord your God is making with you today; in order that he may establish you today as his people, and that he may be your God, as he promised you and as he swore to your ancestors, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. I am making this covenant, sworn by an oath, not only with you who stand here with us today before the Lord our God, but also with those who are not here with us today.
Matt 8:21 Another of his disciples said to him, "Lord, first let me go and bury my father."
John 8:44 You are from your father the devil, and you choose to do your father's desires. He was a murderer from the beginning and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks according to his own nature, for he is a liar and the father of lies.
John 14:15 "If you love me, you will keep my commandments.
Acts 8:36-37 As they were going along the road, they came to some water; and the eunuch said, "Look, here is water! What is to prevent me from being baptized?"
Gal 5:19-21 Now the works of the flesh are obvious: fornication, impurity, licentiousness, idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, anger, quarrels, dissensions, factions, envy, drunkenness, carousing, and things like these. I am warning you, as I warned you before: those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God.
Gal 5:24 And those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires.
Col 1:21-23 And you who were once estranged and hostile in mind, doing evil deeds, he has now reconciled in his fleshly body through death, so as to present you holy and blameless and irreproachable before him-- provided that you continue securely established and steadfast in the faith, without shifting from the hope promised by the gospel that you heard, which has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven. I, Paul, became a servant of this gospel.
2 Tim 2:19 But God's firm foundation stands, bearing this inscription: "The Lord knows those who are his," and, "Let everyone who calls on the name of the Lord turn away from wickedness."
2 Tim 3:15 and how from childhood you have known the sacred writings that are able to instruct you for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus.
1 John 3:8 Everyone who commits sin is a child of the devil; for the devil has been sinning from the beginning. The Son of God was revealed for this purpose, to destroy the works of the devil.
1 John 3:10 The children of God and the children of the devil are revealed in this way: all who do not do what is right are not from God, nor are those who do not love their brothers and sisters.
Rom 6:3-14 Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? Therefore we have been buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life. For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we will certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin. For whoever has died is freed from sin. But if we have died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him. We know that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. The death he died, he died to sin, once for all; but the life he lives, he lives to God. So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus. Therefore, do not let sin exercise dominion in your mortal bodies, to make you obey their passions. No longer present your members to sin as instruments of wickedness, but present yourselves to God as those who have been brought from death to life, and present your members to God as instruments of righteousness. For sin will have no dominion over you, since you are not under law but under grace.
Gal 4:1-2 My point is this: heirs, as long as they are minors, are no better than slaves, though they are the owners of all the property; but they remain under guardians and trustees until the date set by the father.

The Queries

VII. The stipulation to be made by question and answer. Having thus justified the reasonableness of a vicarious stipulation, let us now proceed to consider the form that is here used. It is drawn up all along by way of question and answer, which seems to have been the method even in the days of the Apostles: for St. Peter calls baptism the answer of a good conscience: and in the primitive Church, queries were always put to the persons baptized, which persons at age answered themselves, and children by their representatives, who are therefore to answer in the first person, (as the advocate speaks in the person of the client,) I renounce, &c., because the contract is properly made with the child.

§.2. In the name of the child. For which reason, in the first book of king Edward, the priest is ordered to demand of the child these several questions proposed; and in our present Liturgy, though the Minister directs himself to the godfathers and godmothers, yet he speaks by them to the child, as is manifestly apparent from the third question: and consequently the child is supposed to return the several answers which are made by the godfathers, &c., and to promise by those that are his sureties (as the above preface expresses it) that he will renounce the Devil and all his works, and constantly believe God’s holy word, and obediently keep his Commandments.

§.3. An account of the queries. The queries proposed are four, of which the last was added at the Restoration; there being but three of them in any of the former books, though in the first of king Edward they are broken into eight. They being all of them exceedingly suitable and proper, I think it not amiss to take notice of them severally.


§.8. This baptismal vow very primitive. I cannot conclude this section till I have observed, that this whole stipulation is so exactly conformable to that which was used in the primitive Church, that it cannot be unpleasant to compare them together. All that were to be baptized were brought to the entrance of the baptistery or font, and standing with their faces towards the west, (which being directly opposite to the east, the place of light, did symbolically represent the prince of darkness, whom they were to renounce) were commanded to stretch out their hands as it were in defiance of him; and then the bishop asked them every one, “Dost thou renounce the Devil and all his works, powers, and service?” To which each party answered, “I do renounce them.”—”Dost thou renounce the world, and all its pomps and vanities?” Answer, “I do renounce them.” In the next place they made an open confession of their faith, the bishop asking, “Dost thou believe in God the Father Almighty, &c., in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord, who, &c. Dost thou believe in the Holy Ghost, the holy Catholic Church, and in one baptism of repentance for remission of sins, and the life everlasting?” To all which each party answered, “I do believe;” as our Church still requires in this office.

The Renunciation of Evil

We renounc'd the world when we were baptized: and their form of abrenunciation was much like ours, as you may see, Salvian. l. 6. Aug. Ep. 23. and Cyril. Cat. Mist. 1. Where you may see at large the ancient Form and Manner of Abrenunciations.

First, you entred into the Church Porch the place of the Font or Baptistery, and standing towards the West, you heard it commanded you, that with hands stretched out you should renounce the Devil, as if he were there present. It behoves you to know that a Type or Sign of this, you have in the Old Testament. When Pharaoh the most bitter and cruel Tyrant oppressed the free people of the Jews, God sent Moses to deliver them from the grievous servitude of the Egyptians, the posts of the doors were anointed with the blood of the Lamb, that the destroying Angel might pass by the houses which had that sign of blood: and the people were delivered beyond expectation. But after that the Enemy saw them delivered, and the Red sea divided; he followed and pursued them, and was over-whelmed with the waves of the Sea. Pass we from the Figure to the Truth, there was Moses sent by God into Egypt; here Christ is sent into the world; he to deliver the people oppressed by Pharaoh, Christ to deliver the Devils captives; there the blood of the Lamb turn'd away the Destroyer; here the blood of the immaculate Lamb Christ Jesus is the defence against the Devil; That Tyrant followed our Fathers to the Red Sea, this impudent Prince of wickedness the Devil, follows there even to the waters of Salvation; he was drowned in the Sea, this is stifled in the waters of Life. Hear now what with a beck of the hand is said to the Devil, as present; I renounce thee Satan: It is worth the while, to explain why you stand to the West when you say this. The sun-set is the place of darkness, and the Devil is the Prince of darkness; and therefore in token of this, ye renounce the Prince of darkness, looking towards the West, I renounce thee Satan thou cruel Tyrant, I fear thy force no more, for Christ hath dissolved the power of darkness, I renounce thee, subtle Serpent, who under the shew of friendship, actest all thy villany, Then he adds, and all thy works. Those are sins of all sorts, which you must of necessity renounce. And this you must not be ignorant of, that whatsoever thou sayest in that dreadful hour, is written down in Gods book, and shall be accounted for. After this you say, And all his pomp, all vain shews from which holy David prayes to be delivered. Turn away mine eyes lest they behold vanity, Psal. 119. and all thy worship, all Idolatry and Superstition, all Magick and South-saying, all worship of, and prayers to the Devil. Take heed therefore of all these things which thou hast renounced: For if after the renunciation of the Devil, you fall back again into his captivity, he will be a more cruel Master than before; the last state of that man is worse than the beginning.

When you have renounced the Devil, then the Paradise of God is opened to you, which was planted in the East; and therefore as a Type of this you are turn'd from the West to the East, the Region of light.

We have seen that it was Ancient. And that it is Reasonable we shall perceive, if we consider, that in baptism we are making or concluding a Covenant, the New Covenant of the Gospel; in which Covenant Gods part is promises, precious promises, as S. Peter calls them, 2 S. Pet. 1. 4. for performance of which he hath given his word; and therefore good reason it is, that we also should give our word, and promise for performance of conditions on our parts, viz. to renounce the Devil and the World, and swear fidelity to our LORD. In all other Covenants and Contracts it is thought reasonable, that the several parties should mutually engage for performance of conditions, and that at the making and concluding of the Contract.

And why should not that which is thought reasonable in all other contracts, be thought reasonable in this? As thus to give our faith and word for performance of conditions is reasonable; so, if it be done with grave solemnity and in publick, it is so much the better, and more obliging: For grave solemnities make a deep impression upon the apprehension: (whence it is, that a corporal oath vested with the religious solemnity of laying on the hand upon, and kissing the holy Gospels, is more dreaded, than a naked and sudden oath) and promises made in publick bind more, because of the shame of falsifying, where so many eyes look on: which very shame of being noted to be false, oft-times is a greater bridle to sin, than the fear of punishment, as the World knows.

And this use the ancient Fathers made of it, to shame gross offenders by remembring them of their solemn promise made in Baptism to renounce the Devil, and give up themselves to God. Children, who by reason of their tender age, cannot perform this solemnity, have appointed them by the Church, Susceptores, Godfathers, who shall in the name of the child do it for them. As, by the wisest laws of the World, Guardians may contract for their Minors or Pupils to their benefit; and what the Guardians in such cases undertake, the Minors or Pupils are bound, when they are able to perform. For the Law looks upon them, not the Guardians, as obliged. So did the Church always account, that these promises which were made by the God-fathers in the name of the childe, did bind the child, as if in person himself had made it. And when the Ancients did upbraid any offenders with the breach of their promise made in baptism; none of those that were baptised in their infancy, were so desperate, as to answer scornfully, it was not I but my Godfathers that promised; and if any should so have answered, he would have been loudly laught at for that his empty criticism.

Though this promise of Abrenunciation made in baptism be ancient and reasonable; yet is it not absolutely necessary to baptism, but when danger requires haste, it may be omitted, as the Church teaches in Private Baptism: yet if the child lives, it is to be brought to Church, and this solemnity to be performed after baptism. Rubr at private Bapt.

I. Dost thou forsake the devil, &c.] This form of abrenunciation is no novice, Tertullian mentions it expressly ; sub antistitis manu contestamur nos renunciare diabolo et pompie et angelis ejus: “whilst the hand of the priest is upon us, we declare that we renounce the devil, his pomp and his angels.” St. Cyprian; seculo renunciaverimus cum baptizati sumus : “we gave defiance to the world when we were first baptized.” The direction in the Constitutions is very considerable; ἀπαγγέλλετω οὖν ὁ βαπτιζόμενος ἐν τῷ ἀποτάσσεσθαι: τάσσομαι TO Σατανᾷ καὶ τοῖς ἔργοις αὐτοῦ, καὶ ταῖς πομπαῖς αὐτοῦ, καὶ ταῖς λατρείαις αὐτοῦ, καὶ τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ, καὶ ταῖς ἐφευρέσεσιν αὐτοῦ. μετὰ δέ τὴν ἀποταγὴν συντασσόμενος λεγέτω, ὅτι καὶ συντάσσομαι τῷ Χριστῷ: “let him who is to be baptized renounce in this form, ‘I renounce the devil and all his works, and his pomps, and his services, and his angels, and all his devices.’ And after this renunciation let him proceed thus, ‘I list and enrol myself in the service of Christ.’” The ancient mode in this renunciation presents us with these remarkables: first, it was distinguished into, sometimes two, sometimes three questions, as it was in the first liturgy of Edw. VI., and as many replications. Quando te interrogavit Sacerdos, Abrenuntias diabolo, et operibus ejus; quid respondisti? Abrenuntio. Abrenuntias seculo et voluptatibus ejus ; quid respondisti 2? Abrenuntiot. “ Whilst the priest demanded of thee, ‘Dost thou renounce the devil and all his works,’ what didst thou answer? ‘I renounce them all.’ ‘Dost thou renounce the world and all the pleasuresthereof,’ what didst thou answer? ‘I renounce them all.’” This for double renunciation. As for triple, the author of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, and St. Gregory the Great, witnesseth it.

Secondly, it is observable that the party renouncing did use first to turn himself to the west, primum renunciamus ei, qui in occidente est, and so renounce; and then versi ad orientem, pactum inimus cum sole justitie : “turning about to the east, there we make a covenant with the Sun of righteousness.” Now this abrenunciation denoting a motion from the service of the world, the flesh, and the devil, to the worship of Jesus Christ, it is also very remarkable that Satan observes the same rule in the admission of his neophytes. For (which I note as a singular evidence for the verity of Christian religion) the first operation in the first method of his stipulation is, that all his converts renounce their baptism, that is, recant their baptismal renunciation; and this he observes precisely towards all such as he subverts, as well in the profession of the Church of Rome, as England.

§.4. Query 1. First, then, when we enter into covenant with God, we must have the same friends and enemies as he hath; especially when the same that are enemies to him are also enemies to our salvation. And therefore, since children are by nature the slaves of the Devil, and, though they have not yet been actually in his service, will nevertheless be apt to be drawn into it, by the pomps and glory of the worlds and the carnal desires of the flesh; it is necessary to secure them for God betimes, and to engage them to take all these for their enemies, since whoso loveth them cannot love God.

Isa 5:13-14 Therefore my people go into exile without knowledge; their nobles are dying of hunger, and their multitude is parched with thirst. Therefore Sheol has enlarged its appetite and opened its mouth beyond measure; the nobility of Jerusalem and her multitude go down, her throng and all who exult in her.
Rom 8:6 To set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace.
Rom 8:12-14 So then, brothers and sisters, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh-- for if you live according to the flesh, you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. For all who are led by the Spirit of God are children of God.
1 Cor 7:31 and those who deal with the world as though they had no dealings with it. For the present form of this world is passing away.
Tit 2:11-14 For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all, training us to renounce impiety and worldly passions, and in the present age to live lives that are self-controlled, upright, and godly, while we wait for the blessed hope and the manifestation of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ. He it is who gave himself for us that he might redeem us from all iniquity and purify for himself a people of his own who are zealous for good deeds.
Jam 4:7 Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you.
1 John 2:15-16 Do not love the world or the things in the world. The love of the Father is not in those who love the world; for all that is in the world--the desire of the flesh, the desire of the eyes, the pride in riches--comes not from the Father but from the world.
1 John 3:8-10 Everyone who commits sin is a child of the devil; for the devil has been sinning from the beginning. The Son of God was revealed for this purpose, to destroy the works of the devil. Those who have been born of God do not sin, because God's seed abides in them; they cannot sin, because they have been born of God. The children of God and the children of the devil are revealed in this way: all who do not do what is right are not from God, nor are those who do not love their brothers and sisters.
1 John 3:19 And by this we will know that we are from the truth and will reassure our hearts before him

The Affirmation of the Apostles' Creed

§.5. Query 2. Secondly, faith is a necessary qualification for baptism; and therefore before Philip would baptize the eunuch, he asked him, if he believed with all his heart: and received his answer that he believed Jesus to be the Son of God? From which remarkable precedent the Church hath ever since demanded of all those who enter into the Christian profession, if they believe all the Articles which are implied in that profession: and this was either done by way of question and answer, or else the party baptized (if of age) was made to repeat the whole Creed.

Deut 4:35 To you it was shown so that you would acknowledge that the Lord is God; there is no other besides him.
2 Chron 20:20 They rose early in the morning and went out into the wilderness of Tekoa; and as they went out, Jehoshaphat stood and said, "Listen to me, O Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem! Believe in the Lord your God and you will be established; believe his prophets."
Mark 9:24 Immediately the father of the child cried out, "I believe; help my unbelief!"
John 4:24 God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth."
1 Cor 8:4 Hence, as to the eating of food offered to idols, we know that "no idol in the world really exists," and that "there is no God but one."
1 Thess 1:9 For the people of those regions report about us what kind of welcome we had among you, and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God,
Heb 11:6 And without faith it is impossible to please God, for whoever would approach him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him.
Jer 32:17-18 Ah Lord God! It is you who made the heavens and the earth by your great power and by your outstretched arm! Nothing is too hard for you. You show steadfast love to the thousandth generation, but repay the guilt of parents into the laps of their children after them, O great and mighty God whose name is the Lord of hosts,
Jer 32:27 See, I am the Lord, the God of all flesh; is anything too hard for me?
Mal 2:10 Have we not all one father? Has not one God created us? Why then are we faithless to one another, profaning the covenant of our ancestors?
Matt 19:26 But Jesus looked at them and said, "For mortals it is impossible, but for God all things are possible."
John 10:29 What my Father has given me is greater than all else, and no one can snatch it out of the Father's hand.
1 Cor 8:6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.
Rev 19:6 Then I heard what seemed to be the voice of a great multitude, like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty thunderpeals, crying out, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God the Almighty reigns.
Gen 1:1 In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth,
Ex 20:11 For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but rested the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and consecrated it.
Ps 102:25 Long ago you laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands.
Is 45:18 For thus says the Lord, who created the heavens (he is God!), who formed the earth and made it (he established it; he did not create it a chaos, he formed it to be inhabited!): I am the Lord, and there is no other.
Is 48:12-13 Listen to me, O Jacob, and Israel, whom I called: I am He; I am the first, and I am the last. My hand laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand spread out the heavens; when I summon them, they stand at attention.
Mal 2:10 Have we not all one father? Has not one God created us? Why then are we faithless to one another, profaning the covenant of our ancestors?
Matt. 1:21 She will bear a son, and you are to name him Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins.’
Luke 2:11 to you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is the Messiah, the Lord.
John 3:18 Those who believe in him are not condemned; but those who do not believe are condemned already, because they have not believed in the name of the only Son of God.
John 6:29 Jesus answered them, ‘This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent.’
John 6:67-69 So Jesus asked the twelve, ‘Do you also wish to go away?’ Simon Peter answered him, ‘Lord, to whom can we go? You have the words of eternal life. We have come to believe and know that you are the Holy One of God.’
John 13:13 You call me Teacher and Lord—and you are right, for that is what I am.
John 14:1 ‘Do not let your hearts be troubled. Believe in God, believe also in me.
John 20:31 But these are written so that you may come to believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that through believing you may have life in his name.
1 John 4:9 God’s love was revealed among us in this way: God sent his only Son into the world so that we might live through him.
Gen. 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until tribute comes to him; and the obedience of the peoples is his.
Ps. 2:7 I will tell of the decree of the Lord: He said to me, ‘You are my son; today I have begotten you.
Luke 1:31, 35 And now, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you will name him Jesus. The angel said to her, ‘The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called Son of God.
John 1:18 No one has ever seen God. It is God the only Son, who is close to the Father’s heart, who has made him known.
2 Cor. 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and the God of all consolation,
1 Tim. 1:15 The saying is sure and worthy of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners—of whom I am the foremost.
Heb. 2:14 Since, therefore, the children share flesh and blood, he himself likewise shared the same things, so that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil,
1 Pet. 1:20 He was destined before the foundation of the world, but was revealed at the end of the ages for your sake.
Is 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Look, the young woman is with child and shall bear a son, and shall name him Immanuel.
Matt 1:20-25 But just when he had resolved to do this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife, for the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will bear a son, and you are to name him Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins." All this took place to fulfill what had been spoken by the Lord through the prophet: "Look, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall name him Emmanuel," which means, "God is with us." When Joseph awoke from sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him; he took her as his wife, but had no marital relations with her until she had borne a son; and he named him Jesus.
Luke 1:35 The angel said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called Son of God.
Matt 12:40 For just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the sea monster, so for three days and three nights the Son of Man will be in the heart of the earth.
Matt 26:38 Then he said to them, "I am deeply grieved, even to death; remain here, and stay awake with me."
Matt 27:1-2 When morning came, all the chief priests and the elders of the people conferred together against Jesus in order to bring about his death. They bound him, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate the governor.
Matt 27:26-31 So he released Barabbas for them; and after flogging Jesus, he handed him over to be crucified. Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the governor's headquarters, and they gathered the whole cohort around him. They stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him, and after twisting some thorns into a crown, they put it on his head. They put a reed in his right hand and knelt before him and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" They spat on him, and took the reed and struck him on the head. After mocking him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes on him. Then they led him away to crucify him.
Matt 27:50 Then Jesus cried again with a loud voice and breathed his last.
Matt 27:59-60 So Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn in the rock. He then rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb and went away.
Mark 9:12 He said to them, "Elijah is indeed coming first to restore all things. How then is it written about the Son of Man, that he is to go through many sufferings and be treated with contempt?
Luke 22:44 In his anguish he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.]]
1 Pet 4:1 Since therefore Christ suffered in the flesh, arm yourselves also with the same intention (for whoever has suffered in the flesh has finished with sin),
Ps 16:10 For you do not give me up to Sheol, or let your faithful one see the Pit.
Is 5:14 Therefore Sheol has enlarged its appetite and opened its mouth beyond measure; the nobility of Jerusalem and her multitude go down, her throng and all who exult in her.
Acts 2:24 But God raised him up, having freed him from death, because it was impossible for him to be held in its power.
Acts 2:27-32 For you will not abandon my soul to Hades, or let your Holy One experience corruption. You have made known to me the ways of life; you will make me full of gladness with your presence.' "Fellow Israelites, I may say to you confidently of our ancestor David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. Since he was a prophet, he knew that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would put one of his descendants on his throne. Foreseeing this, David spoke of the resurrection of the Messiah, saying, 'He was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh experience corruption.' This Jesus God raised up, and of that all of us are witnesses.
Rom 4:24-25 but for ours also. It will be reckoned to us who believe in him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, who was handed over to death for our trespasses and was raised for our justification.
1 Cor 15:4 and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures,
Eph 4:9 (When it says, "He ascended," what does it mean but that he had also descended into the lower parts of the earth?
Mark 16:19 So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God.
Luke 24:51 While he was blessing them, he withdrew from them and was carried up into heaven.
Acts 1:9 When he had said this, as they were watching, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight.
Acts 7:56 "Look," he said, "I see the heavens opened and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God!"
Eph 4:10 He who descended is the same one who ascended far above all the heavens, so that he might fill all things.)
Heb 6:20 where Jesus, a forerunner on our behalf, has entered, having become a high priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.
Heb 10:12 But when Christ had offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, "he sat down at the right hand of God,"
1 Pet 3:21-22 And baptism, which this prefigured, now saves you--not as a removal of dirt from the body, but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, with angels, authorities, and powers made subject to him.
Matt 25:31-46 "When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, and he will put the sheep at his right hand and the goats at the left. Then the king will say to those at his right hand, 'Come, you that are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you gave me clothing, I was sick and you took care of me, I was in prison and you visited me.' Then the righteous will answer him, 'Lord, when was it that we saw you hungry and gave you food, or thirsty and gave you something to drink? And when was it that we saw you a stranger and welcomed you, or naked and gave you clothing? And when was it that we saw you sick or in prison and visited you?' And the king will answer them, 'Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me.' Then he will say to those at his left hand, 'You that are accursed, depart from me into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry and you gave me no food, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, I was a stranger and you did not welcome me, naked and you did not give me clothing, sick and in prison and you did not visit me.' Then they also will answer, 'Lord, when was it that we saw you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not take care of you?' Then he will answer them, 'Truly I tell you, just as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me.' And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life."
John 5:22 The Father judges no one but has given all judgment to the Son,
Acts 10:42 He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that he is the one ordained by God as judge of the living and the dead.
1 Thess 4:16-17 For the Lord himself, with a cry of command, with the archangel's call and with the sound of God's trumpet, will descend from heaven, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up in the clouds together with them to meet the Lord in the air; and so we will be with the Lord forever.
2 Tim 4:1 In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I solemnly urge you:
Matt 25:31-46 "When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. All the nations will be gathered before him, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, and he will put the sheep at his right hand and the goats at the left. Then the king will say to those at his right hand, 'Come, you that are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you gave me clothing, I was sick and you took care of me, I was in prison and you visited me.' Then the righteous will answer him, 'Lord, when was it that we saw you hungry and gave you food, or thirsty and gave you something to drink? And when was it that we saw you a stranger and welcomed you, or naked and gave you clothing? And when was it that we saw you sick or in prison and visited you?' And the king will answer them, 'Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me.' Then he will say to those at his left hand, 'You that are accursed, depart from me into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry and you gave me no food, I was thirsty and you gave me nothing to drink, I was a stranger and you did not welcome me, naked and you did not give me clothing, sick and in prison and you did not visit me.' Then they also will answer, 'Lord, when was it that we saw you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not take care of you?' Then he will answer them, 'Truly I tell you, just as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me.' And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life."
John 5:22 The Father judges no one but has given all judgment to the Son,
Acts 10:42 He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that he is the one ordained by God as judge of the living and the dead.
1 Thess 4:16-17 For the Lord himself, with a cry of command, with the archangel's call and with the sound of God's trumpet, will descend from heaven, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up in the clouds together with them to meet the Lord in the air; and so we will be with the Lord forever.
2 Tim 4:1 In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I solemnly urge you:
Matt 13:24-30 He put before them another parable: "The kingdom of heaven may be compared to someone who sowed good seed in his field; but while everybody was asleep, an enemy came and sowed weeds among the wheat, and then went away. So when the plants came up and bore grain, then the weeds appeared as well. And the slaves of the householder came and said to him, 'Master, did you not sow good seed in your field? Where, then, did these weeds come from?' He answered, 'An enemy has done this.' The slaves said to him, 'Then do you want us to go and gather them?' But he replied, 'No; for in gathering the weeds you would uproot the wheat along with them. Let both of them grow together until the harvest; and at harvest time I will tell the reapers, Collect the weeds first and bind them in bundles to be burned, but gather the wheat into my barn.'"
Matt 13:47-48 "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was thrown into the sea and caught fish of every kind; when it was full, they drew it ashore, sat down, and put the good into baskets but threw out the bad.
Matt 16:18 And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it.
Matt 22:9-10 Go therefore into the main streets, and invite everyone you find to the wedding banquet.' Those slaves went out into the streets and gathered all whom they found, both good and bad; so the wedding hall was filled with guests.
John 10:16 I have other sheep that do not belong to this fold. I must bring them also, and they will listen to my voice. So there will be one flock, one shepherd.
John 17:20-21 "I ask not only on behalf of these, but also on behalf of those who will believe in me through their word, that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me.
1 Cor 10:17 Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread.
1 Cor 12:12 For just as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ.
Eph 2:19-22 So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are citizens with the saints and also members of the household of God, built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the cornerstone. In him the whole structure is joined together and grows into a holy temple in the Lord; in whom you also are built together spiritually into a dwelling place for God.
Eph 5:27 so as to present the church to himself in splendor, without a spot or wrinkle or anything of the kind--yes, so that she may be holy and without blemish.
Col 1:18 He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that he might come to have first place in everything.
2 Tim 1:9 who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works but according to his own purpose and grace. This grace was given to us in Christ Jesus before the ages began,
Heb 11:40 since God had provided something better so that they would not, apart from us, be made perfect.
Heb 12:22-23 But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering, and to the assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect,
Rev 5:9 They sing a new song: "You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, for you were slaughtered and by your blood you ransomed for God saints from every tribe and language and people and nation;
John 17:21 that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me.
Rom 1:7 To all God's beloved in Rome, who are called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
1 Cor 12:12-27 For just as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ. For in the one Spirit we were all baptized into one body--Jews or Greeks, slaves or free--and we were all made to drink of one Spirit. Indeed, the body does not consist of one member but of many. If the foot would say, "Because I am not a hand, I do not belong to the body," that would not make it any less a part of the body. And if the ear would say, "Because I am not an eye, I do not belong to the body," that would not make it any less a part of the body. If the whole body were an eye, where would the hearing be? If the whole body were hearing, where would the sense of smell be? But as it is, God arranged the members in the body, each one of them, as he chose. If all were a single member, where would the body be? As it is, there are many members, yet one body. The eye cannot say to the hand, "I have no need of you," nor again the head to the feet, "I have no need of you." On the contrary, the members of the body that seem to be weaker are indispensable, and those members of the body that we think less honorable we clothe with greater honor, and our less respectable members are treated with greater respect; whereas our more respectable members do not need this. But God has so arranged the body, giving the greater honor to the inferior member, that there may be no dissension within the body, but the members may have the same care for one another. If one member suffers, all suffer together with it; if one member is honored, all rejoice together with it. Now you are the body of Christ and individually members of it.
Eph 4:4 There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to the one hope of your calling,
Phil 3:20 But our citizenship is in heaven, and it is from there that we are expecting a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ.
1 Pet 1:15-16 Instead, as he who called you is holy, be holy yourselves in all your conduct; for it is written, "You shall be holy, for I am holy."
1 John 1:3 we declare to you what we have seen and heard so that you also may have fellowship with us; and truly our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ.
1 John 1:7 but if we walk in the light as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin.
Rev 1:9 I, John, your brother who share with you in Jesus the persecution and the kingdom and the patient endurance, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.
Ps 130:4 But there is forgiveness with you, so that you may be revered.
Luke 24:47 and that repentance and forgiveness of sins is to be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem.
Acts 13:38 Let it be known to you therefore, my brothers, that through this man forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you;
Rom 4:7-8 "Blessed are those whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; blessed is the one against whom the Lord will not reckon sin."
Eph 1:7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace
Heb 9:22 Indeed, under the law almost everything is purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins.
1 John 2:1-2 My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.
Is 26:19 Your dead shall live, their corpses shall rise. O dwellers in the dust, awake and sing for joy! For your dew is a radiant dew, and the earth will give birth to those long dead.
John 5:28-29 Do not be astonished at this; for the hour is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice and will come out--those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of condemnation.
Rom 8:23 and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly while we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
1 Cor 15:52 in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed.
Rev 20:12-13 And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Also another book was opened, the book of life. And the dead were judged according to their works, as recorded in the books. And the sea gave up the dead that were in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and all were judged according to what they had done.
Is 26:19 Your dead shall live, their corpses shall rise. O dwellers in the dust, awake and sing for joy! For your dew is a radiant dew, and the earth will give birth to those long dead.
John 5:28-29 Do not be astonished at this; for the hour is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice and will come out--those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of condemnation.
Rom 8:23 and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly while we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.
1 Cor 15:52 in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed.
Rev 20:12-13 And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Also another book was opened, the book of life. And the dead were judged according to their works, as recorded in the books. And the sea gave up the dead that were in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and all were judged according to what they had done.
John 2:22 After he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this; and they believed the scripture and the word that Jesus had spoken.
John 6:69 We have come to believe and know that you are the Holy One of God."
John 14:1 "Do not let your hearts be troubled. Believe in God, believe also in me.
Acts 8:36-37 As they were going along the road, they came to some water; and the eunuch said, "Look, here is water! What is to prevent me from being baptized?"

The Declaration of Consent

§.6. Query 3. But thirdly, it is not only necessary that the party to be baptized do believe the Christian faith; but he must also desire to be joined to that society by the solemn rite of initiation: wherefore the child is further demanded, whether he will be baptized in this faith; because God will have no unwilling servants, nor ought men to be compelled by violence to religion. And yet the Christian religion is so reasonable and profitable, both as to this world and the next, that the godfathers may very well presume to answer for the child, that this is his desire: since if the child could understand the excellency of this religion, and speak its mind, it would without doubt be ready to make the same reply.

Acts 2:41 So those who welcomed his message were baptized, and that day about three thousand persons were added.
Acts 16:31-33 They answered, "Believe on the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household." They spoke the word of the Lord to him and to all who were in his house. At the same hour of the night he took them and washed their wounds; then he and his entire family were baptized without delay.

The Declaration of Intent

§.7. Query 4. Lastly, St. Paul tells us, they that are baptized must walk in newness of life: for which reason the child is demanded, fourthly, If he will keep God’s holy will and commandments, and walk in the same all the days of his life? For since he now takes Christ for his Lord and Master, and lists himself under his banner, it is fit he should vow, in the words of this sacrament, to observe the commands of his general. Wherefore as he promised to forsake all evil before, so now he must engage to do all that is good, without which he cannot be admitted into the Christian Church.

Ps 119:4-5 You have commanded your precepts to be kept diligently. O that my ways may be steadfast in keeping your statutes!
Ps 119:32-33 I run the way of your commandments, for you enlarge my understanding. Teach me, O Lord, the way of your statutes, and I will observe it to the end.
Ps 119:44 I will keep your law continually, forever and ever.
Ps 119:104 Through your precepts I get understanding; therefore I hate every false way.
Ps 119:115 Go away from me, you evildoers, that I may keep the commandments of my God.
Ps 119:153 Look on my misery and rescue me, for I do not forget your law.
Ecc 12:13 The end of the matter; all has been heard. Fear God, and keep his commandments; for that is the whole duty of everyone.
Rom 6:2 By no means! How can we who died to sin go on living in it?
1 John 2:3-4 Now by this we may be sure that we know him, if we obey his commandments. Whoever says, "I have come to know him," but does not obey his commandments, is a liar, and in such a person the truth does not exist;
1 John 2:6 whoever says, "I abide in him," ought to walk just as he walked.
Heb 13:21 make you complete in everything good so that you may do his will, working among us that which is pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.

The Supplications

Then follow certain short prayers. O merciful God, &c. which I conceive to be the same in substance with the ancient Exorcismes, which were certain prayers taken out of holy Scripture, Cyril. Cat. 1. and compos'd by the Church, CONC. CARTH. 4. c. 7. for the dispossessing of the person to be baptized; who being born in sin is under the Devils tyranny, from which the Church by her prayers, endeavours to free him. And so available they were, that oftentimes those that were corporally possessed, were freed by them, Cyp. ep. 77. and thereupon Cyril, Nazianz. Gennadius, and others, earnestly perswade not to despise the Churches Exorcisms. That it was ancient to use these Exorcisms before baptism, Nazianz. in lavacrum, S. Cypr. ep. 77. and Gennadius witness, who sayes, that it was observed Uniformiter in universo mundo, uniformly throughout the World.

I. The prayer for the sanctification of the child. THE contract being now made, it is fit the Minister should more peculiarly intercede with God for grace to perform it; and therefore, in the next place, he offers up four short petitions for the child’s sanctification. Most of our commentators upon the Common Prayer think, that they were added to supply the place of the old Exorcisms. But it is certain they were placed in the first book of king Edward with no such intent. For by that (as I have observed) a form of Exorcism was to be used over every child that was brought to be baptized: whereas these petitions were only to be used at such times as the water in the font was to be changed and consecrated, which was not then ordered to be done above once a month. For which reason the form for consecrating it did not, as now, make a part of the public office for baptism, but was placed by itself, at the end of the office for the administration of it in private, (i.e. at the end of the whole; for there was no office then for the baptism of such as are of riper years.)

And for the consecration of the water. The form that was used then was something different from what we use now. It was introduced with a prayer, that was afterwards left out at the second review.* And these petitions that are still retained, ran then in the plural number, and the future tense, in the behalf of all that should be baptized till the water should be changed again. And this is the reason that the last of these petitions still runs in general terms, it being continued word for word from the old form. Between the two last also were four other petitions inserted, which are now omitted.† And after all (the usual salutation intervening, viz. The Lord be with you. And with thy spirit) followed the prayer, which we still retain for the consecration of the water. There is some little difference in it towards the conclusion, because the water being sanctified by the first prayer above mentioned, there was no occasion to repeat the consecration in this; for which reason the words then, and in all the books to the last review, ran in this form: Regard, we beseech thee, the supplications of thy congregation, and grant that all thy servants, which shall be baptized in this water, prepared for the ministration of thy holy Sacrament, [which we here bless and dedicate in thy name to this spiritual washing,]‡ may receive the fulness of thy grace; and so on.

Of this form Bucer, in his Censure, could by no means approve. Such blessings and consecrations of things inanimate tends strangely (he tells us) to create in people’s minds terrible notions of magic or conjuration. He allows such consecrations indeed to be very ancient, but however they are not to be found in the word of God. At the second reformation therefore, the Common Prayer Book comes out with all that relates directly to the consecration of the water omitted. The first prayer above mentioned was left out entirely, and the last purged from those words, prepared for the ministration of the holy Sacrament. And thus the form continued till the last review, when a clause was again added to invocate the Spirit, to sanctify the water to the mystical washing away of sin. Now by this is meant, not that the water contracts any new quality in its nature or essence, by such consecration; but only that it is sanctified or made holy in its use, and separated from common to sacred purposes. In order to which, though the primitive Christians believed, as well as we do, that water in general was sufficiently sanctified by the baptism of our Saviour in the river Jordan; yet when any particular water was at any time used in the administration of baptism, they were always careful to consecrate it first by a solemn invocation of the Holy Spirit.

Then shall the Priest say,

Rom 6:4 Therefore we have been buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.
Rom 6:6 We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin.
1 Cor 15:22 for as all die in Adam, so all will be made alive in Christ.
1 Cor 15:45 Thus it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a living being"; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit.
Eph 2:4-6 But God, who is rich in mercy, out of the great love with which he loved us even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ--by grace you have been saved-- and raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus,
Eph 4:20-24 That is not the way you learned Christ! For surely you have heard about him and were taught in him, as truth is in Jesus. You were taught to put away your former way of life, your old self, corrupt and deluded by its lusts, and to be renewed in the spirit of your minds, and to clothe yourselves with the new self, created according to the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness.
Rom 6:6 We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin.
Rom 6:11 So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.
Rom 8:6 To set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace.
Rom 8:13 for if you live according to the flesh, you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.
2 Cor 7:1 Since we have these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from every defilement of body and of spirit, making holiness perfect in the fear of God.
Gal 5:22-24 By contrast, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. There is no law against such things. And those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires.
Col 3:5 Put to death, therefore, whatever in you is earthly: fornication, impurity, passion, evil desire, and greed (which is idolatry).
Col 3:12-14 As God's chosen ones, holy and beloved, clothe yourselves with compassion, kindness, humility, meekness, and patience. Bear with one another and, if anyone has a complaint against another, forgive each other; just as the Lord has forgiven you, so you also must forgive. Above all, clothe yourselves with love, which binds everything together in perfect harmony.
2 Pet 3:18 But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.
Rom 13:14 Instead, put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to gratify its desires.
Is 40:29-31 He gives power to the faint, and strengthens the powerless. Even youths will faint and be weary, and the young will fall exhausted; but those who wait for the Lord shall renew their strength, they shall mount up with wings like eagles, they shall run and not be weary, they shall walk and not faint.
Rom 8:37 No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us.
Rom 16:20 The God of peace will shortly crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.
1 Cor 15:57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Cor 2:14 But thanks be to God, who in Christ always leads us in triumphal procession, and through us spreads in every place the fragrance that comes from knowing him.
Eph 3:10 so that through the church the wisdom of God in its rich variety might now be made known to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly places.
Eph 6:10-13 Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his power. Put on the whole armor of God, so that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For our struggle is not against enemies of blood and flesh, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers of this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places. Therefore take up the whole armor of God, so that you may be able to withstand on that evil day, and having done everything, to stand firm.
1 John 5:4 for whatever is born of God conquers the world. And this is the victory that conquers the world, our faith.
Jude 23 save others by snatching them out of the fire; and have mercy on still others with fear, hating even the tunic defiled by their bodies.
Rom 8:12-14 So then, brothers and sisters, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh-- for if you live according to the flesh, you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. For all who are led by the Spirit of God are children of God.
1 Cor 15:10 But by the grace of God I am what I am, and his grace toward me has not been in vain. On the contrary, I worked harder than any of them--though it was not I, but the grace of God that is with me.
Heb 2:18 Because he himself was tested by what he suffered, he is able to help those who are being tested.
1 John 4:4 Little children, you are from God, and have conquered them; for the one who is in you is greater than the one who is in the world.
Ps 66:7 who rules by his might forever, whose eyes keep watch on the nations-- let the rebellious not exalt themselves.Selah
Ps 103:19 The Lord has established his throne in the heavens, and his kingdom rules over all.
Matt 25:34 Then the king will say to those at his right hand, 'Come, you that are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world;
Rom 6:23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
1 Cor 3:5-7 What then is Apollos? What is Paul? Servants through whom you came to believe, as the Lord assigned to each. I planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the growth. So neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but only God who gives the growth.
1 Cor 4:1 Think of us in this way, as servants of Christ and stewards of God's mysteries.
Gal 3:26-27 for in Christ Jesus you are all children of God through faith. As many of you as were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.
Phil 1:9-11 And this is my prayer, that your love may overflow more and more with knowledge and full insight to help you to determine what is best, so that in the day of Christ you may be pure and blameless, having produced the harvest of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ for the glory and praise of God.
Col 1:9-10 For this reason, since the day we heard it, we have not ceased praying for you and asking that you may be filled with the knowledge of God's will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, so that you may lead lives worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing to him, as you bear fruit in every good work and as you grow in the knowledge of God.
Col 1:28 It is he whom we proclaim, warning everyone and teaching everyone in all wisdom, so that we may present everyone mature in Christ.
Col 3:24 since you know that from the Lord you will receive the inheritance as your reward; you serve the Lord Christ.
1 Tim 6:15 which he will bring about at the right time--he who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords.
Tit 3:5 he saved us, not because of any works of righteousness that we had done, but according to his mercy, through the water of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit.
2 Pet 1:2-3 May grace and peace be yours in abundance in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord. His divine power has given us everything needed for life and godliness, through the knowledge of him who called us by his own glory and goodness.
Jude 21 keep yourselves in the love of God; look forward to the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ that leads to eternal life.
Rev 22:12 "See, I am coming soon; my reward is with me, to repay according to everyone's work.
Mark 16:16 The one who believes and is baptized will be saved; but the one who does not believe will be condemned.
2 Cor 4:7 But we have this treasure in clay jars, so that it may be made clear that this extraordinary power belongs to God and does not come from us.

The Baptism

Administration

Next follows the Commemoration of Christs institution of Baptism; and his Commission to his Disciples to Baptize. Thus the Priest reads his Commission, and then acts accordingly: and because no man is sufficient for these things, 2 Cor. 2. 16. therefore he prayes for Gods assistance and acceptance of his ministration.

Then the Priest asks the childs name. As under the Law at Circumcision the name was given, so now at Baptism, because then we renounce our former Lord and Tyrant, and give up our names to God as his servants.

Then the Minister Baptizes the child dipping or sprinkling it, &c. either of which is sufficient Gennad. dog. 74. For it is not in this spiritual washing, as it is in the bodily, where if the bath be not large enough to receive the whole body, some part may be foul when the rest are cleansed. The soul is cleansed after another manner, Totum credentibus conferunt divina compendia, a little water can cleanse the believer, as well a whole River, CYPR. ep. 77.

The old fashion was to dip or sprinkle the person thrice, to signifie the mystery of the TRINITY, and the Apost. can. 50. deposes him that does otherwise. The Church so appointed then because of some Hereticks that denied the Trinity: upon the same ground afterwards it was appointed to do it but once (signifying the unity of substance in the Trinity) left we should seem to agree with the Hereticks that did it thrice. Toletan. 4. c. 5.

This baptizing is to be at the FONT. What the Font is, every body knows, but not why it is so call'd. The rites of baptism in the first times were perform'd in Fountains and Rivers, both because their converts were many, and because those ages were unprovided of other Baptisteries: we have no other remainder of this rite but the name. For hence it is that we call our Baptisteries, Fonts; which when Religion found peace, were built and consecrated for the more reverence and respect of the Sacrament. These were set at first some distance from the Church, Cyril cat. myst. 1. after, in the Church-Porch, and that significantly, because Baptism is the entrance into the Church mystical, as the Porch to the Temple. At the last, they got into the Church, but not into every, but the City-Church, where the Bishop resided, hence call'd the Mother Church, because it gave spiritual birth by baptism; afterward they were brought into Rural Churches. Wheresoever they stood, they were had in high veneration. Anastas. ep. ad Orthodox. complains sadly of impiety in his time; such as never was heard of in war, that men should set fire to Churches and Fonts, and after mentioning the Fonts. Good God! Christ-killing Jews, and heathenish Atheists, have without all reverence entred and defiled the Fonts.

K. Naming the child.] The imposition of the name in baptism, is both a decent imitation of the same practice in circumcision, whereof there are, besides those of our Saviour and St. John Baptist, several other instances, and a prudent parcel of religious policy, whereby the person baptized might be the better distinguished, in albo Christianorum, “in the Christian register;”and for this cause the priests were anciently commanded, ἀπογράψασθαι τὸν ἄνδρα, καὶ Tov ἀνάδοχον, “to enrol the names both of the person baptized, and of his godfather or surety.” Indeed, fit it was, that they who gave themselves up to Christ, and listed themselves in His militia, should be enrolled upon their first admission, that the Church might the better know who were hers. Now whereas proselytes adult were entered into the register under their former names, unless they thought fit to assume others, when they were in composition for baptism: so infants, upon whom no names were formerly imposed, were, as before they were brought to the sacred font, named by their parents, or such as represented them, viz. the godfathers.

L. Shall dip. Immersion or dipping is not of the necessity of this Sacrament, sprinkling being every way as energetical and operative, as St. Cyprian hath (for it is one of the questions he undertakes to resolve) most excellently determined. Non sic in sacramento salutari delictorum contagia, ut in lavacro carnali sordes corporis abluuntur : “the filth and pollution of our sins is not so cleansed in the sacramental laver, as our bodies are in natural water.’' And though dipping was the more ancient custom, in respect of persons adult, who were better able to undergo it; yet after, when whole nations became Christian, and rarely any were offered to the font but infants, whose tender bodies would not well endure it, this custom, in the western Church especially, was discontinued, and aspersion only used; so that Erasmus noted it as a piece of singularity in us English, that in his time we used immersion, And though dipping was constantly practised in the eastern countries, and is so still at this day, yet for children the use was then, and so is now, to warm the water μετὰ φύλλων τινῶν εὐωδῶν, “with sweet herbs,” a trouble avoided by aspersion.

Again, sprinkling is much more to the advantage of modesty, as to women especially, or where many are baptized together, as the then fashion was. For even when baptisteries were erected, they were made susceptible and capable to receive more than one: μὴ ἀπαξιώσῃς συμβαπτισθῆναι πένητι πλούσιος ὦν ὁ εὐπατρίδης τῷ δυσγενεῖ, ὁ δεσπότης τῷ δούλῳ, saith Gregory Nazianzen, i. e. “do not disdain, if thou beest rich, to be baptized in the same font with the poor; if nobly born, with the obscure ; if a master, with thy servant.” Nor could the company and presence of others create any inconvenience, had they not entered the font stripped of all, and totally naked, as it is clear they did. In fontem nudi demergitis, sed etherea veste vestiti : “ye dive into the font naked, only invested with an airy mantle.” An usage not peculiar to men, but practised also by women, as is evident by St. Chrysostom, who, speaking of an outrage acted by rude people in the time of persecution, maketh amongst other things this relation ; καὶ γυναῖκες τῶν εὐκτηρίων οἴκων πρὸς τὸ βάπτισμα ἀποδυσάμεναι γυμναὶ ἔφυγον, i. 6. “the women of the sacred oratories having put off their clothes in order to baptism, ran away naked.” True it is, these women were not baptized promiscuously with men: for the baptistery was parted in the middle with a screen or traverse of wood, one division being allotted for the men, and the other for the women, which were so close joined, that neither could make any discoveries into the other; that they were thus separated, Augustine gives us cause to believe, who related a miracle of Innocentia, that was cured of a cancer in her breast, by being signed there with the cross, by the new-baptized woman, who first came to her as she stood in parte feminarum ad baptisterium, “in the division assigned for the baptizing of women.” And these divisions probably the fathers had an eye to, when they mention baptisteries in the plural number, (as Ambrose in his epistle to Marcellina,) not intending several structures, but several divisions in one structure. But though this traverse blinded them from the view of men who came upon the same account they did, it did not hide them from the sight of the baptist, who was regularly to be a man: and therefore that all possible provision for modesty might be made, certain women were set apart for that service, their office being ἐξυπηρετεῖσθαι τοῖς διακόνοις ἐν τῷ βαπτίζεσθαι τὰς γυναίκας διὰ τὸ εὐπρεπὲς, “to assist the deacons in baptizing women more decently,” as the author of the Constitutions hath it: the like is repeated also by Epiphanius, who hath transcribed much from him; διακονίσσαι καθίστανται eis ὑπηρεσίαν γυναΐκων διὰ τὴν σεμνότητα, ἀν χρεία κατασταίη λουτροῦ ἕνεκα: i. 6. “ deaconesses are appointed for the ministration of women, for modesty sake, in case there be any occasion to baptize them.” I have dwelt the longer upon this subject, not only to discover the manifold inconveniences of immersion and dipping, in persons adult, but also to represent the various customs of the primitive times, perhaps not known to all.

Μ. Thrice.] What the Apostolical mode was, whether single or triple mersion, there is no direct constat: the Church devτεροπρώτη, and next to it, for certain practised it thrice, and applied the same quotient to confirmation, and the confession to their faith. In mysteriis interrogatio trina defertur, et confirmatio trina celebratur ; nec potest quis nisi trina confessione purgari, saith Ambrose, i. e. “in the mystery of initiation or baptism, three interrogatories are put, thrice is the party confirmed, so that no man can be cleansed in that laver, but by a threefold confession.” And for the manner, more explicitly in another place; Interrogatus es, Credis in Deum Patrem Omnipotentem ὃ dixisti, Credo, et mersisti. Iterum interrogatus es, Credis in Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, et in crucem ejus ? dixisti, Credo, et mersisti. Tertio interrogatus es, Credis οἱ in Spiritum Sanctum ὃ dixisti, Credo, tertio mersisti: “Thou art asked, Dost thou believe in God the Father Almighty ? thou answerest, I believe, and thou wert dipped. Again, thou wert demanded, Dost thou believe in our Lord Jesus Christ and in His cross? thou answerest, I believe, and then thou wert dipped again. Thirdly, thou wert asked, Dost thou believe in the Holy Ghost? thou answerest, I believe, and then thou wert dipped the last time.” This ceremony of interrogating thrice, St. Ambrose, in this place, and Cyril on John, deriving from our Saviour’s thrice demanding of St. Peter if he loved Him, John xxi. But I rather think it was so ordered as a distinct denotation of the personal Trinity, as single mersion or aspersion answereth the unity of the Deity, and upon that account was enjoined by the fourth council of Toledo, in opposition to the Arian heretics. The truth is, neither practice can justly be condemned, and are which she will, and judgeth best accommodated to the temper of her members. As for ours, a late bishop of no mean note, in his Articles of Visitation, positively asserts that the child is thrice to be aspersed with water on the face. An error, certainly, and to prove it so, this very rubric of the first book of Edward the Sixth is argumentative enough: for this rubric enjoining triple sprinkling, and being clearly omitted and outed by the second reformers, infallibly argueth they intended the discontinuance of the former practice. And the sense of those reformers must be the rule of our obedience.

II. Name, why given at Baptism. All things being thus prepared for the baptism of the child, the Minister is now to take it into his hands, and to ask the godfathers and godmothers to name it. For the Christian name being given as a badge that we belong to Christ, we cannot more properly take it upon us, than when we are enlisted under his banner. We bring one name into the world with us, which we derive from our parents, and which serves to remind us of our original guilt, and that we are born in sin: but this new name is given us at our baptism, to remind us of our new birth, when, being washed in the laver of regeneration, we are thereby cleansed from our natural impurities, and become in a manner new creatures, and solemnly dedicate ourselves to God, So that the naming of children at this time hath been thought by many to import something more than ordinary, and to carry with it a mysterious signification. We find something like it even among the heathens: for the Romans had a custom of naming their children on the day of their lustration, (i.e. when they were cleansed and washed from their natural pollution,) which was therefore called Dies nommalis. And the Greeks also, when they carried their infants, a little after their birth, about the fire, (which was their ceremony of dedicating or consecrating them to their gods,) were used at the same time to give them their names.

Heathen or wanton names prohibited. And that the Jews named their children at the time of circumcision, the holy Scriptures, as well as their own writers, expressly tell us. And though the rite itself of circumcision was changed into that of baptism by our Saviour, yet he made no alteration as to the time and custom of giving the name, hut left that to continue under the new, as he had found it under the old dispensation. Accordingly we find this time assigned and used to this purpose ever since: the Christians continuing from the earliest ages to name their children at the time of baptism. And even people of riper years commonly changed their name, (as Saul, saith St. Ambrose, at that time changed his name to Paul,) especially if the name they had before was taken from any idol or false god. For the Nicene Council forbids the giving of heathen names to Christians, and recommends the giving the name of some apostle or saint: not that there is any fortune or merit in the name itself, but that, by such means, the party might be stirred up to imitate the example of that holy person whose name he bears. And by a provincial constitution of our own Church, made by archbishop Peccham, A.D. 1281, it is provided, that no wanton names be given to children; or if they be, that they be changed at Confirmation.

§.2. To be given by the godfathers, and why. As to the appointment of the name, it may be pitched upon by the relations, (as we the godfathers, may see has been the custom of old:) but the rubric directs that it be dictated by the godfathers and godmothers. For this being the token of our new birth, it is fit it should be given by those who undertake for our Christianity, and engage that we shall be bred up and live like Christians; which being confirmed by the custom and authority of the Church in all ages, is abundantly enough to justify the practice, and satisfy us of the reasonableness of it.

III. The outward sign in Baptism. Immersion or dipping most primitive and significant. But the ends of baptism answered by affusion. After the name is thus given, the Priest (if the godfathers, &c. certify him that the child may well endure it) is to dip it in the water discreetly and warily; which was in all probability the way by which our Saviour, and for certain was the usual and ordinary way by which the primitive Christians did receive their baptism. And it must be allowed that by dipping, the ends and effects of baptism are more significantly expressed; for as in immersion there are three several acts, viz. the putting the person under water, his abiding there for some time, and his rising up again; so by these were represented Christ’s death, burial, and resurrection; and in conformity thereunto (as the Apostle plainly shews) our dying unto sin, the destruction of its power, and our resurrection to newness of life. Though indeed affusion is not wholly without its signification, or entirely inexpressive of the end of baptism. For as the immersing or dipping the body of the baptized represents the burial of a dead person under ground; so also the affusion or pouring water upon the party answers to the covering or throwing earth upon the deceased. So that both ceremonies agree in this, that they figure a death and burial unto sin: and therefore though immersion be the most significant ceremony of the two, yet it is not so necessary but that affusion in some cases may supply the room of it. For since baptism is only an external rite, representing an internal and spiritual action, such an act is sufficient, as fully represents to us the institution of baptism; the divine grace which is thereby conferred, being not measured by the quantity of water used in the administration of it. It is true, dipping and affusion are two different acts; but yet the word baptize implies them both: it being used frequently in Scripture to denote not only such washing as is performed by dipping, but also such as is performed by pouring or rubbing water upon the thing or person washed.

Which was therefore used upon some occasions by the primitive Christians. And therefore when the Jews baptized their children, in order to circumcision, it seems to have been indifferent with them, whether it was done by immersion or affusion. And that the primitive Christians understood it in this latitude, is plain, from their administering this holy sacrament in the case of sickness, haste, want of water, or the like, by affusion, or pouring water upon the face. Thus the jailor and his family, who were baptized by St. Paul in haste, the same hour of the night that they were converted and believed, are reasonably supposed to have been baptized by affusion: since it can hardly be thought that at such an exigency they had water sufficient at hand to be immersed in. The same may be said concerning Basilides, who, Eusebius tells us, was baptized by some brethren in prison. For the strict custody under which Christian prisoners were kept, (their tyrannical jailors hardly allowing them necessaries for life, much less such conveniences as they desired for their religion,) makes it more than probable that this must have been done by affusion only of some small quantity of water. And that baptism in this way was no unheard-of practice before this, may be gathered from Tertullian, who, speaking of a person of uncertain repentance offering himself to be baptized, asks, Who mould help him to one single sprinkling of water? The Acts also of St. Laurence, who suffered martyrdom about the same time as St. Cyprian, tell us how one of the soldiers that were to be his executioners, being converted, brought a pitcher of water for St. Laurence to baptize him with. And lastly, St. Cyprian, being consulted by one Magnus, in reference to the validity of clinick baptism, (i.e. such as was administered to sick persons on their beds by aspersion or sprinkling,) not only allows, but pleads for it at large, both from the nature of the sacrament, and design of the institution. It is true, such persons as were so baptized, were not ordinarily capable of being admitted to any office in the Church; but then the reason of this, as is intimated by the Council of Neocæsarea, was not that they thought this manner of baptism was less effectual than the other, but because such a person’s coming to the faith was not voluntary, but of necessity. And therefore it was provided by the same Council, that if the diligence and faith of a person so baptized did afterwards prove commendable, or if the scarcity of others, fit for the holy offices, did by any means require it, a clinick Christian might be admitted into holy orders. However, except upon extraordinary occasions, baptism was seldom, or perhaps never, administered for the four first centuries, but by immersion or dipping. Nor is aspersion or sprinkling ordinarily used, to this day, in any country that was never subject to the pope. And among those that submitted to his authority, England was the last place where it was received. Though it has never obtained so far as to be enjoined, dipping having been always prescribed by the rubric. The Salisbury Missal, printed in 1530, (the last that was in force before the Reformation,) expressly requires and orders dipping. And in the first Common Prayer Book of king Edward VI, the Priest’s general order is to dip it in the water, so it be discreetly and warily done; the rubric only allowing, if the child be weak, that then it shall suffice to pour water upon it. Nor was there any alteration made in the following books, except the leaving out the order to dip it thrice, which was prescribed by the first book.

How affusion or sprinkling first came in practice. However, it being allowed to weak children (though strong enough to be brought to church) to be baptized by affusion; many fond ladies at first, and then by degrees the common people, would persuade the Minister that their children were too tender for dipping. But what principally tended to confirm this practice was, that several of our English divines flying into Germany and Switzerland, &c. during the bloody reign of queen Mary, and returning home when queen Elizabeth came to the crown, brought back with them a great love and zeal to the customs of those Protestant Churches beyond sea, where they had been sheltered and received. And consequently having observed that in Geneva, and some other places, baptism was ordered to be performed by affusion, they thought they could not do the Church of England a greater piece of service, than to introduce a practice dictated by so great an oracle as Calvin. So that in the latter times of queen Elizabeth, and during the reigns of king James and king Charles I, there were but very few children dipped in the font. And therefore when the questions and answers in relation to the sacraments were first inserted at the end of the Catechism, upon the accession of king James I to the throne, the answer to the question, What is the outward visible sign or form in baptism? was this that follows: Water, wherein the person baptized is dipped, or sprinkled with it in the name of the Father, &c. And afterwards, when the Directory was put out by the Parliament, affusion (to those who could submit to their ordinance) began to have a shew of establishment; it being declared not only lawful, hut sufficient and most expedient mat children should be baptized, by pouring or sprinkling of water on the face. And as it were for the further prevention of immersion or dipping, it was particularly provided that baptism should not be administered in the places where fonts, in the time of popery, were unfitly and superstitiously placed. And accordingly (which was equal to the rest of their reformation) they changed the font into a basin: which being brought to the Minister in his reading desk, and the child being held below him, he dipped in his fingers, and so took up water enough just to let a drop or two fall on the child’s face. These reformers, it seems, could not recollect that fonts to baptize in had been long used before the times of popery, and that they had no where been discontinued from the beginning of Christianity, but in such places where the pope had gained authority. But our divines at the Restoration, understanding a little better the sense of Scripture and antiquity, again restored the order for immersion; however, for prevention of any danger to the child, the Priest is advised to be first certified that it will well endure it. So that the difference between the old rubric, and what it is now, is only this: As it stood before, the Priest was to dip, unless there was an averment or allegation of weakness; as it stands now, he is not to dip, unless there be an averment or certifying of strength, sufficient to endure it.

This order, one would think, should be the most unexceptionable of any that could be given; it keeping as close to the primitive rule for baptism, as the coldness of our region and the tenderness wherewith infants are now used, will sometimes admit. Though Sir John Floyer, in a discourse on cold baths, hath shewn, from the nature of our bodies, from the rules of medicine, from modern experience, and from ancient history, that nothing would tend more to the preservation of a child’s health, than dipping it in Baptism. However, the parents not caring to make the experiment, take so much the advantage of the reference that is made to their judgments concerning the strength of their children, as never to certify they may well endure dipping. It is true, indeed, the question is now seldom asked; because the child is always brought in such a dress, as shews that there is no intention that it should be dipped. For whilst dipping in the font continued in fashion, they brought the child in such sort of clothing, as might be taken off and put on again without any hinderance or trouble. But since the Church not only permits, but requires dipping, where it is certified the child may well endure it; and consequently since the Minister is always ready to dip, whensoever it is duly required of him; it is very hard that any should urge the not dipping or immersing, as a plea for separation.

§.2. Trine immersion an ancient practice. But to proceed: by king Edward’s first book, the Minister is to dip the child in the water thrice; first dipping the right side: secondly, the left side; the third time, dipping the face toward the font. This was the general practice of the primitive Church, viz. to dip the person thrice, i.e. once at the name of each Person in the Trinity, the more fully to express that sacred mystery. Though some later writers say this was done to represent the death, burial, and resurrection of our Saviour, together with his three days’ continuance in the grave. St. Austin joins both these reasons together, as a double mystery of this ancient rite, as he is cited by Gratian to this purpose. Several of the Fathers, that make mention of this custom, own, that there is no command for it in Scripture: but then they speak of it as brought into use by the Apostles; and therefore the fiftieth of the Canons that are called Apostolical, deposes any Bishop or Presbyter that administers Baptism without it.

Why discontinued. But afterwards, when the Arians made a wicked advantage of this custom, by persuading the people that it was used to denote that the Persons in the Trinity were three distinct substances; it first became a custom, and then a law, in the Spanish Church, only to use one single immersion; because that would express the Unity of the Godhead, while the Trinity of Persons would be sufficiently denoted by the person’s being baptized in the name of the Father, Son, ana Holy Ghost. However, in other parts of the Church, trine immersion most commonly prevailed, as it does in the Greek Church to this very day. Upon what account it was omitted in the second book of king Edward, I do not find: but there being no order in the room of it to confine the Minister to a single immersion, I presume it is left to his judgment and discretion to use which he pleases.


V. Of the white vesture, or chrisom. By the first Common Prayer of king Edward, after the child was thus baptized, the godfathers and godmothers were to lay their hands upon it, and the Minister was to put upon him his white vesture, commonly called the chrisom, and to say,

Take this white vesture as a token of the innocency, which, by God’s grace, in this holy Sacrament of Baptism, is given unto thee, and for a sign whereby thou art admonished so long as thou livest, to give thyself to innocence of living, that after this transitory life thou mayest be partaker of the life everlasting. Amen.

Why so called. This was a relic of an ancient custom I have formerly had occasion to mention: the intention and design of it is sufficiently expressed in the form above cited: I therefore need only observe further, that it receives its name from the chrism or ointment with which the child was anointed when the chrisom was put on.

VI. Unction prescribed by the first book of king Edward VI. For by the same book of king Edward, as soon as the Priest had pronounced the foregoing form, he was to anoint the infant upon the head, saying,

Almighty God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath regenerated thee by water and the Holy Ghost, and hath given unto thee remission of all thy sins; he vouchsafe to anoint thee with the unction of his Holy Spirit, and bring thee to the inheritance of everlasting life. Amen.

Whether this unction belonged to Baptism of Confirmation. Whether the compilers of king Edward’s Liturgy designed this as a continuance of the unction that anciently made a part of the office of Baptism; or of the unction which, though frequently used at the same time with Baptism, was yet rather a ceremony belonging to Confirmation, is not clearly to be discovered. According to the best of my judgment, I take it rather to be the latter; for the unction that was an immediate ceremony of Baptism, was always applied as soon as the party to be baptized was unclothed, and before his entrance into the water: whereas the unction enjoined by king Edward’s Liturgy is ordered to be applied after the child is thoroughly baptized. For this reason, I suppose, it was continued as a relic of the unction which the Priest used to perform preparatory to Confirmation. And what makes my opinion the more probable is, that in the old office for Confirmation, in that book, there is no order for the Bishop to anoint those whom he confirms; which yet it is not to be imagined our reformers (who shewed such regard to all primitive customs) would by any means have omitted, if they had not known that the ceremony of unction had been performed before. But to help the reader to a clear notion in this matter, it will be necessary to give him some little light into the ancient practice in relation to both these unctions.

How they were distinguished in the primitive Church. He must know then, that the unction that was used before baptism, was only with pure oil, with which the party was anointed just before he entered the water, to signify that he was now becoming a champion for Christ, and was entering upon a state of conflict and contention against the allurements of the world: in allusion to the custom of the old wrestlers or athletæ, who were always anointed against their solemn games, in order to render them more supple and active, and that their antagonists might take the less advantage and hold of them. This was commonly called the unction of the mystical oil: whereas the unction wherewith the party was anointed after baptism, was called the unction or chrism, being performed with a mixed or compound unguent, and applied by the Bishop at the time of the imposition of his hands, partly to express the baptism with fire, of which oil, we know, is a proper material, partly to signify the invisible unction of the Holy Spirit, and partly to denote that the person so anointed is admitted to the privileges of Christianity, which are described by the Apostle to be a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, &c., in the designation to which office anointing was generally used as a symbol. And this account Tertullian favours, where, speaking of the unction that followed baptism, he tells us it was derived from the ancient, i.e. the Jewish discipline, where the Priests were wont to be anointed to their office.

But further, the anointing in Baptism might be performed by either a deacon or deaconess; whereas the chrism that belonged to confirmation could not at first be ordinarily applied by any under the order of a Bishop. Afterwards indeed, when Christianity began to spread far and wide, so that Bishops could not be procured upon every extraordinary emergency, the Bishops found it necessary to give liberty to the Presbyters to anoint those whom they baptized, in cases of extremity: that so, if a Bishop could not be sent for in convenient time, a sick member of the Church might not depart wholly deprived of all those spiritual assistances which Confirmation was to supply. However, the privilege of making and consecrating the holy unguent, and the rite of laying on of hands, they still reserved to themselves; and only took care to supply their Presbyters with a due quantity of chrism, that they might not be without it upon any necessity. And this, though at first indulged only upon occasion, came in a little time afterwards to be the general practice: insomuch that for the Presbyter to anoint in baptism became the ordinary method; and the Bishop, when he confirmed, had nothing to do but to impose his hands, except by chance now and then to apply the chrism to a person that by accident had missed of it in his baptism.

And this I take to be the unction intended in the form we are now speaking of, as well for the reasons above mentioned,.as because this, of the two, appears to have been the most ancient and universal, and so the most likely to be retained by our reformers. Bucer indeed prevailed for the leaving out the use both of this and the chrisom at the next review; not because he did not think them of sufficient antiquity or standing, or of good use and edification enough where they were duly observed; but because he thought they carried more shew of regard and reverence to the mysteries of our religion than men really retained; and that consequently they tended to cherish superstition in the minds of the people, rather than religion and true godliness.

Zech 12:10 And I will pour out a spirit of compassion and supplication on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that, when they look on the one whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.
Zech 13:1 On that day a fountain shall be opened for the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, to cleanse them from sin and impurity.
Matt 3:16-17 And when Jesus had been baptized, just as he came up from the water, suddenly the heavens were opened to him and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, "This is my Son, the Beloved, with whom I am well pleased."
John 19:34 Instead, one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once blood and water came out.
Eph 1:7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace
Heb 9:12-14 he entered once for all into the Holy Place, not with the blood of goats and calves, but with his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption. For if the blood of goats and bulls, with the sprinkling of the ashes of a heifer, sanctifies those who have been defiled so that their flesh is purified, how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our conscience from dead works to worship the living God!
1 John 1:7 but if we walk in the light as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin.
1 John 5:6 This is the one who came by water and blood, Jesus Christ, not with the water only but with the water and the blood. And the Spirit is the one that testifies, for the Spirit is the truth.
Rev 1:5-6 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and freed us from our sins by his blood, and made us to be a kingdom, priests serving his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.
Matt 28:18-19 And Jesus came and said to them, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
Mark 16:20 And they went out and proclaimed the good news everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the message by the signs that accompanied it.]]
Acts 5:42 And every day in the temple and at home they did not cease to teach and proclaim Jesus as the Messiah.
Acts 11:26 and when he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. So it was that for an entire year they met with the church and taught a great many people, and it was in Antioch that the disciples were first called "Christians."
1 Kings 8:30 Hear the plea of your servant and of your people Israel when they pray toward this place; O hear in heaven your dwelling place; heed and forgive.
2 Kings 5:10-14 Elisha sent a messenger to him, saying, "Go, wash in the Jordan seven times, and your flesh shall be restored and you shall be clean." But Naaman became angry and went away, saying, "I thought that for me he would surely come out, and stand and call on the name of the Lord his God, and would wave his hand over the spot, and cure the leprosy! Are not Abana and Pharpar, the rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel? Could I not wash in them, and be clean?" He turned and went away in a rage. But his servants approached and said to him, "Father, if the prophet had commanded you to do something difficult, would you not have done it? How much more, when all he said to you was, 'Wash, and be clean'?" So he went down and immersed himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the word of the man of God; his flesh was restored like the flesh of a young boy, and he was clean.
Matt 18:19-20 Again, truly I tell you, if two of you agree on earth about anything you ask, it will be done for you by my Father in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, I am there among them."
John 16:23-24 On that day you will ask nothing of me. Very truly, I tell you, if you ask anything of the Father in my name, he will give it to you. Until now you have not asked for anything in my name. Ask and you will receive, so that your joy may be complete.
Acts 22:16 And now why do you delay? Get up, be baptized, and have your sins washed away, calling on his name.'
1 Tim 3:16 Without any doubt, the mystery of our religion is great: He was revealed in flesh, vindicated in spirit, seen by angels, proclaimed among Gentiles, believed in throughout the world, taken up in glory.
1 Tim 4:5 for it is sanctified by God's word and by prayer.
1 John 5:14 And this is the boldness we have in him, that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us.
John 1:16 From his fullness we have all received, grace upon grace.
Acts 2:38 Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
Acts 2:41-42 So those who welcomed his message were baptized, and that day about three thousand persons were added. They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.
Acts 4:32-33 Now the whole group of those who believed were of one heart and soul, and no one claimed private ownership of any possessions, but everything they owned was held in common. With great power the apostles gave their testimony to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and great grace was upon them all.
Rom 8:15-16 For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received a spirit of adoption. When we cry, "Abba! Father!" it is that very Spirit bearing witness with our spirit that we are children of God,
1 Cor 6:11 And this is what some of you used to be. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.
Phil 4:19 And my God will fully satisfy every need of yours according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus.
1 Thess 5:23 May the God of peace himself sanctify you entirely; and may your spirit and soul and body be kept sound and blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Tit 3:5-6 he saved us, not because of any works of righteousness that we had done, but according to his mercy, through the water of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit. This Spirit he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior,
1 Pet 1:2 who have been chosen and destined by God the Father and sanctified by the Spirit to be obedient to Jesus Christ and to be sprinkled with his blood: May grace and peace be yours in abundance.
Jude 24-25 Now to him who is able to keep you from falling, and to make you stand without blemish in the presence of his glory with rejoicing, to the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, power, and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen.
Rev 2:10 Do not fear what you are about to suffer. Beware, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison so that you may be tested, and for ten days you will have affliction. Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life.
Rev 17:14 they will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those with him are called and chosen and faithful."
Eph 3:14-19 For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, from whom every family in heaven and on earth takes its name. I pray that, according to the riches of his glory, he may grant that you may be strengthened in your inner being with power through his Spirit, and that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith, as you are being rooted and grounded in love. I pray that you may have the power to comprehend, with all the saints, what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ that surpasses knowledge, so that you may be filled with all the fullness of God.
1 Pet 3:20-21 who in former times did not obey, when God waited patiently in the days of Noah, during the building of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were saved through water. And baptism, which this prefigured, now saves you--not as a removal of dirt from the body, but as an appeal to God for a good conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ,

Then the Priest shall take the Child into his hands, and shall say to the Godfathers and Godmothers, "Name this Child." And then naming it after them (if they shall certify him that the Child may well endure it) he shall dip it in the Water discreetly and warily, saying,

Matt 28:19 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
Luke 1:59-63 On the eighth day they came to circumcise the child, and they were going to name him Zechariah after his father. But his mother said, "No; he is to be called John." They said to her, "None of your relatives has this name." Then they began motioning to his father to find out what name he wanted to give him. He asked for a writing tablet and wrote, "His name is John." And all of them were amazed.
Luke 2:21 After eight days had passed, it was time to circumcise the child; and he was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.
Gen 21:3-4 Abraham gave the name Isaac to his son whom Sarah bore him. And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him.

IV. The form of words. When the Priest dips or pours water upon the child, he is to say, (calling the child by its name,) N. I baptize thee, which was always the form of the Western Church. The Eastern Church useth a little variation, Let N. be baptized, &c., or else, The servant of God, such a one is baptized, &c.; but the sense is much the same: however, in the next words, viz. in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, all orthodox Christians did ever agree; because they are of Christ’s own appointment, and for that reason unalterable. Wherefore, when the heretics presumed to vary from this form, they were censured by the Church, and those baptisms declared null, which were not administered in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Some indeed took liberty to mingle a paraphrase with them, baptizing in the name of the Father who sent, of the Son that came, and of the Holy Ghost that witnessed; but our reformers thought it more prudent to preserve our Lord’s own words entire, without addition or diminution.

Now by baptizing in the name of three Persons, is not only meant that it is done by the commission and authority of God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; but also that we are baptized into the faith of the holy Trinity; and are received into that society of men, who are distinguished from all false professions in the world, by believing in three Persons and one God.

But if they certify that the Child is weak, it shall suffice to pour Water upon it, saying the foresaid words,

Matt 28:19 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
Luke 1:59-63 On the eighth day they came to circumcise the child, and they were going to name him Zechariah after his father. But his mother said, "No; he is to be called John." They said to her, "None of your relatives has this name." Then they began motioning to his father to find out what name he wanted to give him. He asked for a writing tablet and wrote, "His name is John." And all of them were amazed.
Luke 2:21 After eight days had passed, it was time to circumcise the child; and he was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.
Gen 21:3-4 Abraham gave the name Isaac to his son whom Sarah bore him. And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him.

The Thanksgiving

After the Priest hath baptized the child, he receives it into the congregation, by this solemnity declaring that he is by baptism made a member of the Church, 1 Cor. 12. 13. We are all baptized into one body. And when he thus receives it, he signs it with the sign of the Cross, as of old it was wont, AVG. in Psal. 30. and on the forehead, the seat of blushing and shame, that he may not hereafter blush and be ashamed of the disgraced cross of Christ, Cypr. ep. 56. By this badge, is the childe dedicated to his service, whose benefits bestowed upon him in baptism, the name of the cross in holy Scripture does represent. Whosoever desires to be fully satisfied concerning the use of the cross in baptism, let him read the 30. Can. of our Church, Anno 1603.

P. Shall make a cross.] This rubric must be expounded by the thirtieth canon of our Church, and by that which followeth; for the signing is not immediately to succeed the formal words of baptism. But the minister is first to say, “we receive this child into the congregation of Christ’s flock ;” and then to sign, and so the words ‘do sign,’ in the present tense, do infallibly import. For the Church, studious to retain this ancient and universal ceremony of the purest primitive times, was also careful to decline all fear of superstitious intendment, as if she thought the Sacrament imperfect without it. Therefore, whereas the primitive mode made it to usher in baptism, our Church inverted the order, and made it come after, and so to follow it, as she expressly first declareth “ the child to be received into the congregation of Christ’s flock, as a perfect member thereof, and not by any power ascribed unto the sign of the cross.” And further to assure all distrustful minds, that she maketh it not of the substance of the Sacrament, she hath totally omitted it in the office of Private Baptism. Having yielded a reason of this remove in the service of our Church, it will be proper and pertinent to enquire into the original inducement to this ceremony.

These I observe to be three: first, an ancient rite it was for servants or captives to be stigmatized or branded with the names of their masters on their foreheads, as it was for their soldiers enrolled, with the names of their emperors or generalissimos on the hands, declaring thereby to whom they did belong. To this custom the prophet Ezekiel is thought to allude, ch. ix. ver. 4: “set a mark upon the forehead of them that mourn, and cry for all the abominations that are done in the midst of Jerusalem.” To this custom the angel in the Revelation is thought to regard, ch. vii. ver. 3: “hurt ye not the earth, &c., until we have sealed the servants of God on the forehead ;” and ch. xiv. ver. 1, where the retinue of the Lamb are said to “have His Father’s name written on their foreheads.” And as Christ’s flock carried their cognizance on their foreheads, so did His great adversary, the beast, sign his servants there also; Rev. xiv. 9, “if any man shall receive the mark of the beast on his forehead or on his hand.” Now that the Christian Church might hold some analogy with those sacred applications, she conceived it a most significant ceremony for baptism, (it being our first admission into Christian profession,) that all her children should be signed with the cross on their foreheads, at their reception of it, signifying thereby their consignment up to Christ, whence it is so often called by the fathers, signaculum Dominicum, “the Lord’s signet,” σφραγίς τοῦ Χριστοῦ, “ Christ’s broad seal,’ or by words of the same import: and hence Tertullian, signat illic in fronte milites suos; “he marketh in the forehead his own soldiers.”

Secondly, the real miracles which were in those times daily wrought by the use thereof, both in expelling and driving out of the devil, and by healing of corporal diseases, whereof I lately produced one testimony out of St. Augustine, who from that very place can furnish you with many more: so that woman in Epiphanius was preserved from poison, διὰ τῆς σφραγῖδος τοῦ Χριστοῦ, καὶ πίστεως ἐβοηθήθη : “she was helped by the sign of the cross and faith in Christ.” Not by either separated, but by both together. Many other instances might be produced. Now, in case any shall object that many of those anciently recorded miracles were impostures and mere fables ; were it possible to be proved, it would be of no force, unless they could also prove all were so, which is a thing impossible, considering that so many of the primitive fathers witness the contrary; nor is there any Protestant of remark who doth not acknowledge as much. Confessed it is, this gift of working miracles lasted not many centuries after Christ; and that for two reasons, one, lest the familiarity of them should breed contempt: for τὰ ὀντὰ θαυμάσια καταπεφρόνηται TS συνήθει, saith elegant Philo, “real miracles lose their estimation when they grow common.” Again, the work was done for which they were wrought: ὅτε ἡ γνῶσις τοῦ Θεοῦ οὔπω ἐκτείνατο, τὰ σημεῖα ἐγίνετο: “when the knowledge of the Christian faith was not far diffused, miracles were wrought as necessary,” for the conversion of proselytes; but when the gospel began to be spread abroad, νυνὶ δὲ οὐκ ἔστι χρεία ταύτης τῆς διδασκαλίας, “there was no further need of that way of teaching.” Therefore St. Paul saith, τὰ σημεῖα τοῖς ἀπίστοις, ov τοῖς πιστεύουσιν, “wonders were exhibited more for the unbelievers than for the faithful,’' which is the cause that Timothy and Epaphroditus being sick, 1 Tim. v. 23, Phil. ii. 30, no miracle was applied to recover them, they being faithful and confirmed believers.

Lastly, the heathens were wont to deride the Christians, and to speak disdainfully of them, as worshippers of a malefactor crucified: to encounter which reproach, and to shew that they “gloried in the cross of Christ,” Gal. vi. 14, taking it to be an honour, not an ignominy, they assumed this ceremony of signing themselves with the cross, both in baptism, and at several other times. Cor quidem habemus, non tamen tale quale vos habetis, nec nos pudet crucifixi, sed in parte ubi pudoris signum est, signum ejus crucis habemus': “we have a heart,” saith Augustine to the pagans, “but of a better mould than yours, nor are we at all ashamed of Christ crucified, but bear His cognizance in our foreheads, the seat of shamefacedness.”

Now as to the establishment of this ceremony by our Church, though we have slender expectation that it should operate as formerly, yet why may it not be retained as an honourable memorial of its miraculous effects of old. But the Church is so exceedingly express and perspicuous in her explanation of the use thereof, as nothing can be desired more; which explication being the product of the conference at Hampton Court, was so abundantly satisfactory to the foreman of those opponents, Dr. Reynolds, as, having once perused it, he ingenuously professed “he would never gainsay that ceremony any more.” In that explication not a syllable appears of any operation ascribed to this sign, therefore they who have adhered to any such opinion, cannot plead the Church of England for their guide. Eminent and most remarkable was the great prudence of King James in this concernment. All along King Edward the Sixth’s and Queen Elizabeth’s reign, when the strumosi, such as had the king’s evil, came to be touched, the manner was then for her to apply the sign of the cross to the tumour ; which raising cause of jealousies, as if some mysterious operation were imputed to it, that wise and learned king not only (with his son, the late king) practically discontinued it, but ordered it to be expunged out of the prayers relating to that cure: which hath proceeded as effectually, that omission notwithstanding, as it did before. The sign of the cross being then significant only, and not operative, and significant of a duty to be elicited by future practice, good reason hath our Church to continue it, in which sense, non est reprobanda, with Zanchy, “it is not to be disallowed;” adhibere nec indecens, nec inutile esse existimo, saith Bucer, “in my opinion, the use of it is neither unseemly nor unprofitable.”

VII. The reception of the child into the Church. But to return to our own office: the child, being now baptized, is become a member of the Christian Church, into which the Minister (as a steward of God’s family) doth solemnly receive it; and, for the clearer manifestation that it now belongs to Christ, solemnly signs it in the forehead with the sign of the cross.

The antiquity and meaning of the sign of the Cross. For the better understanding of which primitive ceremony, we may observe, that it was an ancient rite for masters and generals, to mark the foreheads or hands of their servants and soldiers with their names or marks, that it might be known to whom they did belong; and to this custom the angel in the Revelation is thought to allude; Hurt not the earth, &c., till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads: thus again, the retinue of the Lamb are said to have his Father’s name written in their foreheads. And thus, lastly, in the same chapter, as Christ’s flock carried his mark on their foreheads, so did his great adversary the beast sign his servants there also: If any man shall receive the mark of the beast in his forehead, or in his hand, &c. Now that the Christian Church might hold some analogy with those sacred applications, she conceived it a most significant ceremony in Baptism, (which is our first admission into the Christian profession,) that all her children should he signed with the cross on their foreheads, signifying thereby their consignment np to Christ; whence it is often called by the ancient Fathers, the Lord’s signet, and Christ’s seal.

And it is worth observing, that this mark or sign seems to have been appropriated from the very beginning to some great mystery: the Israelites could overcome the Amalekites no longer than Moses by stretching out his arms continued in the form of a cross; which undoubtedly prefigured that our salvation was to be obtained through the means of the cross: as was also further signified by God’s commanding a cross (for that Grotius supposes to be the mark understood) to be set upon those who should be saved from a common destruction.

But to come nearer; when our blessed Redeemer had expiated the sins of the world upon the cross, the primitive disciples of his religion (who, as Minucius Felix affirms, did not worship the cross) did yet assume that figure as the badge of Christianity: and long before material crosses were in use, Tertullian tells us, that “upon every motion, at their going out or coming in, at dressing, at their going to bath, or to meals, or to bed, or whatever their employment or occasions called them to, they were wont [frontem crucis signaculo terere] to mark, or (as the word signifies) to wear out their foreheads with the sign of the cross; adding, that this was a practice which tradition had introduced, custom had confirmed, and which the present generation received upon the credit of that which went before them.” It is pretended indeed by our adversaries, that this is only an authority for the use of this sign upon ordinary occasions, and gives no countenance for using it in Baptism. Suppose we should grant this; it would yet help to shew from some other passages in the same author, that the same sign was also used upon religious accounts. Thus, in his book concerning the resurrection of the flesh, shewing how instrumental the body is to the salvation of the soul, he has this expression: “The flesh is washed that the soul may be cleansed; the flesh is anointed that the soul may be consecrated; the flesh is signed that the soul may be fortified; the flesh is overshadowed by the imposition of hands, that die soul may be enlightened by the Spirit of God; the flesh is fed on the body and blood of Christ, that the soul may receive nourishment or fatness from God.” Thus again, in another place, shewing how the Devil mimicked the holy sacraments in the heathen mysteries; “He baptizeth some,” saith he, “as his faithful believers; he promises them forgiveness of their sins after baptism, and so initiates them to Mithra, and there he signs his soldiers in their foreheads,” &c. Now here is plainly mention made of signing or marking the flesh, and signing too in the forehead, even in the celebration of religious mysteries; and we know no sign they so religiously esteemed, but what Tertullian had in the other place mentioned, viz. the sign of the cross. I will not indeed be certain, but that the signing in both these places may refer to the cross which was made upon the forehead, when they were anointed in confirmation: but still this proves that crossing on the forehead was used upon religious as well as ordinary occasions; that it was used particularly at Confirmation, and therefore it is highly probable it was used also in Baptism: since they who used it upon every slight occasion, and made it a constant part of the solemnity in one office, would not omit or leave it out in another, where the use of it was full as proper and significant. We have gained so much therefore from Tertullian’s authority, that the use of the cross, even in religious offices, was, in his time, a known rite of Christianity. This will gain an easier belief to a passage among the works of Origen, where there is express mention of some, who were signed with the cross at their baptism, and better explain what is meant by St. Cyprian, when he tells us, that “those who obtain mercy of the Lord are signed on their foreheads,” and that “the forehead of a Christian is sanctified with the sign of God,” But further, in Lactantius, we find that Christians are described by those that have been marked upon the forehead with a cross. Again, St. Basil tells us, that “an ecclesiastical constitution had prevailed from the Apostles’ days, that those who believed in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ should be signed with the sign of the cross.” St. Chrysostom again makes it the glory of Christians, that “they carry in their foreheads the sign of the cross.” And lastly St. Austin, speaking to one who was going to be baptized, tells him, that he was “that day to be signed with the sign of the cross, with which all Christians were signed,” (i.e. at their baptism.)

I need not surely (after this long detail) instance in the writings of any other of the Fathers, who frequently used being signed in the forehead for being baptized. I shall only add this remark; that the first Christian emperor, Constantine the Great, had his directions from heaven to make the cross the great banner in his wars with this motto on it, Ἐν τούτῳ νίκα, By this sign thou shalt overcome. And sure we cannot suppose that our blessed Lord would, by so immediate a revelation, countenance such a rite as this already used in the Church, if he had resented it before as superstitious and unwarrantable. And we may add, that we ought not to be too petulant against that which the Holy Spirit has sometimes signalized by very renowned miracles; as those who consult the ecclesiastical histories of the best authority cannot but be convinced. In a word, when any are received into the society of our religion, it is as lawful to declare it by a sign as by words. And surely there is no signature so universally known to be the mark of a Christian as that of the cross, which makes St. Paul put the cross for Christianity itself; the belief of a crucified Saviour being the proper article of the Christian faith, distinguishing the professors of it from all other kinds of religion in the world.

§.2. The Cross, why made after Baptism. There were anciently indeed, in the primitive Church, two several signings or markings with the cross, viz. one before Baptism, as was ordered by the first Liturgy of king Edward, as I have already observed in page 375; the other afterwards, which was used at Confirmation, and which (as I shall shew hereafter) was also prescribed by the same book of king Edward.

In a word, the Cross in Baptism, till of late years, has been so inoffensive to the most scrupulous minds, that even Bucer could find nothing indecent in it, if it was used and applied with a pure mind. He only disapproved of directing the form that was used at the imposing of it, to the child itself, who could not understand it. For which reason he wished it might be turned into a Prayer. The reviewers of our Liturgy did not indeed exactly comply with him; but however they have ordered the form to be spoken to the congregation, and further, to remove all manner of scruple, have deferred the signing with it till after the child is baptized, that so none may charge us with making the ceremony essential to Baptism, which is now finished before the Cross is made, and which is esteemed, in case of extremity, not at all deficient, where it is celebrated without it.

§.3. Why made upon the forehead. The forehead is the seat of blushing and shame; for which reason the child is to be signed with the Cross on that part of him, in token that hereafter he shall not be ashamed to confess the faith of Christ crucified, &c.


I. The Exhortation. THE holy rite being thus finished, it is not decent to turn our backs upon God immediately, but that we should complete the solemnity by thanksgiving and prayer: and therefore, that we may do both these with due understanding, the Minister teaches us, in a serious exhortation, what must be the subjects of our praises and petitions.

Then the Priest shall say,

Jer 23:3 Then I myself will gather the remnant of my flock out of all the lands where I have driven them, and I will bring them back to their fold, and they shall be fruitful and multiply.
Luke 12:32 "Do not be afraid, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom.
John 10:11 "I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.
John 10:16 I have other sheep that do not belong to this fold. I must bring them also, and they will listen to my voice. So there will be one flock, one shepherd.
John 17:21-23 that they may all be one. As you, Father, are in me and I am in you, may they also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me. The glory that you have given me I have given them, so that they may be one, as we are one, I in them and you in me, that they may become completely one, so that the world may know that you have sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me.
Acts 2:47 praising God and having the goodwill of all the people. And day by day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.
Acts 5:14 Yet more than ever believers were added to the Lord, great numbers of both men and women,
1 Cor 12:13 For in the one Spirit we were all baptized into one body--Jews or Greeks, slaves or free--and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.
Matt 10:32 "Everyone therefore who acknowledges me before others, I also will acknowledge before my Father in heaven;
Mark 8:38 Those who are ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, of them the Son of Man will also be ashamed when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels."
Rom 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel; it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who has faith, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.
Rom 4:11 He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the ancestor of all who believe without being circumcised and who thus have righteousness reckoned to them,
1 Cor 1:23 but we proclaim Christ crucified, a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles,
Gal 6:14 May I never boast of anything except the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world.
Rev 22:4 they will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads.
Song 2:4 He brought me to the banqueting house, and his intention toward me was love.
Is 59:19 So those in the west shall fear the name of the Lord, and those in the east, his glory; for he will come like a pent-up stream that the wind of the Lord drives on.
Matt 16:24 Then Jesus told his disciples, "If any want to become my followers, let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me.
Rom 6:6 We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin.
Rom 6:12 Therefore, do not let sin exercise dominion in your mortal bodies, to make you obey their passions.
Eph 6:10-11 Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his power. Put on the whole armor of God, so that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.
Eph 6:13 Therefore take up the whole armor of God, so that you may be able to withstand on that evil day, and having done everything, to stand firm.
1 Tim 6:12 Fight the good fight of the faith; take hold of the eternal life, to which you were called and for which you made the good confession in the presence of many witnesses.
2 Tim 2:3-4 Share in suffering like a good soldier of Christ Jesus. No one serving in the army gets entangled in everyday affairs; the soldier's aim is to please the enlisting officer.
2 Tim 4:7-8 I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. From now on there is reserved for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will give me on that day, and not only to me but also to all who have longed for his appearing.
Heb 4:14 Since, then, we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession.
Heb 12:4 In your struggle against sin you have not yet resisted to the point of shedding your blood.
1 Pet 5:8-9 Discipline yourselves, keep alert. Like a roaring lion your adversary the devil prowls around, looking for someone to devour. Resist him, steadfast in your faith, for you know that your brothers and sisters in all the world are undergoing the same kinds of suffering.
1 John 5:4-5 for whatever is born of God conquers the world. And this is the victory that conquers the world, our faith. Who is it that conquers the world but the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God?
Rev 2:10 Do not fear what you are about to suffer. Beware, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison so that you may be tested, and for ten days you will have affliction. Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life.

Then shall the Priest say,

John 15:5 I am the vine, you are the branches. Those who abide in me and I in them bear much fruit, because apart from me you can do nothing.
Rom 11:19-20 You will say, "Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in." That is true. They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand only through faith. So do not become proud, but stand in awe.
1 Cor 12:13 For in the one Spirit we were all baptized into one body--Jews or Greeks, slaves or free--and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.
2 Cor 5:17 So if anyone is in Christ, there is a new creation: everything old has passed away; see, everything has become new!
Gal 3:27 As many of you as were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.
Eph 1:22-23 And he has put all things under his feet and has made him the head over all things for the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all.
1 Pet 1:23 You have been born anew, not of perishable but of imperishable seed, through the living and enduring word of God.
Gal 5:7 You were running well; who prevented you from obeying the truth?
Ps 68:19 Blessed be the Lord, who daily bears us up; God is our salvation.Selah
Ps 103:2 Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all his benefits--
Ps 107:21-22 Let them thank the Lord for his steadfast love, for his wonderful works to humankind. And let them offer thanksgiving sacrifices, and tell of his deeds with songs of joy.
Ps 116:12 What shall I return to the Lord for all his bounty to me?
1 Pet 2:9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, in order that you may proclaim the mighty acts of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.
Hos 6:3 Let us know, let us press on to know the Lord; his appearing is as sure as the dawn; he will come to us like the showers, like the spring rains that water the earth."
Acts 4:24 When they heard it, they raised their voices together to God and said, "Sovereign Lord, who made the heaven and the earth, the sea, and everything in them,
Phil 1:3 I thank my God every time I remember you,
Phil 1:6 I am confident of this, that the one who began a good work among you will bring it to completion by the day of Jesus Christ.
Phil 1:9-11 And this is my prayer, that your love may overflow more and more with knowledge and full insight to help you to determine what is best, so that in the day of Christ you may be pure and blameless, having produced the harvest of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ for the glory and praise of God.
Col 2:6-7 As you therefore have received Christ Jesus the Lord, continue to live your lives in him, rooted and built up in him and established in the faith, just as you were taught, abounding in thanksgiving.
Heb 3:14 For we have become partners of Christ, if only we hold our first confidence firm to the end.
Jam 5:16 Therefore confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another, so that you may be healed. The prayer of the righteous is powerful and effective.
1 Pet 2:2 Like newborn infants, long for the pure, spiritual milk, so that by it you may grow into salvation--
2 Chron 24:1-2 Joash was seven years old when he began to reign; he reigned forty years in Jerusalem; his mother's name was Zibiah of Beer-sheba. Joash did what was right in the sight of the Lord all the days of the priest Jehoiada.
2 Chron 24:20-22 Then the spirit of God took possession of Zechariah son of the priest Jehoiada; he stood above the people and said to them, "Thus says God: Why do you transgress the commandments of the Lord, so that you cannot prosper? Because you have forsaken the Lord, he has also forsaken you." But they conspired against him, and by command of the king they stoned him to death in the court of the house of the Lord. King Joash did not remember the kindness that Jehoiada, Zechariah's father, had shown him, but killed his son. As he was dying, he said, "May the Lord see and avenge!"

The Lord's Prayer

II. The Lord's Prayer. And since (as we have already hinted) the Lord’s Prayer was prescribed by our Saviour to his disciples as a badge of their belonging to him; it can never be more reasonable or proper to use it than now, when a new member and disciple is admitted into his Church. And therefore, whereas, in other offices, this prayer is generally placed in the beginning, it is here reserved till after the child is baptized, and received solemnly into the Church; when we can more properly call God Our Father, with respect to the Infant, who is now by Baptism made a member of Christ, and more peculiarly adopted a child of God. And this is exactly conformable to the primitive Church: for the Catechumens were never allowed to use this prayer, till they had first made themselves sons by Regeneration in the waters of Baptism. For which reason, this prayer is frequently, by the ancient writers, called The Prayer of the Regenerate, or Believers, as being, properly speaking, their privilege and birthright.

Then shall be said, all kneeling:

Hos 6:3 Let us know, let us press on to know the Lord; his appearing is as sure as the dawn; he will come to us like the showers, like the spring rains that water the earth."
Acts 4:24 When they heard it, they raised their voices together to God and said, "Sovereign Lord, who made the heaven and the earth, the sea, and everything in them,
Phil 1:3 I thank my God every time I remember you,
Phil 1:6 I am confident of this, that the one who began a good work among you will bring it to completion by the day of Jesus Christ.
Phil 1:9-11 And this is my prayer, that your love may overflow more and more with knowledge and full insight to help you to determine what is best, so that in the day of Christ you may be pure and blameless, having produced the harvest of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ for the glory and praise of God.
Col 2:6-7 As you therefore have received Christ Jesus the Lord, continue to live your lives in him, rooted and built up in him and established in the faith, just as you were taught, abounding in thanksgiving.
Heb 3:14 For we have become partners of Christ, if only we hold our first confidence firm to the end.
Jam 5:16 Therefore confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another, so that you may be healed. The prayer of the righteous is powerful and effective.
1 Pet 2:2 Like newborn infants, long for the pure, spiritual milk, so that by it you may grow into salvation--
2 Chron 24:1-2 Joash was seven years old when he began to reign; he reigned forty years in Jerusalem; his mother's name was Zibiah of Beer-sheba. Joash did what was right in the sight of the Lord all the days of the priest Jehoiada.
2 Chron 24:20-22 Then the spirit of God took possession of Zechariah son of the priest Jehoiada; he stood above the people and said to them, "Thus says God: Why do you transgress the commandments of the Lord, so that you cannot prosper? Because you have forsaken the Lord, he has also forsaken you." But they conspired against him, and by command of the king they stoned him to death in the court of the house of the Lord. King Joash did not remember the kindness that Jehoiada, Zechariah's father, had shown him, but killed his son. As he was dying, he said, "May the Lord see and avenge!"

Collect

After thanksgiving for Gods gracious admitting the child to baptism, and a most divine Prayer, that he may lead his life according to that beginning[.]

III. The Collect. After this follows a Prayer wherein we first give God thanks for affording this child the benefits of Baptism; and then pray for his grace to assist it in the whole course of its life.

Then shall the priest say,

Ps 35:18 Then I will thank you in the great congregation; in the mighty throng I will praise you.
Ps 111:1 Praise the Lord! I will give thanks to the Lord with my whole heart, in the company of the upright, in the congregation.
1 Cor 1:4 I give thanks to my God always for you because of the grace of God that has been given you in Christ Jesus,
2 Cor 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and the God of all consolation,
Eph 5:20 giving thanks to God the Father at all times and for everything in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Phil 1:4-6 constantly praying with joy in every one of my prayers for all of you, because of your sharing in the gospel from the first day until now. I am confident of this, that the one who began a good work among you will bring it to completion by the day of Jesus Christ.
Col 1:12 giving thanks to the Father, who has enabled you to share in the inheritance of the saints in the light.
1 Thess 5:18 give thanks in all circumstances; for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus for you.
1 Pet 2:5 like living stones, let yourselves be built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.
Is 44:3 For I will pour water on the thirsty land, and streams on the dry ground; I will pour my spirit upon your descendants, and my blessing on your offspring.
Jer 1:5 "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations."
Luke 1:15 for he will be great in the sight of the Lord. He must never drink wine or strong drink; even before his birth he will be filled with the Holy Spirit.
John 3:3 Jesus answered him, "Very truly, I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God without being born from above."
John 3:5-7 Jesus answered, "Very truly, I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born of water and Spirit. What is born of the flesh is flesh, and what is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not be astonished that I said to you, 'You must be born from above.'
Acts 2:38-39 Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ so that your sins may be forgiven; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. For the promise is for you, for your children, and for all who are far away, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to him."
Eph 2:22 in whom you also are built together spiritually into a dwelling place for God.
Tit 3:5 he saved us, not because of any works of righteousness that we had done, but according to his mercy, through the water of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit.
Rom 3:24 they are now justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,
Eph 1:13 In him you also, when you had heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and had believed in him, were marked with the seal of the promised Holy Spirit;
Eph 2:7 so that in the ages to come he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus.
1 Tim 1:14 and the grace of our Lord overflowed for me with the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus.
John 1:12 But to all who received him, who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God,
Rom 8:16 it is that very Spirit bearing witness with our spirit that we are children of God,
Rom 9:8 This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as descendants.
Rom 9:26 "And in the very place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' there they shall be called children of the living God."
1 Cor 12:12-14 For just as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ. For in the one Spirit we were all baptized into one body--Jews or Greeks, slaves or free--and we were all made to drink of one Spirit. Indeed, the body does not consist of one member but of many.
Gal 4:4-5 But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, in order to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as children.
Eph 1:22-23 And he has put all things under his feet and has made him the head over all things for the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all.
Rom 6:4-6 Therefore we have been buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life. For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we will certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin.
Rom 6:11 So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.
Rom 6:13 No longer present your members to sin as instruments of wickedness, but present yourselves to God as those who have been brought from death to life, and present your members to God as instruments of righteousness.
Rom 6:19 I am speaking in human terms because of your natural limitations. For just as you once presented your members as slaves to impurity and to greater and greater iniquity, so now present your members as slaves to righteousness for sanctification.
Gal 2:20 and it is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.
Col 2:12-13 when you were buried with him in baptism, you were also raised with him through faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead. And when you were dead in trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, God made you alive together with him, when he forgave us all our trespasses,
Col 3:1-5 So if you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth, for you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. When Christ who is your life is revealed, then you also will be revealed with him in glory. Put to death, therefore, whatever in you is earthly: fornication, impurity, passion, evil desire, and greed (which is idolatry).
Col 3:8-15 But now you must get rid of all such things--anger, wrath, malice, slander, and abusive language from your mouth. Do not lie to one another, seeing that you have stripped off the old self with its practices and have clothed yourselves with the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge according to the image of its creator. In that renewal there is no longer Greek and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave and free; but Christ is all and in all! As God's chosen ones, holy and beloved, clothe yourselves with compassion, kindness, humility, meekness, and patience. Bear with one another and, if anyone has a complaint against another, forgive each other; just as the Lord has forgiven you, so you also must forgive. Above all, clothe yourselves with love, which binds everything together in perfect harmony. And let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, to which indeed you were called in the one body. And be thankful.
1 Pet 2:24 He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross, so that, free from sins, we might live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed.
Luke 12:32 "Do not be afraid, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom.
Acts 15:16-17 'After this I will return, and I will rebuild the dwelling of David, which has fallen; from its ruins I will rebuild it, and I will set it up, so that all other peoples may seek the Lord-- even all the Gentiles over whom my name has been called. Thus says the Lord, who has been making these things
Acts 20:32 And now I commend you to God and to the message of his grace, a message that is able to build you up and to give you the inheritance among all who are sanctified.
Acts 26:18 to open their eyes so that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, so that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a place among those who are sanctified by faith in me.'
Rom 8:17 and if children, then heirs, heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ--if, in fact, we suffer with him so that we may also be glorified with him.
Col 1:18 He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that he might come to have first place in everything.
1 Thess 4:14-17 For since we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so, through Jesus, God will bring with him those who have died. For this we declare to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will by no means precede those who have died. For the Lord himself, with a cry of command, with the archangel's call and with the sound of God's trumpet, will descend from heaven, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up in the clouds together with them to meet the Lord in the air; and so we will be with the Lord forever.
Heb 3:14 For we have become partners of Christ, if only we hold our first confidence firm to the end.
Heb 11:39-40 Yet all these, though they were commended for their faith, did not receive what was promised, since God had provided something better so that they would not, apart from us, be made perfect.
Heb 12:22-24 But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering, and to the assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect, and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel.
1 Pet 1:3-5 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! By his great mercy he has given us a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and into an inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, kept in heaven for you, who are being protected by the power of God through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.
Rom 6:22 But now that you have been freed from sin and enslaved to God, the advantage you get is sanctification. The end is eternal life.
Eph 1:4 just as he chose us in Christ before the foundation of the world to be holy and blameless before him in love.

The Duties

This Office ends with a grave and pious exhortation to the Godfathers, to remember their duty towards the Infants; the like to which you may read, S. Aug. de Temp. Ser. 116.

IV. The application to the godfathers. And lastly, because nothing tends more directly to the securing of holiness and religion than a conscientious performance of this vow of Baptism, here are added endeavours to our prayers for the fulfilling thereof. In the first ages, when those of discretion were baptized, the Applications were directed to the persons themselves, (as they now are in our office of Baptism for those of riper years:) but since children are now most commonly the subjects of Baptism, who are not capable of admonition, here is a serious and earnest exhortation made to the sureties.

§.2. The ill practice of choosing unfit persons for sureties. Which, if it be well considered, will shew how base it is for any to undertake this trust merely in compliment; how absurd to put little children (whose bond is not good in human courts) upon this weighty office; and also how ridiculous for those who have taken this duty upon them, to think they can shake off this charge again, and assign it over to the parents. But yet this is frequently the custom of this licentious age, and the chief occasion of many people’s falling into evil principles and wicked practices, which might easily be prevented, if the sureties would do their duty, and labour to fit their god-children for Confirmation, and bring them to it; which therefore the Minister is in the last place to advertise the sureties of:* for till the child by this means enters the bond in his own name, the sureties must answer for all miscarriages through their neglect; whereas as soon as the child is confirmed, the sureties are freed from that danger, and discharged from all but the duty of charity.

The office being thus ended, the first Common Prayer piously adds, And so let the congregation depart in the name of the Lord.

Then all standing up, the Priest shall say to the Godfathers and Godmothers this Exhortation following.

Gen 18:19 No, for I have chosen him, that he may charge his children and his household after him to keep the way of the Lord by doing righteousness and justice; so that the Lord may bring about for Abraham what he has promised him."
Deut 4:9-10 But take care and watch yourselves closely, so as neither to forget the things that your eyes have seen nor to let them slip from your mind all the days of your life; make them known to your children and your children's children-- how you once stood before the Lord your God at Horeb, when the Lord said to me, "Assemble the people for me, and I will let them hear my words, so that they may learn to fear me as long as they live on the earth, and may teach their children so";
Deut 6:7 Recite them to your children and talk about them when you are at home and when you are away, when you lie down and when you rise.
Deut 32:46-47 he said to them: "Take to heart all the words that I am giving in witness against you today; give them as a command to your children, so that they may diligently observe all the words of this law. This is no trifling matter for you, but rather your very life; through it you may live long in the land that you are crossing over the Jordan to possess."
Ps 34:11 Come, O children, listen to me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord.
Ps 50:14 Offer to God a sacrifice of thanksgiving, and pay your vows to the Most High.
Prov 22:6 Train children in the right way, and when old, they will not stray.
Ecc 5:4 When you make a vow to God, do not delay fulfilling it; for he has no pleasure in fools. Fulfill what you vow.
Is 38:19 The living, the living, they thank you, as I do this day; fathers make known to children your faithfulness.
Gal 4:1-2 My point is this: heirs, as long as they are minors, are no better than slaves, though they are the owners of all the property; but they remain under guardians and trustees until the date set by the father.
Deut 31:12-13 Assemble the people--men, women, and children, as well as the aliens residing in your towns--so that they may hear and learn to fear the Lord your God and to observe diligently all the words of this law, and so that their children, who have not known it, may hear and learn to fear the Lord your God, as long as you live in the land that you are crossing over the Jordan to possess."
Neh 8:1-8 all the people gathered together into the square before the Water Gate. They told the scribe Ezra to bring the book of the law of Moses, which the Lord had given to Israel. Accordingly, the priest Ezra brought the law before the assembly, both men and women and all who could hear with understanding. This was on the first day of the seventh month. He read from it facing the square before the Water Gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women and those who could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive to the book of the law. The scribe Ezra stood on a wooden platform that had been made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, Shema, Anaiah, Uriah, Hilkiah, and Maaseiah on his right hand; and Pedaiah, Mishael, Malchijah, Hashum, Hash-baddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam on his left hand. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people, for he was standing above all the people; and when he opened it, all the people stood up. Then Ezra blessed the Lord, the great God, and all the people answered, "Amen, Amen," lifting up their hands. Then they bowed their heads and worshiped the Lord with their faces to the ground. Also Jeshua, Bani, Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Hanan, Pelaiah, the Levites, helped the people to understand the law, while the people remained in their places. So they read from the book, from the law of God, with interpretation. They gave the sense, so that the people understood the reading.
Luke 2:41-42 Now every year his parents went to Jerusalem for the festival of the Passover. And when he was twelve years old, they went up as usual for the festival.
Acts 13:44 The next sabbath almost the whole city gathered to hear the word of the Lord.
Rom 10:17 So faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes through the word of Christ.
1 Cor 3:2 I fed you with milk, not solid food, for you were not ready for solid food. Even now you are still not ready,
Deut 6:6-7 Keep these words that I am commanding you today in your heart. Recite them to your children and talk about them when you are at home and when you are away, when you lie down and when you rise.
Ps 41:4 As for me, I said, "O Lord, be gracious to me; heal me, for I have sinned against you."
Ps 78:5-7 He established a decree in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel, which he commanded our ancestors to teach to their children; that the next generation might know them, the children yet unborn, and rise up and tell them to their children, so that they should set their hope in God, and not forget the works of God, but keep his commandments;
Prov 22:6 Train children in the right way, and when old, they will not stray.
Is 55:3 Incline your ear, and come to me; listen, so that you may live. I will make with you an everlasting covenant, my steadfast, sure love for David.
Jer 31:12 They shall come and sing aloud on the height of Zion, and they shall be radiant over the goodness of the Lord, over the grain, the wine, and the oil, and over the young of the flock and the herd; their life shall become like a watered garden, and they shall never languish again.
Matt 19:16-17 Then someone came to him and said, "Teacher, what good deed must I do to have eternal life?" And he said to him, "Why do you ask me about what is good? There is only one who is good. If you wish to enter into life, keep the commandments."
Matt 28:19-20 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything that I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age."
Luke 11:1-2 He was praying in a certain place, and after he had finished, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples." He said to them, "When you pray, say: Father, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come.
Acts 16:31 They answered, "Believe on the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household."
Rom 6:3-6 Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? Therefore we have been buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life. For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we will certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin.
1 Cor 14:9 So with yourselves; if in a tongue you utter speech that is not intelligible, how will anyone know what is being said? For you will be speaking into the air.
1 Cor 14:11 If then I do not know the meaning of a sound, I will be a foreigner to the speaker and the speaker a foreigner to me.
Gal 3:27 As many of you as were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.
Eph 6:4 And, fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, but bring them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord.
Col 3:3 for you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God.
Col 3:5 Put to death, therefore, whatever in you is earthly: fornication, impurity, passion, evil desire, and greed (which is idolatry).
2 Tim 3:14-15 But as for you, continue in what you have learned and firmly believed, knowing from whom you learned it, and how from childhood you have known the sacred writings that are able to instruct you for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus.
Heb 10:23 Let us hold fast to the confession of our hope without wavering, for he who has promised is faithful.
Heb 11:6 And without faith it is impossible to please God, for whoever would approach him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him.
1 Pet 2:21 For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you should follow in his steps.
2 Pet 1:3-7 His divine power has given us everything needed for life and godliness, through the knowledge of him who called us by his own glory and goodness. Thus he has given us, through these things, his precious and very great promises, so that through them you may escape from the corruption that is in the world because of lust, and may become participants of the divine nature. For this very reason, you must make every effort to support your faith with goodness, and goodness with knowledge, and knowledge with self-control, and self-control with endurance, and endurance with godliness, and godliness with mutual affection, and mutual affection with love.
2 Pet 1:13 I think it right, as long as I am in this body, to refresh your memory,
Jude 17 But you, beloved, must remember the predictions of the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ;
John 17:3 And this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.
Acts 13:39 by this Jesus everyone who believes is set free from all those sins from which you could not be freed by the law of Moses.
Rom 7:4-14 In the same way, my friends, you have died to the law through the body of Christ, so that you may belong to another, to him who has been raised from the dead in order that we may bear fruit for God. While we were living in the flesh, our sinful passions, aroused by the law, were at work in our members to bear fruit for death. But now we are discharged from the law, dead to that which held us captive, so that we are slaves not under the old written code but in the new life of the Spirit. What then should we say? That the law is sin? By no means! Yet, if it had not been for the law, I would not have known sin. I would not have known what it is to covet if the law had not said, "You shall not covet." But sin, seizing an opportunity in the commandment, produced in me all kinds of covetousness. Apart from the law sin lies dead. I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin revived and I died, and the very commandment that promised life proved to be death to me. For sin, seizing an opportunity in the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me. So the law is holy, and the commandment is holy and just and good. Did what is good, then, bring death to me? By no means! It was sin, working death in me through what is good, in order that sin might be shown to be sin, and through the commandment might become sinful beyond measure. For we know that the law is spiritual; but I am of the flesh, sold into slavery under sin.
Heb 5:14 But solid food is for the mature, for those whose faculties have been trained by practice to distinguish good from evil.

Then shall he add and say,

Acts 8:14-17 Now when the apostles at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had accepted the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them. The two went down and prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit (for as yet the Spirit had not come upon any of them; they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus). Then Peter and John laid their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit.